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A NfiW AtfD GEttfi 


W HITGIFT (John), archbishop of Canterbury in the 
reigns of queen Elizabeth and king James, and one of the 
most intrepid supporters of the constitution of the church 
of England, was descended of the ancient family of Whit- 
gift in Yorkshire. His grandfather was John Whitgift, 
gent, whose son was Henry, a merchant of Great Grimsby 
in Lincolnshire- Another of his. sofl&lqtfjiprRobert Whitgift, 
who was abbot de JVellaw or WdhiwejyJctaiGrimsby in the 
said county, a monastery of Bjgjpk Canons dedicated to the 
honour of St. Augustin. He was a man memorable, not 
only for the education of our John Whitgift, but also far 
his saying concerning the Romisb j-eJjgion. He declared 
in the hearing of his nephew, that " they and their reli- 
gion could not long continue, because," said he, " I have 
read the whole Scripture over and over, and could never 
find therein that our religion was founded by God." And 
as a proof of this opinion, the abbot alleged that saying 
of our Saviour, " Every plant that my heavenly Father 
hath not planted, shall be rooted up." Henry, the father 
of our archbishop, had six sotrs, of whom he was the eldest, 
and one daughter, by Anne Dy newel, a young gentlewo- 
man of a good family at Great Grimsby. The names of 
the other five sons were William, George, Philip, Richard, 
and Jeffrey ; and that of the daughter Anne. 

John was born at Great Grimsby in 1530, according to 
hi* biographers. Strype and Paule, but according to Mr. 
Francis Thynne, quoted by Strype, in 1533 : the former, 
however, is most probably the right date. He was sent 
early for education to St. Antony's school,, London, then # 
very eminent one, and was lodged in St. Paul's ohurch- 

Vol. XXXH. B 


yard, *t bis aunt's, the daughter of Michael Shatter, a ver- 
ger of that church. Imbibing very young a relish of the 
doctrine of the reformation, he had of course no liking to 
the mass; so that though his aunt had often urged him to 
go with her to mass, and procured also some of the canons 
of St. Paul's to persuade him to it, he still refused. By 
this she was so much exasperated, that she resolved to en- 
tertain bim no longer under her roof, imputing all her 
losses and domestic misfortunes to her harbouring of such 
an heretic within her doors ; and at parting told him, 
" that she thought at first she had received a saint into her 
house, but now she perceived he was a Devil. 9 ' 

He now returned home to bis father in Lincolnshire; 
and his uncle, the abbot, finding that he had made some 
progress iti grammatical learning, advised that he. should 
be sent to the university. Accordingly he entered of 
Queen's college, Cambridge, about 1548^ but soon after 
removed to Pembroke-hall, where the celebrated John 
Bradford, the martyr, was his tutor. He had not been 
here long before he was recommended by his tutor and 
Mr. Grindal (then fellow, and afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury) to the master, Nicholas Ridley, by which 
means he was made scholar of that house, and chosen bible- 
clerk. These advantages were the more acceptable to 
bim, as his father had suffered some great losses at sea,, 
and was less able to provide for him. When Bradford left 
Cambridge in 1550, Whitgift was placed under the .care 
4>f Mr. Gregory Garth, who continued his tutor while he 
remained at Pembroke-hall, which was until he took his 
degree of bachelor of arts in 1553-4. The following year, 
be was' unanimously elected fellow of Peter-house, and 
commenced master of arts in 1557. 

Soon after this, as he was recovering from a severe fit of 
sickness, happened the remarkable visitation of his univer- 
sity by cardinal Pole, in order to discover and expel the 
•heretics, or those inclined to the doctrines of the reforma- 
tion. To avoid the storm, Whitgift thought of going 
abroad, and joining tbe other English exiles; but Dr. 
Perne, master of his college, although at that time a pro- 
fessed papist, had such an esteem for him, that he under- 
took to screen bim from the commissioners, and thus he 
was induced to remain ; nor was he deceived in his con~ 
fidence in Dr. Perne's friendship, who being then vice- 
chancellor, effectually protected him from all inquiry, not- 
withstanding the very strict severity of the visitation. 

W H 1 T G I F T. 3 


In 1560 Mr. Whitgift entered into holy orders, and 
preached his first sermon at St. Mary's with great and ge- 
neral approbation. The same year he was appointed chap- 
lain to Cox, bishop of Ely, who gave him the rectory of 
Teversham in Cambridgeshire. In 1563 he proceeded 
bachelor qf divinity, and Matthew Hutton, then fellow of 
Trinity-college, being appointed regius professor of divi- 
nity, the same year Whitgift succeeded him as lady Mar- 
garet's professor of divinity. The subject of his lec- 
tures was the book of Revelations and the whole Epistle 
to the Hebrews, which he expounded throughout^ These 
lectures were prepared by him for the press; and sir 
George Paule intimates, that they were likely in his time 
to be published ; but whatever was the reason, they have 
never appeared. Strype tells us, that he saw this ma- 
nuscript of Dr. Whitgift's own hand -writing, in the pos- 
session of Dr. William Payne, minister of Whitechapel 
London; and that after his death it was intended to be 
purchased by Dr. John More, lord bishop of Ely. This 
manuscript contained likewise his thesis, when he after- 
wards kept his act for doctor of divinity, on this subject, 
that " the Pope is Antichrist." 

Soon after this he joinecl bis brother professor* Hutton, 
and several heads of colleges, in a petition to sir William 
Cecil, their chancellor, for an order to regulate the elec- 
tion of public officers, the want of which created great dis- 
turbance in the uuiversity at that time. Two years after 
this be distinguished himself so eminently in the pulpit, 
that sir Nicholas Bacon, then lord- keeper, sent for him to 
court to preach before the queen, who heard him with 
great satisfaction, and made him ber chaplain. The same 
year (1565) being informed that some statutes were pre- 
paring to~ enjoin an uniformity of habits, particularly to 
order the wearing of surplices in the university, he pro-. , 
moted the writing of a joint letter privately to Cecil, ear- 
nestly desiring him to stop (if possible) the sending down 
any such orders, which be perceived would be very unac- 
ceptable to the university. But this letter gave so much 
offence at court, that he found it necessary to male an 
apology for the share he had in it. In the mean time he 
was so highly esteemed at Cambridge, both as a preacher 
and a restorer of order and discipline there, that in June 
of the following year, the university granted him a licence 
Under their common seal, to preach throughout the realm, 



and in July following the salary of his professorship wa* 
raised, out of respect to him, from twenty marks to twenty 

He had the year before been a considerable benefactor 
to Peter-house, where, in 1567, be held the place of pre- 
sident, but was called thence in April to Pembroke-hall, 
being chosen master of that house, and not long after was 
appointed regius professor of divinity. In both these pre* 
ferments he succeeded his old friend Dr. Hutton, now 
made dean of York, and to the first was recommended, as 
t)r. Hutton had been, by Grindal, then bishop of London. 
But he remained at Pembroke-hall only about three mouths, 
for upon the death of Dr. Beauchamp, the queen promoted 
him to the mastership of Trinity-college. This place was 
procured for him, chiefly by the interest of sir William 
Cecil, who, notwithstanding some objections bad been made 
to his age, secured the appointment. The same year he 
took his degree of doctor in divinity ; and in J 570, having 
first applied to Cecil for the purpose, he compiled a new 
body of statutes for the university, which were of great 
service to that learned community. 

' This work he finished in August, and the same month 
was the principal agent in procuring an order from the 
vice-chancellor and heads of houses, to prohibit the cele- 
brated Cartwright (See Cartwright), who was now Mar* 
garet professor, from reading any ipore lectures without 
-some satisfaction given to them of his principles and opi- 
nions. Dr. Whitgift informed the chancellor of this step, 
and at the same' time acquainted him with Cartwright's 
principles, and the probable consequences of them, on 
which he received the chancellor's approbation of what 
had been done. Cartwright, having refused to renounce 
his opinions, was deprived of his professorship ; but as he 
gave out that those opinions were rather suppressed by au- 
thority, than refuted by reason, Dr. Whitgift took an ef- 
fectual method to remove that objection. At the chancel- 
lor's request, be wrote a confutation of some of the chief 
of Cartwright's sentiments, and sent them to archbishop 
Parkqf, in a letter dated Dec. 29, with au intention to 
publish them, which, however, was not done until after- 
wards when they were combined in his " Answer to the 
Admonition, &c." hereafter noticed. 

In 1671 Dr. Whitgift served the office of vice-chancel- 
lor. The same year an order was made by the archbishop 

W H I T G I F T. i 

imd bishops, that all those who had obtained faculties to 
preach, should surrender them before the third of August; 
and that upon their subscription to the thirty-nine articles, 
and other constitutions and ordinances agreed upon, new 
licences should be granted. This being signified ' to the 
university, and an order sent, requiring them to call in all 
the faculties granted before, Whitgift surrendered his for- 
mer licence, obtained in J 566, and had another granted 
him in September 1571, in which he was likewise consti- 
tuted ope of the university preachers. In June, in conse* 
quence of the queen's nomination, be had been appointed 
dean of Lincoln, and in October the archbishop granted 
him a dispensation to hold with it his prebend of Ely and 
rectory of Teversbam, and any other benefice whatsoever; 
but in the following year he resigned the rectory of 

He was now, by particular appointment from the arch* 
bishop of Canterbury, writing his " Answer to the Admo- 
nition," which requiring more leisure than his office as 
master of Trinity college could admit, he desired to leave 
the university, but this the other heads of houses succeeded 
in preventing. He had a little before expelled Cartwright 
from his fellowship for not taking orders in due time, ac- 
cording to the statute ; and before the expiration of the 
year 1 572 published his " Answer to the Admonition to the 
Parliament," 4to. The "Admonition" was drawn up by 
Field, minister of Aldermary, London, and Mr. Wilcox. 
As archbishop Parker was the chief person who encouraged 
Whitgift to undertake the " Answer," he likewise gave 
him considerable assistance, and other prelates and learned 
men were also consulted, and every pains taken to make 
it, what it has been generally esteemed, as able a defence, 
of the Church of England against the innovations of the 
puritans, as bishop Jewel's was against the doctrines of the 
Church of Rome. A second edition appeared in 1573, 
with the title '< An answer to a certain libel, entitled An 
Admonition to the Parliament, newly augmented by the 
author, as by conference' shall appear." To this a reply 
being published by Cartwright, Dr. Whitgift published his 
defence, fol. 1574. Cartwright published in 1574, 4to, 
« The second Reply of T. C. against Dr. Whitgift's second 
Answer touching Church-Discipline." What the opinion 
of Dr. Whitaker, who was thought to be a favourer of pu- 
ritanism, was concerning this book of Mr, Cartwright, will 


appear from the following passage in a Latin letter of bis. 
preserved by Dr. Richard Bancroft and sir George Paule in 
his " Life of archbishop Whitgift." " I have read a great 
part pf that book, which Mr. Cartwright hath lately pub- 
lished. • I pray God I live not, if I ever saw any thing 
more loosely written, and almost more childishly. It is 
true, that for words he hath great store, and those both 
fine and new; but for matter, as far as I can judge, he is 
altogether barren. Moreover, he doth not only think per- 
versely of the authority of princes in causes ecclesiastical, 
but also flyeth into the papists holds, from whom he would 
be thought to dissent with a mortal hatred. But in this 
point be is not to be endured, and in other points also be 
borroweth his arguments from the papists. To conclude, 
as Jerom said of Ambrose, he playeth with words, and is 
lame in his sentiments, and is altogether unworthy to be * 
confuted by any man of learning." And Whitgift, being 
advised by bis friends to let Cartwright' s " Second Reply"- 
passes unworthy of his notice, remained silent. 

About the same time, Dr. Whitgift appeared in oppo- 
sition to a design then meditated, for abolishing pluralities, 
and taking away the impropriations and tithes from bishops 
and spiritual (not including temporal) persons, for the 
better provision of the poorer clergy. He did not, how- 
ever, proceed farther in this than to express his sentiments, 
in private to the bishop of Ely* who had proposed the 
scheme, which does not appear to have been brought for- 
ward in any other shape, probably in consequence of the 
arguments he advanced against it. In March 1577 he was 
made bishop of Worcester ; and as this diocese brought 
him into the council of the marches of Wales, he was pre- 
sently after appointed vice-president of those marches in 
the absence of sir Henry Sidney, lord president, and now, 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. In June following he resigned 
the mastership of Trinity college ; and just before pro- 
cured a letter from the chancellor, in order to prevent the 
practice then in use, of taking money for the resignation of 

The queen, as we noticed in our account of archbishop 
Grindal, had some thoughts of placing Whitgift in that 
worthy prelate's room, even in his life-time, and Grindal 
certainly would have been glad to resign a situation in 
which his conduct had not been acceptable to the court, 
aud he had at the same time such an opinion of Whitgift . 

W H I T G I F T. f 

as to be very desirous of hicn for a successor. But Wbk- 
. gift could not be prevailed upon to consent to an arrange- 
ment of this kind, and requested the queen would excuse 
his acceptance of the office on any terms during thre life of 1 
Grind al. Grindal, however, died in July 1583, and the : 
queen immediately nominated Wbitgift to succeed him as 
archbishop of Canterbury. On entering on this high office » 
be found it greatly over-rated as to revenues, and was 
obliged to procure an order for the abatement of 100/. to 
him and his successors, on the payment of first fruits, and * 
he shortly after recovered from the queen, as part of the 
possessions of the archbishopric, Long- Beach Wood, in* 
Kent, which bad been many years detained frorti his pre- 
decessor by sir James Croft, comptroller to her majesty's 
household. But that in which he was most concerned was ' 
to see the established uniformity of the church in so great 
disorder as if was from the non-compliaoce of the puritans,- 
who, taking advantage of his predecessor's easiness in that 
respect, were possessed of a great many ecclesiastical be- 
nefices and preferments, io which they were supported by 
some of the principal men at court. He set himself, there- 
fore, with extraordinary zeal and vigour, to reform these 
infringements of the constitution* for which he bad th* 
qneen'-s express orders. With this view, in December 
1583, he moved for an ecclesiastical commission, Which • 
was soon after issued to him, with the bishop of London, 
and several others. For the same purpose, in 1534, bd 
drew up a form of examination, containing twenty-four 
articles, which he sent to the bishops of his province, en- 
joining them to summon all such clergy as were suspected 
of nonconformity, and to require them to answer those ar- 
ticles severally upon oath, ex officio mero, likewise to sub- 
scribe to the queen's supremacy, the book of Gornmo* 

Prayer, and the thirty-nine articles. • 

At the same time he held conferences with several Of thfc* 
puritans, and by that means blroughtspme to a compliance;* 
but when others appealed from the ecclesiastical commis- 
sion to the council, he resolutely asserted his jurisdiction', 
arid vindicated bis proceedings, even in some' cases* against 
the opinion of lord Burleigh, who was his chief friend there. 
But as archbishop WhitgiFt's conduct has been grossly mis- 
represented by the puritan historians and by their sue- • 
cessors, who are still greater enemies to the church, it nrvay 
be necessary to enter more in detail on bis,cocrespondeac* - 


W H I T G I F T. 

with Burleigh, &c. at this time. Some ministers of Ely 
being suspended for refusing to answer the examination 
above mentioned, applied to the council, who wrote a let- 
ter to the archbishop in their favour, May 26, 1583. To 
this he sent an answer, in the conclusion of which, so well 
was be .persuaded in his own mind of the propriety of his 
conduct, he told the council, " that rather than grant them 
liberty to preach, be would chuse to die, or live in prison 
all the days of his life, rather than be an occasion thereof, 
or ever consent unto it. 91 Lord Burleigh, thinking these 
ministers, hardly used in the ecclesiastical commission, ad* 
vised them not to answer to the articles, except their con* 
sciences might suffer them ; he at the same time informed 
tbe archbishop that he had given such advice, and intt-* 
mated his dislike of the twenty-four articles, and their 
proceedings in consequence of them, in several letters. 
To these the archbishop answered separately, in substance 
as follows: In a letter dated June 14, from Croydon, .he 
declares himself content to be sacrificed in so good a cause;- 
and that the laws, were with him, whatever sir Francis 
JCnollys (who, be said, had little skill) said to the contrary. 
This alludes to a paper written by sir Francis, treasurer, to 
the queen's household, in defence of the recusants, and 
sent to the archbishop. . Burleigh, in. a second letter, dated 
Jtily 1, expressing himself in. stronger terms against these 
proceedings, concludes with saying that the articles were 
branched pat into so many circumstances, that be thought 
the inquisitors of Spain used not so many questions to trap 
others; and that this critical sifting of ministers was not 
to reform, but to insnare : but, however, upon his request, 
he would leave them to his authority, nor " thrust bis sickle 
into another man's. harvest." 

>To this the archbishop sent an answer, dated July 3, to 
tbe following purport : That, as touching the tweoty-fottr 
articles, which his lordship seemed so much to dislike, as 
written in a Romish style, and smelling of the Romish in-? 
quisition, be marvelled at his lordship's speeches, seeing 
it was the ordinary course in other courts, as in the star- 
chamber, tbe courts of the marches, and other places ; and 
that the objection of encouraging the papists by these 
courses, bad neither probability nor likelihood. That as 
to his lordship's speech for the two ministers, viz. that they 
were peaceable, observed the book, denied the things 
Wherewith they were charged, *nd desired to be tried, th$ 

W H I T O I F T. ..#. 


archbishop demanded, now they were to be tried, why 
they did refuse ft qui male egit odit luctm f That the ar- 
ticles be administered unto them were framed by the most 
learned in the laws, and who, be dared to say, hated both 
the Romish doctrine and Romish inquisition ; and that he 
ministered them to, the intent only that he might truly un- 
derstand whether they were such manner of men, or no, as 
they pretended to be, especially, seeing by public fame 
tbey were noted of the contrary, and one of them pre- 
sented by the sworn men of his parish for his disorders, as 
he was informed by bis official there. That time would not 
serve him to write much ; that he referred the rest to the 
report of the bearer, trusting bis lordship would consider 
of things as they were, and not as they seemed to be, or 
as some would hare them ; that he thought it high time to 
put those to silence who were and had been the instru- 
ments of such great discontentment as was pretended; 
that conscience was no more excuse for them than it was 
for the papists or anabaptists, in whose steps they walked. 
He knew, he said, that he was especially sought, and 
many threatening words came to his ears to terrify him from 
proceeding; that the bishop of Chester (Chaderton) had 
Wrote to him of late, and that in his letter a little paper 
was inclosed, the^.copy whereof be sent to his lordship* 
"You know (said the archbishop) whom he knoweth ; but 
it moves me not ; be can do no more than God will permit 
him. It is strange to understand what devices have been 
used to move me to be at some men's becks ;" the parti- 
cularities of all which he would one day declare to his lord- 
ship, and added, that be was content to be sacrificed in so 
good a cause, " which 1 will never betray nor give over, 
God, her. majesty, all the laws, my own conscience and 
duty, being with me. 9 ' He concludes with beseeching 
Burleigh not to be discomfited, but continue; the cause 
was good, and the complaints being general, were vain, 
and without cause, as would appear when they descended 
to particularities. 

T;o encourage bis lordship farther, the archbishop, on 
JuneJ24, sent him a schedule of the number of puritan 
preachers in his province, with their degrees, confronting 
them with the nonconformists, by which it appeared thgtt 
there were seven hundred and eighty-six conformists, and 
Mly forty-pine recusants. 

.Cpr^.Itorte.igh, in pother letter, still insisting that he 

l« W H I T G I F f . 

would hot call his proceedings rigorous and captious, But: 
that they were scarcely charitable, the archbishop sent 
btm, July 15, a defence of his conduct in a paper entitled 
" Reasons why it is convenient that those which are cul- 
pable in the articles ministered judicially by the archbishop 
of Canterbury and others, her majesty's commissioners for 
causes ecclesiastical, shall be examined of the same ar- 
ticles upon their oathsf," In this paper be maintained, 1. 
That by the ecclesiastical laws remaining in force, such 
articles may be ministered : this is so clear by all, that it* 
was never hitherto called into doubt. 2. That this manner 
of proceeding has been tried against such as were vehe- 
mently suspected, presented, and detected by their neigh* 
bours, or whose faults were notorious, as by open preach- 
ing, since there hath been any law ecclesiastical in this 
realm. 3. For the discovery of any popery it hath been 
used in king Edward's time, in the deprivation of sundry 
bishops at that time, as it may appear by the processes, 
although withal for the proof of. those things that they de- 
nied, witnesses were also used. 4. In her majesty's most 
bappy reign, even from the beginning, this manner of pro- 
ceeding has been used against the one extreme and the 
other as general, against all the papists, and against all 
those who would not follow the Book of Common Prayer 
established by authority ; namely, against Mr. Sampson and 
others ; and the lords of the privy council committed cer- 
tain to the Fleet, for counselling sir John Southvvood and < 
other papists not to answer upon articles concerning their 
own facts and opinions, ministered unto them by her high- 
ness's commissioners for causes ecclesiastical, except a 
fame thereof were first proved. 5, It is meet also to be 
<lone ex officio mero y because upon the confession of such 
offences no pecuniary penalty is set down whereby the in- 
former (as in other temporal courts) may be considered for 
bis charge and pains, so that such faults would else be 
wholly unreformed. 6. This course is not against charity, 
for it is warranted by law as necessary for, reforming of of- 
fenders and disturbers of the unity of the church, and for 
avoiding delays and frivolous exceptions against such as 
otherwise should inform, denounce, accuse, or detect them ; 
and because none are in this manner to be proceeded 
against, but whom their own speeches or acts, the public 
fame, and some of credit, as their ordinary or such like, > 
shall denounce, and signify to be such as are tobe rd- 


formed in this behalf. 7. That the form of such proceed- 
ings by articles ex officio mero is usual ; it may appear by 
all records in ecclesiastical courts, from the beginning ; in 
all ecclesiastical commissions, namely, by the particular 
commission and proceedings against the bishops of London 
and Winton, in king Edward's time, and from the begin- 
ning of her majesty's reign, in the ecclesiastical commis- 
sion, till tbis hour; and therefore warranted by statute. 
8. If it be said that it be against law, reason, and charity, 
for a man to accuse himself, quia nemo tenetur seipsum pro* 
dere aut propriam turpitudinem revcUire, I answer, that by 
all charity and reason, Proditus per denunciationem alterius 
sive per Jamam, tenetur seipsum ostendere, ad evitandum 
scandalum, et seipsum purgandum. Pralatus potest inquirere 
sine proDia/ama^ ergo a fortiori delegati per principem pas- 
sunt : ad h<ec in istis articulis turpitudo non inquiritur aut 
jlagitium, sed excessus et errata clericorum circa publicam 
functionem ministerii, dt quibus ordinario raiionem reddere 
coguntvr. (The purport of our prelate's meaning seems to 
be, that although no man is obliged to inform against him- 
self, yet, if informed against by others, be is bound to come 
forwards, in order to avoid scandal, and justify himself ; 
that a bishop may institute an inquiry upon a previous/ami,' 
much more delegates appointed by the sovereign; and 
besides, that in these articles no inquiry is made as to tur- 
pitude or criminality, but as to the irregularities and errors 
of the clergy, in matters relating to their ministerial func- 
tions, an account of which they are bound to render to 
their ordinary.) 9. Touching the substance of the articles, 
first, is deduced there being deacons and ministers in the 
church, with the lawfulness of that manner of ordering ; 
secondly, the establishing the Book of Common Prayer by 
statute, and the charge given to bishops and ordinaries for 
seeing the execution of the said statute ; thirdly, the good- 
ness of the book, by the same words by which the statute 
of Elizabeth calls and terms it. Fourthly, several branches 
of breaches of the book being de propriis/actis. Fifthly, 
is deduced detections against them, and such monitions as 
have been given them to testify their conformity hereafter, 
and whether they wilfully still continue such breaches of 
law in their ministration* Sixthly, Their assembling of 
conventicles for the maintenance of their factious dealings. 
10. For the second, fourth, and sixth points, no man will 
think it unmeet they should be examined, if they would 


tbave them touched for any breach of the book. ] 1 . The - 
article for examination, whether they be deacon or minis- 
ter, ordered according to the law of the land, is most 
necessary ; first, for the grounds of the proceeding, lest 
the breach of the book be objected to them who are not 
bound to observe it ; secondly, to meet with such schis- 
matics, whereof there is sufficient experience, which either 
thrust themselves into the ministry without any lawful call- 
ing at all, or else to take orders at Antwerp, or elsewhere 
beyond the seas. 12. The article for their opinion of the 
lawfulness of their admission into the ministry is )to meet 
with such hypocrites as, to be enabled for a living, will be 
content to be ordained at a bishop's hands, and yet, for 
the satisfaction of their factious humour, will afterwards 
have a calling of certain brethren ministers, with laying on 
of hands, in a private house, or -in a conventicle, to the 
manifest slander of the Church of England, and the nou- 
rishing of a flat schism ; secondly, for the detection of 
such as not by private, but by public speeches, and written 
pamphlets spread abroad, do deprave the whole order 
ecclesiastical of this church, and the lawfulness of calling 
therein ; advouching no calling lawful but where their 
fancied monstrous signorie, or the assent of the people, do 
admit into the ministry. 13. The sequel that would follow 
of these articles being convinced or proved, is not so much 
as deprivation from ecclesiastical livings, if there be no 
obstinate persisting, or iterating the same offence ; a mat- 
ter far different from the bloody inquisition in time of 
popery, or of the six articles, where death wad the sequel 
against the criminal. 14. It is to be considered, what en- 
couragement and probable appearance it would breed to 
the dangerous papistical sacraments, if place be given by 
the chief magistrates ecclesiastical to persons that tend of 
singularity, to the disturbance of the good peace of the 
church, and to the discredit of that, for disallowing whereof 
the obstinate papist is worthily punished. IS. The num- 
ber of these singular persons, in comparison of the quiet 
and conformable, are few, and their qualities are also, for 
excellence of gifts in learning, discretion, and considerate 
zeal, far inferior to those other that yield their conformity ; 
and for demonstration and proof, both of the numbers, and 
also of the difference of good parts and learniug in the 
province of Canterbury, there are but — hundred that re- 
fuse, and — - thousands that had yielded their conformities. 

W H I TO I F T. !3 

These sentiments of the archbishop, although the detail 
of them may seem prolix, will serve to shew the nature of 
that unhappy dispute between the church and the puritans 
which, by the perseverance of the latter, ended in the fatal 
overthrow both of church and state in the reign of Charles Is 
Tbey also place the character of Whitgift in its true lifbt, 
and demonstrate, that he was at least conscientious in hi* 
endeavours to preserve the unity of tbe church, and was 
always prepared with arguments to defend bis conduct* 
which could not appear insufficient in the then state of the 
public mind, when toleration was not known to either 
party. That his rigorous protection of the church from 
the endeavours of the puritans to new mould it, should be 
censured by them and their descendants, their historian* 
and biographers, may appear natural, but it can hardly be 
called consistent, when we consider that the immediate 
successors of Whitgift, who censured him as a persecutor, 
adopted every thing that was contrary to freedom and tole- 
ration in his system, established a high commission-court 
by a new name, and ejected from their livings the whole 
body of the English clergy who would not conform to their 
ideas of church-government: and even tyrannized over sueb^ 
men as bishop Hall and others who were doctrinal puritans r 
and obnoxious only as loving the church that has arisen out 
of the ashes of the martyrs. 

Jn 1585, we find Whitgift, by a special order from the 
queen, employed in drawing up rules for regulating tbe 
press, which were confirmed and published by authority of 
the Star-chamber in June. As be had been much im- 
peded in his measures for uniformity by some of the privy- 
council, he attached himself in a close friendship with sir 
Christopher Hatton, then vice-chamberlain to the queen, 
to whom he complained of the treatment he bad met with 
from some of the court. The earl of Leicester, in parti- 
cular, not content with having made Cartwright master of 
his hospital, newly built at Warwick, attempted, by a most 
artful address, to procure a license for him to preach 
without the subscription ; but the archbishop peremptorily 
refused to comply. About the beginning of next year, 
the archbishop was sworn into the privy -council, and the 
next month framed the statutes of cathedral-churches, so 
as to make them comport with the reformation. In 1587, 
when the place of lord-chaqcellor became vacant by the 
death of sir Thomas Bromley, the queen made the arch- 

14 WH1T61FT. 

bishop an offer of it, which he declined, but recom- 
mended sir Christopher Hatton, who was accordingly ap- 

On the alarm of the Spanish invasion in 1588, he pro- 
cured an order of the council to prevent the clergy front 
being cessed by the lord-lieutenants for furnishing arms, 
. and wrote circular letters to the bishops, to take care that 
their clergy should be ready, with a voluntary appointment 
of arms, &c. This year the celebrated virulent pamphlet, 
entitled '< Martin Mar-prelate" was published, in which 
the archbishop was severely bandied in very coarse lan- 
guage, but without doing him any injury in the eyes of 
those whom he wished to please. The same year, the 
university of Oxford losing their chancellor, the earl of 
Leicester proposed to elect Whitgift in his stead ; but this, 
being a Cambridge-man, he declined, and recommended 
his friend sir Christopher Hatton, who was elected, and 
thus the archbishop still had a voice in the affairs of that 
university. In 1590, Cartwright being cited before the 
ecclesiastical commission, for several misdemeanours, and 
refusing to take the oath ex officio 9 was sent to the Fleet- 
prison, and the archbishop drew up a paper containing se- 
veral articles, more explicitly against the disciplinarians 
than the former, to be subscribed by all licensed preachers. 
The next year, 1591, Cartwright was brought before the 
Star-chamber; and, upon giving bail for his quiet beha- 
viour, was discharged, at the motion of the archbishop, 
who soon after was appointed, by common consent, to be 
arbitrator between two men of eminent learning in a re* 
markable point of scripture-chronology. These were Hugh* 
Broughton the celebrated Hebraist, and Dr. Reynolds, 
professor of divinity at Oxford. The point in dispute was, 
" Whether the chronology of the times from Adam to Christ 
could be ascertained by the holy Scriptures ?" The first 
held the affirmative, which was denied by the latter. (See 
Broughton, p. 82.) 

In 1593, Dr. Bancroft published his u Survey of Dis- 
cipline,'* in which he censured Beza's conduct in inter- 
meddling with the English affairs in respect of church-go- 
vernment ; upon which the latter complained of this usage 
in a letter to archbishop Whitgift, who returned a long 
answer ; in which, he not only shewed the justice of Dr. 
Bancroft's complaint,- but further also vindicated Saravia 
and Sutcliffe, two learned men of the English church, who 


had written in behalf of the order of episcopacy, against 
Beaa's doctrine of the equality of ministers of the gospel, 
and a ruling presbytery. In 1534, fresh complaints being , 
made in parliament of the corruption of the ecclesiastical 
courts, the archbishop made a general survey of those 
courts, and their officers; and the same year he put a slop 
to the passing of some new grants x>f concealed lands b6- 
Ipnging to the cathedrals. 

.- In 1595, when the disputes respecting church •discipline 
appeared to be in a good measure appeased, the predes* 
tinsrian-controversy took place ; and on this occasion, the 
archbishop bad the chief direction in drawing up the fa- 
mous " Lambeth articles/ 9 in concert with Bancroft, tbep 
bishop of London, Vaughan bishop of Bangor, Tindaldeaa 
of Ely, Whitaker, and others. Our readers are apprized 
that these articles are favourable to the doctrines of Cal- 
?in. The archbishop's declaration was, " I know them to 
be sound doctrines, and uniformly professed in this church 
of England, and agreeable to the articles of religion estab- 
Jtshed by authority." The archbishop of York made a 
similar declaration, .and the articles were forwarded to 
Cambridge, accompanied by a letter from Whitgift, re- 
commending that " nothing be publicly taught to the 

. This year (1595) be obtained letters patent from her 
majesty, and began the foundation of his hospital at Croy- 
don* The same year he protected the hospital of Har- 
bjedown, in Kent, against an invasion of their rights and 
property : and the queen having made him a grant of ali 
jthe revenues belonging to the hospital of Eastbridge, m 
Canterbury, he found out, and recovered next year, some 
lands fraudulently withheld from it. In 1599, his hospital 
at Croydon being finished, was consecrated by bishop 
Bancroft. The founding of this hospital (then the largest 
in the kingdom) having given rise to an invidious report 
of the archbishop's immense wealth and Jarge revenues, hfe 
dffev'upa particular and satisfactory account of all his pur- 
chases sinJcehe had been bishop, with the sums given for 
the same, and the yearly value of the lands, and to what 
and whose uses, together with the yearly value of the arch- 

On the death of queen Elizabeth, in 1602, the arch- 
bishop sent Dr. Neysle, dean of Canterbury, into Scotland 
to king James, in. the name of the' bishops and clergy of 

id Wflif di'Ft. 

England, to tender their allegiance, and to understand hirf 
majesty's pleasure in regard to the government of the 
church ; and though the deau brought a gracious message 
to him from the king, assuring his grace that be would 
maintain the settlement of the church as his predecessor 
left it, yet the archbishop was for some time not without 
bis fears. The puritans, on the death of the queen, con- 
ceived fresh hopes of some countenance, and began to 
speak with more boldness of their approaching emanci- 
pation from ecclesiastical authority. A book had beeh 
printed the year before, by some of their party, entitled 
" The Plea of the Innocents/' and in this year, 1603, ap- 
peared "The humble Plea of the thousand Ministers for 
redressing offences in the Church," at the end of which 
they required a conference. In October a proclamation 
wad issued concerning a meeting for the hearing and de- 
termining things said to be amiss in the church. Thi? 
issued in the famous conference held at Hampton-court, 
Jan. 14, 16, and 18, an account of which was drawn up by 
bishop Barlow. It only served to shew the puritans thai 
the king was decidedly against them. 

Archbishop Whitgift did not survive this conference 
long. He was not well in December before, but troubled 
with jaundice, which, together with his age, made him unfit 
to wait upon the king and court abroad the last summer. 
But soon after the conference at Hampton-court, going- iti 
his barge to Fulbam in tempestuous weather, he caught 
cold ; yet the next Sunday, being the first Sunday in Lent, 
be went to Whitehall, where the king held a long discourse 
with him and the bishop of London, about the affairs of 
the church. His grace going thence to the council-cham*- 
ber to dinner, after long fasting, he was seized with a pa* 
ralytic stroke, and his speech was taken away. He - wttt 
then carried to the lord treasurer's chamber, and thence, 
after a while, conveyed to Lambeth. On Tuesday he wa* 
visited by the king, who, out of a sense of the importance 
of his services at this particular juncture, told him, "that 
he would pray to God for bis life ; and that if he could 
obtain it, be should think it one of the greatest temporal 
blessings that could be given him in this kingdom. 9 * The 
archbishop would have said something to the king, but h» 
speech failed him, so that he uttered only imperfect wordsv 
But so much of his speech was heard, repeating earnestly 
with his eyes and bands lifted up, " Pro $colesi& Dei t" 


W H I T G I F T. n 

fiemg stall desirous to have spoken his mind to the king, be 
made two or three attempts to write to him ; but was too 
far go»e, and the next day, being February the 29th, he 
died. "Whether grief, ,, says Strype, " was the cause of 
his death, or grief and fear for the good estate of the 
church under a new king and parliament approaching, 
ninglmg itself with his present disease, might hasten his 
death, I know not," But Camden says, " Whilst the 
king began to contend about the liturgy received, and 
judged some things fit to be altered, archbishop Whitgift 
tiied wkh grief." "Yet surely," says Strype, "by what 
.we have heard before related iu the king's management of 
the conference, and the letter he wrote himself to the 
archbishop, he had a better satisfaction of the king's mind. 
To which I may add, that there was a * Directory,' drawn 
i|p by the Puritans, prepared to be offered to the next par- 
liament, which, in all probability, would have created 
a great deal of disturbance in the house, having many fa- 
vourers there ; which paper the aged archbishop was privy 
to, and apprehensive of. . And therefore, according to 
another of our historians, upon his death-bed, he should 
use these words, 'Et nunc, Domine, exaltata est Anima 
mep, quod in eo tempore succubui, quando mallem epis- 
jcqpatfts mei Deo reddere rationem, quam inter homines 
exercere: i. e. And now, O Lord, my soul is lifted up, 
that I die in a time, wherein I had rather give up to God 
an .account of my bisboprkk, than any longer to exercise it 
among men.' " 

He was interred in the parish church of Croydon, where 
a monument was erected, with an inscription to his me- 
mory. He is described as being in person of a middle 
stature, a grave countenance, and brown complexion, black 
hair and ^yes. He wore his beard neither long nor thick. 
He was small-boned, and of good agility, being straight 
and well shaped in all his limbs, to the light habit of his 
body, which began somewhat to spread and fill out towards 
•his latter years. His learning seems to have been confined 
•to the Latin language, v as Hugh Broughton often objected 
•to him, nor dees he appear to have been much skilled in 
the deeper points of theology ; but he was an admired and 
'diligent preacher, and took delight in exercising his talent 
that way ; it wag, however, in ecclesiastical government that 
'bjb forte lay, in the administration of which he was both in- 
defatigable and intrepid. It is by his conduct in this that 

Voj~ XXXII. C 

18 m WHITG,IFT> . 

his character has beeu estimated by posterity, and has been 
Tariously estimated according to the writer's regard for, or 
aversion to, the constitution of the church of England. 

In his expences it appears that he was liberal and even 
iftunificent. Both when bishop of Worcester and arch-» 
bishop of Canterbury, be took for many years into his 
house a number of young gentlemen, several of quality, to 
instruct them, as their tutor, reading to them twice a day 
in mathematics and other arts, as well as in the languages, 
giving them good allowance and preferments as occasion 
offered. Besides these, he kept several poor scholars in 
his house till he could -provide for them, and prefer them, 
arid maintained others at the university. His charitable 
hospitality extended likewise to foreigners. He relieved 
atid entertained at'his house for many years together several 
, distressed ministers (recommended by Beza and others) out 
of Germany and France, who were driven from their own 
-homes, some by banishment, others by reason of war, shewv 
ing no less bounty to them at their departure. Sir George 
Paule assures us, that he remitted large sums of his own 
parse to Beza. 

He was naturally of a warm temper, which however he 
-learned to correct as he advanced in years. Cecil earl of 
Salisbury said of him, after his death, that "there was no- 
thing more to be feared in his government, e$|>ecially to- 
wards his latter time, than his mildness and clemency." 
The judicious Hooker confirms this opinion, by averring 
that " He always governed with that moderation,, which 
useth by patience to suppress boldness." It does not ap- 
pear that lie printed any thing except what we have men- 
tioned in the controversy with Cartwright, but in StrypeV 
Life of him, are many of his letters, papers, declaration*, 
&c. the whole, like all Strype's lives, forming an excellent 
history of the times in which he lived. l • » - 

WH1TT1NGHAM (William), the puritan dean of Dur- 
ham, the son of William Whittingham, esq. by a daughter 

of- Haughton, of Haughton Tower, was born in the 

city of Chester, in J 524. In his sixteenth year he became 
a commoner of Brasenose college, Oxford, where he maths 
great proficiency in literature. After taking his degree of 
.bachelor of arts, he was elected fellow of Ail Souls in 

* Strype's Life, M. — Life by »ir George Paule, 1699, 8vo. — The same*ritfc 
notes id Woidsworth'g Uiograpby. — Bkg.Brit. — Fuller** Worthies,- Church Hi*. 
lory, and Abel Redivivu*. 



1545, and two years afterwards was taade one of the seniors; 
of Christ-church, on the foundation of Henry VIII. In 
May 1 5 50, having obtained leave to travel for three years, 
he passed his time principally at Orleans, where he married 
the sister of Calvin. He returned to England in the latter 
end of the reign of Edward VI. but, as he was a staunch 
adherent to the doctrines of the reformation, he found it 
necessary to leave home, when queen Mary came to the 
throne, and joined the exiles at Francfort. Here he be- 
came one of those who took part against the ceremonies of 
the Church of England being observed among the exiles, 
and afterwards became a member of the Church of Geneva. 
On the Scotch reformer, Knox, leaving that society to re- 
turn to his own country, Whittingham was prevailed upon 
by Calvin to take orders in the Geneva form, and was 
Knox's successor. While here, he undertook, along with 
other learned men of the same society, an English transla- 
tion of the Bible, which was not completed when those em- 
ployed upon it bad an opportunity to return to England, 
on the accession of queen Elizabeth. Whittingham, how- 
ever, remained at Geneva to finish the work, during which 
time be translated into metre five of the Psalms, inscribed 
W. W. of which the 1 19th was one, together with the ten 
commandments, and a prayer, all which make part of the 
collection! known by the names of Sternhold and Hopkins. 
- Soon after bis return to England, he was employed to 
accompany Francis, earl of Bedford, On his embassy of 
condolence for the death of the French king, in 1560. * 
And he attended Ambrose, earl of Warwick, to Havre de 
Grace, to be preacher there, while the earl defended it 
against the French ; and Wood says, he preached noncon- 
formity in this place. Warwick appears to have had a 
very high opinion of him, and it was by his interest that 
Whittingham was promoted to the deanery of Durham in 
1563, which he enjoyed for sixteen years. During this 
time he was one of the most zealous opponents of the ha- 
bits and ceremonies, and so outrageous in his zeal against 
popery, as to destroy sohie of the antiquities and monu- 
ments in Durham cathedral, and even took up the stone 
coffins of the priors of Durham, and ordered them to be 
used as troughs for horses to drink in. 

Notwithstanding his opposition to the habits, when in 
1564 the order issued for wearing them, he thought proper to 
comply, and being afterwards reproached for this by one 

C 2 


•who was With hitn at Geneva, be quoted a saying- of Cfel- 
•v5n*s, "that for "external rrratters of order, they might riot 
■fiegtect their ministry, for so should they, for tithing of 
toning neglect the greater things of the law." It bad been 
WfcJ'l far the church bad this maxim more generally pce- 
"tariled. Whittingham did essential service to government 
in the rebellion of 1569, but rendered himself very ob- 
-nbxitfus at court, hy a zealous preface, written by him, to 
Christopher Goodman's book, which denied women the 
bright of government. He was probably in other respects 
obnoxious, generally as a nonconformist, which at last 
excited a (dispute between him and Dr. Sandys, archbishop 
of Ybrfc. In 1577 the archbishop made his primary visi- 
tation throughout the whole of his province, and began 
^vtth Durham, where a chaTge, consisting of thirty^fivfe 
•articles, was brought against Wbittingbam, the principal 
t*f Which was his being ordained only at Geneva. Whit- 
tingham refused to answer the charge, but denied in the 
first place the archbishop's 'power to visit the church of 
Durham. On this Sandys 'proceeded to excorrrmunicaekwi. 
Whittingham then appealed to the queen, who directed a 
commission to the archbishop, Henry earl <rf Huntington, 
♦ofd president of the north, and Dr. Hutton, dean x>f York, 
to 'hear and determine the validity of his ordination, and 
to inquire into the other misdemeanours contained in the 
articles ; but this commission ended only in some counte- 
nance being given to Whttaker by the earl and by Dr. 
Hutton, the latter of whom went so far as to say, that "Mr* 
Whittingham was ordained in a better sort than even the 
Irfrchbishop himself." Sandys then obtained another com- 
mission directed to himself, thfe bishop of Durham, and 
lord president, the chancellor of the dioeese, rod some 
Others. This was Elated May 14, 1578, and may be seen 
in Ryrtier's Fcedera, vol. XV. Here, as Whittingham had 
nothing to produce but a certificate or call from the 
church of Geneva, it was objected to, but the lord pre-. 
sident said that "it would be ill taken by all the godly and 
learned, both at home and abroad, that we allow of popish 
massing priests in our ministry, and disallow of ministers 
made in the reformed church." It does not appear that 
any thing was determined, and Whittingham's death put 
an end to the question. He died June 10, 1579, in the 
sfcty-fifth year of his age, and his remains were interred iri 
the cathedral of Durham, with a monumental inscription, 


which was a|t&f ward* desjUfoyed by another set of in^oy a* 
tors> tie appears tp baye been a oum of talents for bmU 
ness* s*s< well as leading, and t,b$re was a design at one time, 
ef advancing bin* a£ cpupt. He published little except 
some few translations from, foreign authors to promote the 
ca^se of the reformation aad he wrote some preface^. l 

WHITT1NGTON (Robeet>, one of our early gnmm* 
fi?t>s, was born in (Jchfreld about 1 4 SO, and educated und$c 
the famous grammarian, John Stan bridge, in the school ad~ 
joiilapg to Magdalen college, Oxford. He afterwards made 
a cQWsi.derable progress in philosophy, but topk more plea- 
sure in classical and grammatical studies, in which be fan- 
cied himself designed to shine. In 150 i he b#gan to te^cfe 
a grammar-school, probably in London, as a,\l his plica- 
tions were dated tbenc^. Ip the beginning of 1513 X he 
supplicated the congregation of regeats of the university 
of Oxford,, by the rwme of Robert Whittington, ^ se- 
cular chaplain, a&d a scholar of the art of rhetoric, that 
whereas he had spent fourteen years in the study of 
the said ait, and twelve years ity teaching, " it might 
be s«$c&iic for him. that he. migl^t be laureated." This 
heiag granted, he composed an hundred verses which 
w^e stuck up in public places, especially on the doors of 
Sit. Mary's church, ?nd wap solemnly crowned with a wreath 
of laurel, &c. that is, he was made doctor of grammar,, an 
ungual title and ceremony, and the last of the kind.. ThU 
appeals to have conferred no academical rank, for be wa* 
afterwards admitted to the degree, of bachelor of arts. Front 
this time, however, he called himself \t\ several of his work? 
Protpv&tes 4ngli#> .an assumption which his fellow-gr^m- 
mariap$, Horipan and Wy, did not much relish. He ap- 
pears indeed to have been very qonceited of his abilities 
and tahave undervalued those who were at least his equals, 
Yefe historians, allow hjm to hare been 4n excellent Greek 
a&d Latin scholar) and a man of a facetious turq, b|it too 
much given to personal satire both in conversation, smd in 
btt tUerfery dispute? with Uly, Aldridge, and others. He , 
w^sali^e in 1,530, hut hpw long afterwards does not ap- 
p$ar. He wrote agreaU ma^y grammatical treatises, some 
of which WrtW* have long been in use in schools, for tbey 
went through many edition^ Tbey arq enumerated by 

. l 4th. Qx. vol. L— Hutphinson's Hist, of Durham. —Stripe's Life of Parker, 
pp. 135, 156.^-Strype'sGrinda!, p. 170. — Strype'i Anuals.-— Brook's Lire* of U>f 


Wood, and, more correctly, by Mr.Dibdin in bis Typogra- 
pbical Antiquities. Warton also mentions a few of them, 
and says that some of his Latin poetry is in a very classical 
dtyle, and much in the manner of the earlier Italian poets. 1 * 
WHITWORTH (Charles, Lord), author of a very cu- 
rious account of the Russian empire, was son of Richard 
Whitworth, esq. of Blowerpipe, in Staffordshire, who, about 
the time of the revolution, had settled at Adbaston. He 
married Anne Moseley, niece of sir Oswald Moseley, of 
Cheshire, by whom he had six sons and a daughter : Charles ; 
Richard, lieutenant-colonel of the queen's own royal regi- 
ment of horse ; Edward, captain of a man of war ; Gerard, 
one of the chaplains to king George the First ; John, cap- 
tain of dragoons ; Francis, surveyor- general of his majesty's 
woods, and secretary of the island of Barbadoes, father of 
Charles Whitworth, esq. member of parliament in the be- 
ginning of the present reign for Minehead in Somerset- 
shire ; and Anne, married to Tracey Pauncefort, esq. of 

Charles, the eldest son, was bred under that accQmplished 
minister and poet Mr. Stepney ; and, having attended him 
through several courts of Germany, was, in 1702, appointed 
resident at the diet of Ratisbon. In 1704 he was named 
envoy -extraordinary to the court of Petersburgh, as he 
was sent ambassador-extraordinary thither on a more so- 
lemn and important occasion, in 1710. M. de Matueof, 
the Czar's minister at London, had been arrested in the 
public street by two bailiffs, at the suit of some tradesmen^ 
to whom he was in debt. This affront had like to have been 
attended with very serious consequences. The Czar de- 
manded immediate and severe punishment of the offenders, 
with threats of wreaking his. vengeance on all English mer* 
chants and subjects established in his dominions. In this 
light the menace was formidable, and the Czar's memorials 
urged the queen with the satisfaction which she had ex- 
torted herself, when only the boat and servants of the earl 
of Manchester had been insulted at Venice. Mr. Whit- 
worth had the hohour of terminating this quarrel. In 1714, 
he was appointed plenipotentiary to the diet of Augsbourg 
and Ratisbon; in 1716, envoy -extraordinary and plenipo- 
tentiary to the king of Prussia; in 1717, envoy-extraordi- 

1 Ath. Ox. rol. I. new edit— WtrtoB's Hist of Poetry.— -Dibdio's Ames.— ■ 
Dodd's Ch. Hitt. 

W H I T W Q R T H. 23 

naryto the Hague. In 1719, he returned in. his former 
character to Berlin; and in '1721 the late king rewarded, 
his long services by creating him baron Whit worth of. Gal- 
Way, in the kingdom of Ireland. The next year bis lord- 
ship was entrusted with the affairs of Great Britain at the 
congress of Cambray, in the character of ambassador-ex- 
traordinary and plenipotentiary. He returned home in 
1724, and died the next year at his hotose in Gerard-street, 
London. His body was interred in Westminster- abbey. 

His " Account of Russia, as it was in the year 17 10," was 
published by the late lord Orford at Strawberry-hill, who 
informs us that besides this little piece, which must retrieve 
and preserve his character from oblivion, lord Whitworth 
left many volumes of state letters and papers in the pos- 
session of his relations. One little anecdote of him lord 
Orford was told by tbe late sir Luke Schaub, who had it 
from himself. Lord Whitworth had bad a personal inti- 
macy with the famous Czarina Catherine, at a time when 
her favours were not purchased, nor rewarded at so extra- 
vagant a rate as that of a diadem. When he had compro- 
mised the rupture between the court of England and the 
Czar, he was invited to a ball at court, and taken out to 
dance by the Czarina. As they began the minuet, she 
squeezed him by tbe hand, and said iu a whisper, "Have 
you forgot Utile Kate V ' 

Lord Whitworth's MS Account of Russia was communi- 
cated to lord Orford, by Richard Owen Cambridge, esq. 
having been purchased by him in a very curious set of 
books, collected by Moos'. Zolman, secretary to the Jate 
Stephen Poyntz, esq. This little library relates solely to 
Russian history and affairs, and contains, in many languages, « 
every thing that perhaps has been written on that country. 1 

WH YTT (Robert), an eminent physician, born at Edin- 
burgh Sept 6, 1714, was the son of Robert Whytt, esq. of 
fieunochy, advocate. This gentleman died six, months be- 
fore tbe birth of our author, who was also deprived of his 
mother before he had attained the seventh year of his. age* 
After receiving the first rudiments of school- education, be 
was sent to tbe university of St. Andrew's; and after the 
usual course of instruction there, in classical, philosophical, 
and mathematical learning, he came to Edinburgh, where 
he entered upon the study of medicine, under those emi- 

1 Lord Orford'f preface to tbe " Accdunt," Ice. 


neat teachers, Monro, Rutherford, Sinclair, Plummet, At* 
sion, and Innes. After learning what was to be afequtned* 
in this university, he visited other countries in the proseco* 
tion of his studies, and after attending the most eminent 
teachers at London, Paris, and Leyden, he had the degree* 
of M. D. conferred upon him by the university of Rbeiaw 
in 1736, being then in the twenty-second year of his age.* 
Upon his return to his own country, be had the same ho- 
nour conferred upon him by the university (if St. Andrews, 
where he had before obtained, with applause, the degree of 
M. A. In 1737, he was admitted a licentiate of medicine 
in the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and the 
year following he was raised to the rank of a fellow of the 
college. From the time of his admission as a licentiate, be 
practised physic at Edinburgh a , and the reputation which: 
lie acquired for medical learning, pointed him out as a filj 
successor for the first vacant chair in the university. Ac- 
cordingly, when Dr. Sinclair, whose eminent medical abi~ 
lities, and persuasive powers of oratory, had contributed not 
a little to the rapid advancement of the medical school of 
Edinburgh, found that the talents which he possessed, could 
no longer be exerted consistently with his advanced age, 
he resigned his academical appointments in favour of 
JXr. Whytt. 

This admission into the college took place June 20, 1746, 
and Dr. Wbytt began his first course of the Institutions of 
Medicine at the commencement of the next winter session, 
in which the abilities be displayed were answerable to the 
expectationsbis fame had excited. The Latin tongue was 
then the language of the university of Edinburgh, and he 
both spoke and wrote in Latin with singular propriety, ele« 
gance, and perspicuity. At that time the system and sen-* 
timents of Boerhaave, which, notwithstanding their errors, 
must challenge the admiration of the latest ages, were very 
generally received by the most intelligent physicians in 
Britain. Dr. Whytt had no such idle ardour for novelties 
as to throw them entirely aside because he could not follow 
them in every particular. Boerhaavie*s " Institutions," 
therefore, furnished him with a text for his, lectures; and 
he was no less successful in explaining, illustrating, and 
establishing the sentiments of the author, when he could 
freely adopt them, than in refuting them by clear, con- 
nected, and decisive arguments, when he had occasion to 
differ from him. The opinions which he himself proposed, 



wore delivered and eo forged wifth such ae*te*e9S,*f iitaet* 
ifoa, such display of {acts, and force of argmie&t,. a* ccjukt 
rarely fail to gain universal assent from bis niwwtou* audi* 
tors, and be delivered them with becoming modesty and 

From the time that be first entered upon an academical 
appointment, till 1756, bis prelections were confined to th* 
institutions of medicine alone. But at tbat period bis 
learned colleague, Dr. Rutherford, who was then profess** 
of the practice of medicine, found it necessary to retire; 
and on this occasion, Dr. Wbytt, Dr. Monro senior, and 
Dr. Cullen, each agreed to take a share in an appointment 
in which their united exertions promised the highest ad* 
vantages to the university. By this arrangement, students 
who bad an opportunity of daily witnessing the practice of 
three such teachers, and of hearing the grounds of that 
practice explained, could not fail to derive the most solid 
advantages. In these two departments the institutions of 
medicine in the university, and the clinical lecture* ia 
the royal infirmary (which were first begun by Dr. Ru> 
tberford) Dr. Wbytt's academical labours were attended 
with the most beneficial consquences both to the students^ 
and to the university. But not long after the period we 
have last mentioned, his lectures on the former of these 
subjects underwent a very considerable change. About 
this time the illustrious Gaubius, who had succeeded to the 
chair of Boerhaave, published his " Institutiones Patholo- 
gist." This branch of medicine had indeed a place in the 
text which Dr. Why tt formerly followed, but, without de- 
tracting from the character of Boerhaave, it may justly be 
said, that the attention be had bestowed upon it was not 
equal to its importance. Dr, Whytt was sensible of the im- 
proved state in which pathology now appeared in the writ- 
ings of Boerhaave's successor; and he made no delay ia 
availing himself of the advantages which were then afforded* 
Accordingly, in 1762, his pathological lectures were en- 
tirely new modelled. Following the publication of Gaur 
bius as a text, he delivered a comment, which was heard by 
every intelligent student with the most unfeigned satisfac- 
tion. For a period of more than twenty years, during which 
he was justly held in the highest esteem as a lecturer at 
Edinburgh, . it may readily be supposed that the t-xten* <d 
his practice corresponded to his reputation, in fact he re- 
ceived both the first emoluments, and the highest hoafaie. 

*6 WHHT, 

which could there be obtained. With extensive practice 
in Edinburgh, he had numerous consultations from other 
places. His opinions on medical subjects were daily re- 
quested by his most eminent contemporaries in every part 
of Britain. • Foreigners of the first distinction, and cele- 
brated physicians in the most remote parts of the British 
empire, courted an intercourse with him by letter. Be- 
sides private testimonies of esteem, many public marks of 
honour were conferred upon him both at home and abroad* 
In 1752, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of 
London; jn 1761, he was appointed first physician to the 
king in Scotland ; and in 1764, he was chosen president of 
the royal college of physicians at Edinburgh. 

At an early period of life, soon after he had settled as a 
medical practitioner in Edinburgh, he married Miss Ro- 
bertson, sister to general Robertson, governor of New 
York ; by her he had two children, both of whom died in 
infancy, and their mother did not long survive them. A 
few years after he again entered into the married state with 
Miss Balfour, sister to James Balfour, esq. of Pilrig. By 
this lady he had fourteen children, six of whom only 
survived him. His wife died in 1764, and it is not impro- 
bable that the many deaths in his family, and this last loss 
had some share in hastening his own ; for in the beginning 
of 1765 his health was so far impaired, that he became in- 
capable of his former exertions. A tedious complication of 
chronical ailments, which chiefly appeared under the form 
of Diabetes, was not to be resisted by all the medical skill 
which Edinburgh could afford ; and at length terminated 
in death, April 15, 1766, in the fifty-second year of his 


~ Dr. Whytt's celebrity as an author was very great. His 

first publication was, " An Essay on the Vital and other In- 
voluntary motions of animals," which was written fifteen 
years before publication in 1751. His next publication 
was his " Essay on the virtues of Lime-water and Soap in 
the cure of the stone," 1752, part of which had appeared 
several years before in the " Edinburgh Medical Essays." His 
" Physiological Essays," were first published in 1755. In 
1764 appeared his principal work, entitled "Observations 
on. the nature, causes, and cure of those disorders which 
«re commonly called nervous, hypochondriac, and hyste- 
ric." The last of his writings, " Observations on the Dropsy 
of the Brain," did not appear till two years after his death, 

W H Y T T. fl* 

when all his' works were collected and published in one vo- 
lume quarto, under the direction of his son, and of his in- 
timate friend the late sir John Pringle. Besides these five 
works, he wrote many papers which appeared in different 
periodical publications; particularly in the Philosophical 
Transactions, the Medical Essays, the Medical Observa- 
tions, and the Physical and Literary Essays. l 
WICKLIFFE, Wicliff, de Wyclif, or Wiclef (John), 
a very learned English divine in the fourteenth century, 
and the first champion of that cause which was afterwards 
called Protestantism, was born at a village then called 
Wickliffe, from which he took his surname, near Richmond 
in Yorkshire, in 1324. Of the parents of one who lived in 
so remote a period, it cannot be expected that we should 
be able to procure any account. He was sent early to Ox- 
ford,- and was first admitted commoner of Queen's college, 
and afterwards of Merton, where he became probationer, 
but not fellow, as has been usually reported. While he 
resided here, he associated with some of the most learned 
men of the age who were members of that college, and it 
is said that Geoffry Chaucer was at one time his pupil. 
Among his contemporaries, he was soon distinguished both 
for study and genius. He acquired all the celebrity which 
a profound knowledge of the philosophy and divinity then 
in vogue could confer, and so excelled in wit and argu- 
ment as to be esteemed more than human. Besides the 
learning of the schools, he accumulated a profound know- 
ledge of the civil and canon law, and of the municipal laws 
of our own country, which have been rarely an object of 
attention until the establishment of the Yinerian professor* 
ship. He also not only studied and'commented upon the 
sacred writings, but translated them into English, and 
wrote homilies on several parts of them ; and to all this he 
added an intimate acquaintance with the fathers of the 
Latin church, with St. Austin and St. Jerome, St. Ambrose 
and St. Gregory. 

With these acquisitions, he did not hastily obtrude the 
novel opinions to which they had given rise. He was 
thirty-six years of age before his talents appeared to the 
world, and evten then they were called forth rathei by ne- 
cessity than choice. In 1360 he became the advocate for 

1 Encyelopsdia Britannic*. 

jp. W I G ItIF F E. 

ther university against the incroachments made by the men- 
dicant friars, wfeo had been very troublesome from their 
first establishment in Oxford in 1230, aard had occasioned 
great inquietude lo the chancellor and scholars, by infringe 
ia*g. their statutes and privileges, and setting up an exempt 
jurisdiction. Their misconduct bad decreased the number 
of students from thirty thousand to six thousand, parents 
being afraid to send their children to toe university, where 
tjbey w$re in danger of being enticed by these friars from 
(be colleges into convents;, and no regard was paid to the 
determination of parliament in 1366, that the friars should 
veceive no scholar under the age of eighteen. But Wick- 
liffe now distinguished himself against these usurpations, 
and, with Thoresby, Bolton, Hereford, and other colleagues, 
openly apposed the justification which the friars bad ad* 
vaueed in favour of their begging trade from the example 
pf Christ and his. apostles. Wickliffe also wrote seyeral 
tsaets against them, particularly " Of Clerks Possessionem," 
*' Of the Poverty of Christ, against able Beggary ," and 
*' Of Idleness in Beggary." These were written, with an 
elegance uncommon in that age, in the English language, 
of which he may be considered as one of the first refiners, 
4vhiie his writings afford many curious specimens of old 
English orthography. His controversies gave him such re- 
putation in the university, that, in 1361 he was advanced 
to he master of Baliol college ; and four years after he 
was tnade warden of Canterbury -hall, founded by Simon 
de I slip, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1361, and now in- 
cluded in Christ-church. The letters of institution, by 
which, the archbishop appointed him to this wardeosbip, 
were dated 14 Dec. 1365, and in them he is styled, " a 
.person in whose fidelity, circumspection, and industry, bis 
grace; very much confided ; and one on whom be had fixed 
his eyes for that place, on account of the honesty of his 
life, his laudable conversation, and knowledge of letters." 
Wickliffe amply fulfilled these expectations, till the 
death of the archbishop in 1366, who was succeeded in 
the archiepiscopal dignity by Simon Langbam. This pre- 
late had been a monk, and being inclined to favour the re- 
ligious against the seculars, was easily persuaded by the 
monks of Canterbury to eject Wickliffe in 1367 from his 
wardenship, and the other seculars from their fellowships- 
He also issued out his mandate, requiring Wickliffe and 
all the scholars to yield obedience to Wodehall as their 


warden. This WodehaU had actually <be*n appointed wuav 
den by tlie founder, but he was at such variance with the 
secular scholars, that the archbishop was compelled to 
tarn him and three other monks out of his new* founded 
hall, at which time he appointed Wickliffe to be warden, 
aud three other seculars to be scholars. The scholars now, 
however, refused to yield obedience to Wodehall, as bemg 
contrary to the oath they bad taken to the founder, and 
Langham, irritated at their obstinacy, sequestered the to* 
venue, and took away the books, &c. belonging tofche haH. 
Wickliffe, and his expelled fellows, appealed to the pope, 
who issued a bull, dated at Viterbo 28 May, 137U, restor- 
ing Wodehall and the monks, and imposing perpetual si- 
lence on Wickliffe and his associates. As this bull was 
illegal, and interfered with the form of the licence of 
mortmain, the monks in 1372 screened themselves by pro*, 
curing the royal pardon, and a confirmation of the papal 
sentence, for which they paid 20Q marks, nearly 800/. of 
our money. 

About this time the pope (Urban) sent notice to king 
Edward, that he intended to cite him to his court at Avig- 
non, to answer for his default in not performing the bo- 
mage which king J<£n acknowledged to the see of Rome; 
and for refusing to pay the tribute of 700 marks a-year, 
which that prince granted to the pope. The king laid this 
before the parliament, and was encouraged to resist the 
claim. One of the monks having endeavoured to vindicate 
it, Wickliffe replied ; and proved that the resignation of 
the crown, and promise of a tribute made by king John, 
ought not to prejudice the kingdom, or oblige the present 
king, as it was done without consent of parliament. This 
introduced him to the court, and. particularly to the duke 
of Lancaster, who took him under his patronage. At this 
time he styled himself peculiaris regis clericus, or the king's 
own clerk or chaplain, but continued to profess himself an 
obedient son of the Roman church. Shortly alter he was 
presented, by the favour of the duke of Lancaster, to the 
living of Lutterworth in Leicestershire, but in the diocese 
of Lincoln, and it was here that be advanced in his writ- 
ings and sermons, those opinions which entitle him to the 
rank of reformer. But as he did not in the most open 
iQanner avow these sentiments until he lost this living;, hit 
enemies then and since have taken occasion to impute 
them to a motive of revenge against the court of Rome 


which deprived him. This, however, is not strictly the 
troth, as he seems to have uttered and maintained some of 
'bis reforming opinions before he was turned out of the 
rectorship. This is evident from a tract entitled " Of the 
last age of* the Church," published in 1356, fourteen 
years before, in which he censures the popish exactions 
and usurpations. 

It must be allowed, however, that his boldness increased 
with his sufferings. In 1372 he took his degree as doctor 
of divinity, and read lectures with great applause, in which 
he more strongly opposed the follies and superstitions of 
the friars, exposed their corruptions, and detected tbeit 
practices without fear or reserve. The "conduct of the 
court of Rome in disposing of ecclesiastical benefices and 
dignities to Italians, Frenchmen, and other aliens, became 
so notorious and oppressive, that in 1374, the king issued 
out a commission for taking an exact survey of all the dig- 
nities and benefices throughout his dominions, which were 
in the hands of aliens. The number and value of them 
appeared enormous, and he determined to send seven am- 
bassadors to require of the pope that he would not interfere 
with the reservation of benefices. He -had tried a similar 
embassy the year before, which procured only an evasive 
concession. On the present occasion Wickliffe was the 
second person nominated, and, with the other ambassadors, 
was piet at Bruges by the pope's nuncio, two bishops and 
a provost. This treaty continued two years, when it was 
concluded that the pope should desist from making use of 
reservations of benefices. But the very next year, the 
treaty was broken, and a long bill was brought into parlia- 
ment against the papal usurpations, as the cause of all the 
plagues, injuries, famine, and poverty of the realm. They 
remonstrated that the tax paid to the pope amounted to 
five times as much as the tax paid to the king ; and that 
God bad given his sheep to the pope to be pastured, not 
fleeced. Such language encouraged Wickliffe, who boldly 
exposed the pride, avarice, ambition, and tyranny of the 
pope, in his public lectures and private conversation ; and 
the monks complained to the pope that Wickliffe opposed 
the papal powers, and defended the royal supremacy ; on 
which account, in 1376 they drew up nineteen articles 
against him, extracted from his public lectures and ser- 
mons, of which some notice will be taken hereafter. It 
Boay be sufficient to add in this place, that they tended to' 


oppose the rights which the popes had assumed, and to 
justify the regal, in opposition to the papal' pretensions of 
an ecclesiastical liberty, or an exemption of the persons of 
the clergy, and the goods of the church from the civil 
power. In advancing such opinions, he had the people on 
his side, and another powerful protector appeared for him 
in Henry Percy, earl -marshal. This alarmed the court of 
Rome, and Gregory XI. issued several bulls against Wick- 
lirTe, all dated May 22, 1377. One was directed to the 
archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, whom 
be delegated to examine into the matter of the complaint ; 
another was dispatched to the king himself* and a third to 
the university of Oxford. In the first, addressed to the 
two prelates, he tells them, " he was informed that Wick- 
•liffe had rashly proceeded to that detestable degree of mad- 
ness, as not to be afraid to assert, and publicly preach, 
such propositions, as were erroneous and false, contrary to 
the faith, and threatening to subvert and weaken the estate 
of, the whole church." He therefore required them to 
cause Wickliffe to be apprehended and imprisoned by his 
authority ; and to get his confession concerning his propo- 
sitions and conclusions, which they were to transmit to 
Rome ; as also whatever he should say or write, by way of 
introduction or proof. But, if WicklirTe could not be ap- 
prehended, they were directed to publish a citation for his 
personal appearance before the pope within three months. 
The pope requested the king to grant his patronage and 
assistance to the bishops in the prosecution of Wjckliffe. 
In the bull to the university, he says, the heretical pravity 
of WicklirTe tended " to subvert the state of the whole 
church, and even the civil government." And be orders 
them to deliver him up in safe custody to the delegates. 

King Edward III. died before these bulls arrived in 
England, and the university seemed inclined to pay very 
little respect to the one addressed to them. The duke of 
Lancaster and the earl-marshal openly declared they would 
not suffer him to be imprisoned, and as yet, indeed, the 
bishops' were not authorized by law to imprison heretics 
without the royal consent. The archbishop of Canterbury 
and the bishop of London, however, on the 19th Feb. 1378*, 
issued out their mandate to the chancellor of the univer- 
sity of Oxford, commanding them to cite WicklirTe to ap- 
pear before them in the church of St. Paul, London, within 
thirty days. But in such reputation was Wickliffe ;held at 

M W1CKLIF :F «. 

•this time, that when, in the interval before bis appearance,, 
the first parliament of king Richard II. met, and debated 
" whether they might lawfully refuse to send the treasure 
'out of the kingdom, after the pope requited it on pain of 
^©ensures, by virtue of the obedience due to him r" the re- 
solution of this doubt was referred by the king and parli*- 
taient to doctor Wicklifle, who undertook to prove the le- 
•gality of their refusal. 

Such confidence reposed in him by the higher poU*ei* 
/Augured ill for the success of the prelates who had sum- 
moned him to appear before them. On the day appointed, 
« vast concourse assembled, and Wickliffe entered, accom- 
panied by the duke of Lancaster and the earl-marshal 
Percy, wl;o administered every encouragement to hioi. 
-But before the proceedings began, an altercation was oc~ 
.casioned by the bishop of London's opposing a motion off 
the earl-marshal, that Wickliffe should be allowed a seel. 
The duke of Lancaster replied to the bishop in warm terms, 
. and said, although rather softly, that " rather than take 
^uch language from the bishop, he would drag him out of 
-the church by the hair of his head." But this being over- 
heard, the citizens present took part with their bishop, and 
such a commotion ensued that the ceurt broke up without 
entering on the examination, while Wickliffe was carried 
*>ff by his friends in safety. The Londoners, in revenge, 
plundered the duke of Lancaster's palace in the Savoy, and 
the duke turned the mayor and aldermen out of the ma- 
gistracy for not restraining their violence. From these 
circumstances it would appear. that at this time Wickliffefe 
principles had not been espoused by many of the lower 
classes, as is generally the case with innovations in religious 
matters ; yet it was not long before be had a strong party; 
of adherents even among them, for when lie was a second 
time cited by the prelates to appear before them at Lanv- 
heth, the Londoners forced themselves into the chapel tb 
encourage him, and intimidate his judges and accusers. 
*On this occasion Wickliffe delivered a paper to the oourt, 
an which he explained the charges against him, but the 
{proceedings were again stopped by the king's mother, who 
sent sir Lewis Clifford to forbid their proceeding to any 
-definitive sentence against Wickliffe. This completely 
-disconcerted them, and according to the evidence of thetr 
<own historian, Walsyngham, changed their courage * into 
fiuaiUanimity. "Qui quam indevote," says be, " guam 



segniter cemmiss* itbi mandate compleverint, melius est 
fliJere quam loqoi." All they could da wan .to enjoin bim 
silence, to which be paid no regard ; bis fol lowers *in<* 
creased ; the death of pope Gregory XI. put an end to the 
commission of the delegates j and when a schism ensued 
by the double election of two 1 popes, Wickliffe wrote a 
tiact, " Of the Schism of the Roman Pontiffs/ 1 and soon 
after published his book " Of the Truth of the Scripture/ 9 
in which he contended for the necessity of translating the 
scriptures into the English language, and affirmed that the 
will of God was evidently revealed in two Testaments ; • that 
die law of Christ was sufficient to rule the church ; and 
that any disputation* not originally produced from thence* 
ouist be accounted profane. 

• About this time* the fatigues he underwent in his at* 
tendance on the delegates, threw him into a dangerous ill- 
ness on his return to Oxford. The mendicant friars took 
this opportunity to send a deputation to him, representing 
the great injuries he bad done to them by his sermons and 
. writings, and* as he was at the point of death* exhorting 
him to recbnti Wickliffe, however* recovering bis spirits 
at this unintended acknowledgment of the success of his 
writings, raised himself on bis pillow, and replied, " t 
shall not die, but live to declare the evil deeds of the friars." 
On his recovery he embraced every opportunity in bis lee* 
tures* sermons, or writings, of exposing the Romish court, 
and detecting the vices of the clergy, both religious and 
secular; and his efforts were supported by certain proceed* 
ings of the parliament, which in 13S0 rendered foreign 
ecclesiastics incapable of holding any Benefices in England ; 
and at the same time petitioned the king to expel all fo- 
reign monks, lest they should instil notions into the people 
repugnant to the welfare of the state. 

But what gave most .uneasiness to his enemies* was his 
having undertaken to translate the Holy Scriptures into 
English. These had never been translated, except by Ri- 
dsard ifttz-ralph, archbishop of Armagh* and John de Tre* 
visa, a Cornish-man, who both lived in the reign of Edward 
III. Mr. Lewis is of opinion that Wickliffe began his 
translation abont 1379 or 138b. But it is more probable 
that it wAs his chief employment for the last ten years at 
' least of his* life, and he had the assistance of some of bis 
followers. He translated from Latin into the vulgar tongue, 
the* twenty-five canonical .books of the Bible, which he 


reckoned in the following order, and we transcribe a* a ■ 
specimen of the style and spelling of his language. u l, 
Genesis. 2. Exodus. 3. Levitici. 4. Numeri. - 5. De?~ 
teronomi. 6. Josue. 7. Iudicum, that encloseth the story 
of Ruth. 8, 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. ben the 4 Bokes of Kyogand 
fweie Bokes of Paralipomenon. 14. Is Esdre, that cobj- 
prehendeth Neemy. 15. Is Hester. 16. Is Job. 17. Psal- 
ter. 18. 19. 20, ben the 3 Bokes of Solomon. 21. 22. 23. ' 
24, ben the four great prophets. 25. Is a Boke^of J 2 small 
Prophets, Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdie, Jonas, Miehee, Na- 
hum, Abacuc, Sophonie, Aggie, Zacharie, and Madacbie." 
He adds, " That whatever .boke is in the Olde Testament 
without these 25 aforesaid, shal be set among Apocrypha, 
that is, withouten autoritie of belive. Therefore as bolie 
chirch redith Judith and Tobit, and the Bokes of Macba- 
beis but receiveth not tho' amonge holi scriptures ; . so. 
the chirch redith these 2 Bokes Ecclesiastici, and Sapieme 
to edifying of the people, not to confirme the autoritie of 
techyng of holi chirch. And that therefore he translated 
not the 3 ne 4 Boke of Esdree that ben Apocrypha." The 
books of the New Testament he reckons in this order. 
'VThe 4 Gospellers, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; 
12 Epistles of Poule; 7 small Epistles; the Dedes of 
Apostles, and the Apocalyps, which ben fulli of autoritie 
of bvleve." Mr. Lewis observes, be translated word, for 
word, without always observing the idioms or proprieties of 
the several languages ; by which means this translation in 
some places is not very, intelligible to those who do not un- 
derstand Latin. The reason why he made his version from, 
the Vulgate was, not that he thought it the original, or of 
the same authority with the Hebrew and Greek text, but, 
because he did not understand those languages well enough 
to translate from them. 

Of this translation several manuscript copies, are extant 
i,u the libraries of our universities, the British museum, and 
other public and private collections. The New Testament 
was published in 1731 fol. by Mr, John Lewis, minister of 
Margate ; with a History of the English Translations of 
the Bible ; which History was reprinted in 1739, &vo, with, 
large additions. Of the style we shall now exhibit a far-, 
ther, and more perfect specimen, in these three verses pf 
Romans viii. 2 &, 29, 30. " And we witen, that to men, 
that louen God alle thing is werchen to gidre into^good to 
hem that aftir purpose-been clepki seyntis. For thilk that. 

WlCKLIFfrE, 3i 

he knew bifore, be bifore ordeynyde bi grace to be maad 
lykto the y mage of his Sone, that he be the firste bigeten 
among manye britbeten. And thilke that he bifore or- 
deynyde tobliss€ y hem heclepide, and whicbe be clepide 
hem he justifiede, and which he justifiede, and beta he 

In 1381 we find Wickliffe attacking the doctrine of 
transubstantiation, which was first asserted by Radbertiis 
about the year 820, and had been- always propagated by 
the Rdinish church. Wickliffe offered to support hi* 
opinion in a public disputation, but as that was prohibited, 
he published it in a tract entitled " De Blasphemia," which 
was condemned by William de Barton, chancellor of the 7 
university, and eleven doctdrs, of whom eight wer$ of the 
religious. Wickliffe maintained that they had not refuted 
Bis assertions, arid Appealed frdm their condemnation to 
the king. In the mean time William Courtney, bishop of 
London, succeeded arbhbishop Sudbury in the see of Can- 
terbury, and Was entirely devoted to the interest qf his 
patron the pope. This prelate had before shewn himself* 
violent opposer of Wickliffe, and now proceeded against 
him and his followers. But as soon as the parliament met 
in 1982; Wickliffe presented his appeal to the king and 
both hduses. Walsingham represents this as dorie with a 
design to draw the riobility irito erroneous opinions, and 
that it was disapproved by the Duke of Lancaster, who 
ordered Wickiiflfeto Speak no riiore of that matter. Others 
say that the duke advised Wickliffe not to Appeal to th^ 
king, but submit to the judginent of his Ordinary ; upon* 
which, the monks assert, he retracted his doctrine at Ox* 
ford in the presence of the'arcbbishop of Canterbury, -six" 
bishops, and many doctors, surrounded .With a grfeat con- 
course of people. But th%|Coiifession whicih he read, irt 
Latin, was rather a vindita|ipd of his opinion of the sacra- 
ment, as it declares bis resolution to defend it with bis 
blood* and maintains the contrary to be heresy. 

The persecution which followed plainly proves this to b£ 
the case. After the death of the qUeeri, Anne of Luxem- 
burgi In 1304* wbb was a favourer of the Wicfctiflttes, the 
archbishop, doiirtney, assembled a court of bishops, in the . 
monastery of the preaching friars, London, who declared 
fourteen* conclusions of Wickliffe arid others, heretical' 
ahd erroneous. It is said that Wickliffe was prevented from ' 
appearing at this coiirt By fats friends, Who thought that a 

V 2 

36 W I c K L r F f n. 

plot was laid to seize him on the road. Hit cause, how- 
ever, was undertaken by the chancellor of Oxford, the two 
proctors, and the greatest part of tbq senate, who* in a 
letter, sealed with the university seal, and sent to the 
court, highly commended his learning, piety, and ortbo-* 
dox faith. His particular friends and followers, Dr. Nicho- 
las Hereford, Dr. Philip Rapingdon, and John Ayshtpn, 
M. A. defended his doctrines both in this court and in the 
convocation. The archbishop still persisted in his endea- 
vours to punish the Wickliffites, but their doctrines in- 
creased, while- Wickliffe himself, although obliged to quit 
his professorship at Oxford, lived peaceably at Lutterworth, 
still divulging his principles, and increasing the number of 
his followers. In 1332, soon after he left Oxford, be was 
seized with the palsy; and about the same time the pope 
cited him to appear at Rome, to which he sent an excuse, 
pleading, that " Christ had taught him to obey God ra- 
ther than man. 19 He was seized with a second stroke of 
palsy on Innocent's day 1384, as he was in his church of 
Lutterworth, and soon after expired, in the sixtieth year 
of his age. 

On the 5th of May, 1415, the council of Constance con* 
damned forty -five articles maintained by Wi<?kliffe, as 
heretical, false, and erroneous. His bones were ordered 
to be dug up and cast on a dunghill; but this part of his 
sentence was not executed till 1428, when orders were sent 
by the pope to the bishop of Lincoln to have it strictly 
performed. His remains, which had now lain in the grave 
forty-four years, were dug out and burnt, and the ashes 
cast into an adjoining brook, called the Swift, It is said 
that the gown which Wickliffe wore now covers tb^ com- 
munion-table of the church of Lutterworth. 

The principles which this eminent reformer endeavoured 
to introduce may be gathered from the nineteen articles 
before-mentioned, which were extracted from bi$ public 
lectures and sermons, by the monks, and sent to the pope. 
It appears that he held the doctrine of predestination in as 
strong a sense ks any who bate since supported it, and, in 
the opinion of a late writer, carries it much farther than 
any modern or ancient writers have attempted. He was, 
indeed, an absolute necessitarian, and among certain ar- 
ticles extracted from his works by Thomas Netfer (com- 
monly called Thomas of Walden, who flourished *bout 
1409) we find the following, « That all things come te pass 

W I C K L I P F K. 37 

by fatal necessity ; that God could not make the world 
otherwise than it is tnade ; and that God cannot do any 
thing which he doth not do." Other less unguarded ex- 
pressions have been laid to his charge, of which Fuller ob- 
serves, that were all. his works extant, " we might read the 
occasion, intention, and connection of what be spake, to-, 
gether with the limitations, restrictions, distinctions, and 
qualifications, of what he maintained. There we might see 
what was the overplus of bis passion, and what the just , 
measure of his judgment" He maintained, with the church 
in after-times, the doctrine of pardon and justification by 
the alone death and righteousness of Christ. The several 
points in which he differed from the then established po- 
pery were these ; the reading of the bible in the vulgar 
tongue, and making them the sole role of a Christian's faith 
and practice, without faith in tradition, or any human au- 
thority ; his opposing the pope's supremacy and infallibility; 
his rejecting and condemning transubstantiation, indul- 
gences, confession, and absolution, extreme unction ; the 
celibacy of the clergy ; forced vows of chastity ; prayers 
to, and worship of saints, shrines and pilgrimages. But 
the opinions which rendered him most obnoxious in his day, 
were those which struck at the temporal dominion of the 
pope, and which occasioned many of his followers to be 
persecuted in the subsequent reigns of Richard II. Henry 
IV. and Henry V. 

His works are very voluminous, yet he seems not to have 
engaged in any great work. They are, more properly 
speaking, tracts, some of which were written in Latin, and 
some in English; some were on school-questions; others 
on subjects of more general knowledge ; but the greatest 
part on divinity. Mr. Gilpin has given a list of the mdre 
remarkable. Bale has a more particular account. Some 
ar* preserved in Trinity and Corpus colleges, Cambridge, 
a few in Trinity college, Dublin, in the Bodleian, and 
in the British museum. Mr. Baber, in his late edition 
of the New Testament, has given the fullest and most 
accurate account of these. The following list comprises 
all that have been printed : I. " TrialogUs," a dialogue in 
Latin, between Truth, Falsehood, and Wisdom," printed 
somewhere in Germany, about 1525, 4to, pp. 175. This 
is .very scarce, having been mostly destroyed. by the Ro- 
manists *, but a n?w edition of it was printed at Frank- 

* See Ames Topng. Antiq. p. 1535. Mr. Ames purchased a copy at Dr . 
Evans's sale for 3/. 14s. 

38 W I C K L I F F I. 

fpjrt, 1 7 5 3, 4 to. 2." Wickiif 's Wicket, or, a learned and godly 
treatise of the Sacrament," Nor im berg, 1546, 8vo, and Ox* 
ford, 1612, 4to. 3. " The pathway to perfect knowledge, 
or WicklinVs Prologue to the Bible/' published by Robert 
Crowley, i'550, l2mo. 4. " The dore of the Holy Scrip- 
ture ? " I 540, 8vo. 5. " JJe Christianorum . villi catione," 
iqt JCnglisb, published in 1582, under the name of R. Wi<n? 
Vledon. 6. " A Complaint of John Wickliffe, exhibited to 
the king and parliament," 7. " A Treatise of John Wick- 
liffe against t^e orcjer of Friars.*' These* two were pub- 
lished together at Oxford in 1608, 4to, by Dr. James, from, 
(wo TVJS copies, one in Bene't college, Cambridge, the 
other in the Bodleian library. 8. " Why popr Priests have 
no Benefice^," published by Mr. Lewis in bis lire of Wick- 
liffe, who hps also published there, his Determination, 
Confessions, apd large extracts from his wprks remaining 
in MS. together with bis New Testament. His opinions 
are also particularly detailed in Dr. Thomas James's " ApQ- 
Jogie for Jotjn Wickliffe, shewing his conformitie witji the 
new Church of England ;" collected chiefly out of his MS 
works in the $ocUpian library, ^nd printed at Oxford, 1608, 
4to, now very scarce. 

We have mentioned J.ewjs's edition of WicklirTe's New 
f estament. Of this a new, elegant, and very correct se* 
pond edition was published in 1810 by the rev, Henry Her- 
vey Baber, M. A. F. R. S. librarian of printed books iu the 
British museum, in a 4Jo vplume. To this are prefixed 
"Mepojrs pf the Life, opinions,, aud writings" of Wick* 
]i£fe' to whicfi wp wquld refpr our readers for mud} original 
information and ingenious research ; and a very learned 
" Historical appount of the Saxon and English yersions of 
thi^Scriptures, previous, tp the opening of the fifteenth 
perjury." It was the intention of this excellent editor to 
have attempted an edition of Wickliffe's translation of die 
Old Testament, but no sufficient encouragement, we add 
with surprise apd shame, h?s yef been offered to so import- 
ant an additipn to our translations of the Holy Scriptures. l - 

WICQUE^ORT (Abraham j>E) f famous for his em- 
bassies and his writings, was a Hollander, smd born in 1598; 
put it is not certain at what place, though some h?we men- 
tioned Amsterdam. He left his country v^ry young, and 

v * Lewis's Life of Wickliffe.— Bauer's Life prefixed to the New Testament.—. 
Sky. Brit— Fuller's Ch. Hiftory.-Gjlpio'i Life of Wjckliffe.-^Wowi'i Anpafc, 


went, and settled in France, where be applied himself di- 
ligently to political studies, and sought to advance himself 
by political services. Having made himself ^mown to the 
elector of Brandenburg, this prince appointed him his re- 
sident at the court of France, about *626 ; and he pre- 
served this post twor-and-thirty years, that is, till 1658. 
Then he fell into disgrace with cardinal Mazarin, who never 
had much esteem for him, and particularly disliked bis at- 
tachment to the house of Condi. The cardinal accused 
him of having sent secret intelligence to Holland and other 
places ; and he was ordered to leave the court and the kingr 
dom : but, before he set out, he was seized and sent tQ 
the 'Bastille. M. le Tellier wrote at the same time to the 
elector of Brandenburg, to justify the action ; which be did 
by assuring him that his minister was an intelligencer in 
the pay of several princes. The year after, however (1659), 
he was set at liberty, and escorted by a guard to Calais ; 
whence be passed over to England, and thence to Holland* 
There De Witt, the pensionary, received him affectionately, 
and protected him powerfully : he had indeed been the 
victim of De Witt, with wboA he had carried on. a secret 
correspondence, which was discovered by intercepted let* 
ters. He reconciled himself afterwards to France, and 
heartily espoused its interests ; whether out of spite to the 
prince of Orange, or from some other motive; and the 
count d'Estrades reposed the utmost confidence in him. 
For the present, the duke of Brunswic-Lunenburg made 
him bis resident at the Hague ; 9nd be was appointed* he- 
sides this, secretary-interpreter of the States. Gepejral for 
foreign dispatches. 

. The ministry of De Witt being charged with great events, 
the honour of the commonwealth, as well as of the pen- 
sionary, required that they should be written; and Wicque- 
fort was selected as the properest person for such a work. 
He wrote this history under the inspection, as well as pro- 
tection, of the pensionary, who furnished him with such 
memoirs as he wanted, and he had begun the printing of 
it when, being accused of holding secret correspondence 
with the enemies of the States, he was made prisoner at 
the Hague in Mareh 1676 ; and, November following, con- 
demned to perpetual imprisonment, and to the forfeiture 
of all his effects. His son published this sentence in Qer- 
many the year after,, with remarks, which he addressed to 
the plenipotentiaries assembled then at Nimeguen to treat 

4$ W I O Q U E > O B T. 

pF peace : but these powers did not think proper to meddle 
with the affair, Wicqfuefort amused . himself with conti* 
noing his hisQpry of the United Provinces, which he inters 
Spersed, as was natural for a mair in bit situation, with 
satirical strokes, not only against. the prince of Grange, 
whom he personally bated, but also against the government 
Md the court of justice who had condemned him. This 
work was published at the Hague in 1719, with this title, 
f 4 L'Htstoire des Provinces Unies des Pays-Bas, depuis le 
paifait 6taMissement de cet Etat par la Pass de Munster:'' 
it contains 1 174 pages in folio, 246 of which were printed 
pff when the author was thrown into prison. 

He continued under restraint till 1679, and then con-* 
trived to escape by the assistance of one of bis daughters, 
jrbo ran the risk of her own liberty in order to procure his* 
By exchanging clothes with the lady, he went out, and 
look refnge at the court of the duke of Zell ; from which 
he withdrew in 1681, disgusted, because that prince would 
not act with more zeal in procuring bis sentence to be re- 
versed at the Hpgue* it is not known what became of him 
fjfeer; but He is said to have died in 1682. His f* L'Am* 
bassadeur et ses Fonctions," primed at the Hague, 168l£ 
in 2 vols. 4to, is his principal work, and is a very curious 
miscellany of facts and remarks, the latter not always pro- 
found, but often useful. He published also in 1677, du« 
ring his imprisonment, " M6moires toucbant les Ambassa* 
deurs et les tylinistres publics. 91 He translated some books 
of trayels from the German into French ; and also from the 
8panisb, " L'Ambassadp de P. Garcias de 8tlva Figuerea 
en Perse, cont^nant la Politique de ce grand Empire," &c. 
These works, which Wicquefort was at the pains to trans- 
late, are said to contain many curious and interesting 
things. * 

WIDDRINGTON (Sir Thomas), an eminent lawyer, 
and speaker of the Hpose of Commons, during the usur? 
palion, was of an ancient fyp>ily in Northumberland, and 
was educated partly at Oxford and partly at Cambridge. 
He afterwards entered of Gray's-inn, to ftudy the law, 
in which he advanced with considerable rapidity, and was 
chosen recorder, first of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and se* 
condly of York. He was knighted by Charles L in 1639 
it York, and, as recorder, congratulated bis paajfsty both" 

* Jticeron, vol. XXX^n.— Moreri.— Diet. Hitt 


it York and Berwiok, urban he was on his way to be crowed 
king of Scotland. Both bis addresses on this Occasion am 
laid to hare been perfectly courtly and even fulsome, but 
he was soon to change hit style as well as his opinions. 
Being returned member of parliament for Berwick, he be- 
came a warm advocate for the liberty then contested; 
avowed himself in religion, one of the independent sect, 
and took the covenant. In June 1647, he was so much a 
favourite with the parliament that they appointed him one 
of the commissioners of the great seal, which office be was 
to retain for one year, but held it till the king's death. The 
parliament also named him, in Oct. 1648, one in their call 
of seijeants, and soon after declared him king's seijednt. 
Bot far as he had gone wkh the usurping powers, he was 
by no means pleased with the commonwealth form of go* 
▼eminent, and immediately after the king's death, sur- 
rendered his office of keeper of the great sea), first upon 
the plea of bad health, and when that was not allowed, he 
set up some scruples of conscience. The parliament, how- 
ever, as he continued to allow their authority, in requital of 
his former services, ordered that he should practice within 
the bar, and gave him a quarter's salary more than was due. 
His merit also recommended him to Cromwell, who heaped 
honours and great employments upon him. In April 1654, 
he was appointed a commissioner of the great seal and a 
commissioner of the treasury, for which be received a 
salary of 1000/. ; and all his conscientious scrapie* seemed 
now at an end. In August of the same year, be was elected 
member of parliament for the city of York ; and in the 
following year, became a committee-man for ejecting scan* 
dalous ministers in the north riding of that county. 

In 1656, he represented both Northumberland and the 
city of York in parliament, and being chosen Speaker, was 
approved by Cromwell. His salary as speaker was 1929/. 
besides Si. for every private act, and the like sum for every 
stranger made a free denizen ; when ill he appointed White- 
lock for his deputy, as we noticed in the life of that states- 
man. In June 1658 he was appointed lord chief baron of 
the exchequer, and in Jan. 1660, one of the council of state 
and a Commissioner of the great seal. He was returned both 
for Berwick and York in' the parliament called in this year, 
and by some interest in the court of the restored khig, 
Charles II. he was included in the call of Serjeants, June 1, 
1660. It was thought somewhat singular, and even mean 


that be should have submitted to this, as he bad so long 
borne tbat title, bad filled high offices in the state, was by 
no means a young man, and was possessed of a considerable 
fortune. With regard to bis fortuue, however, be had suf- 
fered some loss. He and Thomas Coghill, esq. bad pur- 
chased the manor of Crayke, belonging to Durham- cathe- 
dra], which was now ordered to revfert to the church again. 
On the other hand, as some compensation, he was appointed 
temporal chancellor for life of tbat bishopric. He died May 
13, 1664, and was buried in the chancel of St. Giles's in the 
fields, where a handsome monument agairist the north wall 
was placed by bis four surviving daughters, ten yeara after, 
but it does not now exist. Although sir Thomas had drank 
deep in the spirit of the times, we are told tbat his great 
abilities were only equalled by his integrity, and it was pro* 
bably the latter which procured him favour after the resto- 
ration. He married Frances, daughter of lord Fairfax, of 
Cameron, and sister of lord Fairfax, the. parliamentary ge- 
neral; she died in 1649, and likewise lies buried in St. 

Mr. Noble, from whose " Memoirs of Cromwell 1 ' we have 
borrowed the above account, says that sir Thomas published 
in 1660 " Analecta Eborensw> or some remains of the an- 
cient city of York," &c. but this is a mistake. He only left 
a MS. account, under the title of " Analecta Eboractntia : 
or some remains of the ancient city of York, collected by 
a citizen of York." Mr. Gougb informs us that the above 
MS. was in the hands of Thomas Fairfax of Menston, esq; 
Sir Thomas began bis researches in Charles Ps time, and 
after the restoration offered to print this work, and dedicate 
it to the city of York, who seem to have refused it on ac- 
count of the indifference he shewed to their interests when 
he represented them in Cromwell's parliament. Upon this 
he is said to have expressly forbid his descendants to pub- 
lish it. Besides the Menston MS. there was another copy 
at Durham, in the Sbaftoe family, one of whom married a 
daughter of the author, Mr. Drake had the use of one among 
the city records, and another from sir Richard Smyth of St* 
Edmund's Bury, which he thinks was prepared by the au* 
thor himself for the press, and might have pasSed through 
different hands on the death of lord Fairfax, , and dis- 
persion of his effects. Another copy, or perhaps one of 
those just mentioned, is among Mr. Gough's topographical 
treasures in the Bodleian library. There are some of sir 

W I E L A N D, 4S 


Thomas's public speeches in Rushworth's " Collections, 
and others, according to Wood, were printed separately. * 

WIDMANSTADIUS, John. See John Albeeti, but 
ought to have been placed here, as we ha? e since disco- 
vered by Chaufepie. His proper name was John Albert 


WI ELAND (Christopher Martin), a voluminous Ger- 
man writer who has been complimented with the title of 
the Voltaire of Germany, was born in 1733, at Biberr.di. 
Of bis life no authentic account has, as far as we know, 
reached this country, but the following few particulars, 
gleaned from various sources, may perhaps be genuine, 
Pis father was a clergyman, who gave him a good educa- 
tion, $md his attachment to the Muses discovered itself very 
early* At the age of fourteen, he wrote a poem on the de- 
struction of Jerusalem. Two years after he was sent tp 
Erfurt to study the sciences, where be became enamoured 
of Sophia de Gusterman, afterwards known by the name of 
Madame de la Roche. The youthful lovers swore eternal 
fidelity to each other, but Wieland's father thought proper 
to interrupt the connection, and sent bis son to Tubingen 
to study law. For this he probably bad little inclination, 
and employed most of his thoughts and time on poetry, 
producing at the age of eighteen an " Art of Love" in the 
jpanner of Ovid, and a poem " On the nature of things," 
in which we are told he combined the philosophy of Plato 
and Leibnitz. After this he appears to have devoted him- 
self entirely to study and writing, and acquired considerable 
reputation as a poet of taste and fancy. For some time he 
appears to have resided in Swisserland, and in 1760 he re- 
turned to his native place, where he was apppinted to the 
office of director of the chancery, and during his leisure 
hours wrote some of those works which, completely estab- 
lished him in the opinion of his countrymen, as one of the 
greatest geniuses of the age, and honours were liberally 
bestowed upon him. The elector of Mentz made him. pro- 
fessor of philosophy and polite literature at Erfurt, and he 
was soon after appointed tutor to the two young princes of 
Saxe Weimar ; he was also aulic counsellor to the duke, 
who gave him a pension ; and counsellor of government to 
the elector of Mentz. In 1765 be married a lady at Augs- 

9 Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Noble's Memoirs of Cromwell, vol. f. p. 4S7.— Gough't 
Topography, and Catalogue of the Library teft to the Bodleian. 

44 W I E L A N D. 

burgh,- of whom he speaks to highly that we may conclude 
he had overcome or moderated his attachment to the object 
of hi* first love. In 1808 Bonaparte sent hiin the cross of 
the legion of honour, and after the battle of Jena, paftook 
Of a repast with Wieland, and, we are gravely told, " con- 
versed with him at great length on the folly and horrors of 
war and on various projects for the establishment of a per- 
petual peace/" Wieland's latter days were employed in 
translating Cicero's Letters. A paralysis of the abdominal 
viscera was the prelude to bis death, which took place at 
Weimar, in January 1813, in the eighty-first year of his 

Wieland was the author of a prodigious number of works 
(of which there is an edition extending to forty -two vo- 
lumes, quarto), both in prose and verse, poems of all 
kinds, and philosophical essays, dialogues, tales, &c. Of\ 
these, the " Oberon," (by Mr. Sotheby's elegaht transla- 
tion) the " Agathon," and some others, are not unknown, 
although they have never been very popular, in this coun- 
try.. In what estimation be is held in his own, may ap- 
pear from otie of the many panegyrics which German cri- 
tic* have pronounced on his merit : " No modern poet has 
written so much, or united so much deep sense with so 
much wit, such facility and sweetness. It may be truly 
said of htm, that he has gone through the wide domain of 
human occupations, and knows all that happens in heaven 
and in earth. A blooming imagination and a creative wit ; 
a deep, thinking, philosophical mind ; fine and just sense, 
and a thorough acquaintance with both the moderns and 
ancients, are discernible in all his various writings. He 
knows how to make the most abstract, metaphysical ideas 
sensible, by the magic of his eloquence ; he can make 
himself of all times and all countries ; be observes the cus- 
toms of every country, and knows how to join truth with 
miracles, sensible with spirited imagery, and romance with 
tbe most profound morality. In the ' Agathon 9 he seems 
a Grecian ; and in the ' Fairy Tales* a knight-errant, 
who wanders amidst fairies, vizards, and monsters. All bis 
tales abound in portraits, comparisons, and parallels, taken 
from old and modern times, full of good sense and truth. 
The understanding, the heart, and the fancy, are equally 
satisfied.* His verse is easy; there is not a word too 
much, or an idle false thought. He is as excellent in co- 
mical portraits as in tbe delineations of manners. The 


knowledge of Epicurus, the muses of frolic and ittire, of 
romance end fairy land ; the solidity of Locke, and the deep 
reuse, of Plato ; Grecian eloquence, and Oriental luxuri* 
ance> what excites admiration in the writings of the best 
masters 1 are united in his immortal works." Such is the 
opinion of his countrymen ; to which, however, it is our 
duty to add, that in many of his works the freethinking* 
system is predominant, and that the moral tendency of 
others is very doubtful. l 

WICK (John), an able physician, called in Latin 
Wfgnua, and sometimes Pjscinarius, was born in 1515, at 
(f rave, o\\ the Meuse, in the duchy of Brabant, of a noble 
family. He studied philosophy under the famous Henry 
Cornelius Agrippa ; made several voyages even to Africa, 
but returned again into Europe, and was physician to the 
duke of Cfeves during thirty years. Wier had so strong a 
constitution, that he frequently passed three or four days 
without eating ©r drinking, and found not the least incon* 
venience from it, H* died suddenly Feb. 4, 1588^ at 
Tccklenbourg, a German town in the circle of Westphalia, 
in the seventy-third year of his age. His works were printed 
at Amsterdam, 4 660, one volume, quarto, which includes 
hi* treatise " De Prestigiis et Incantationibus," translated 
into French, by James Grevin 1577, 8ve. He maintains 
in this work, that those accused of witchcraft were persons 
whose brain was disordered by melancholy, whence they 
imagined falsely, and without any reason, that tbey bad 
dealings with the devil, and were therefore deserving of 
pity rjuher than of punishment. It seems strange that, with 
this opinion, Wier should in other instances give the readiest 
eredit to fabulous stories. The above mentioned book made 
much noise.' 

WIGAND (Johk), a learned divine of the reformed re- 
ligion, was born at Mansfeld in Upper Saxony in 1523. 
His parents, who were of the middle rank, perceiving his 
love of learning, gave him a good education at school, 
whence he was sent to the university of Wirtemberg, where 
he. studied the arts and languages for about three years ; 
atfeadiogf at the same time, the lectures of Luther and 
tyelancthon. He became also acquainted with other con- 
tributor* to the reformation, as Cruciger, Justus Jonas, 6ta.» 

1 Diet. Hift —Gent. Ms*. Ice. fee. . v 

* ^by Diet. Hist, de Medicine.— Diet. Hist. 

* . 


46 WI&A^lJ. 


and heard the Greek lectures of Vitus. In 1541, by the? 
fedvice of bis tutors and friends, be went to Noriberg, 
where he was made master of St. Lawrence-school, and 
taught there for three years ; but being desirous of adding 
to his own knowledge, under the ablest instructors, he re- 
turned to Wirtemberg again* There he commenced M. A. 
before he was twenty-two years old, and begun the study 
of divinity, which; he engaged in with great assiduity, until 
the events of the war dispersed the students of this univer- 
sity. -He then was invited to his native place, Mansfeld, 
where he was ordained, and is said to have been the first 
who was ordained after the establishment of the Protestant: 
religion. Hesoon became a very useful and popularpreacher, 
and oh the week-days read lectures to the youth in logic 
and philosophy. While here, at the request of the super- 
intendent, John Spangenberg, he wrote a confutation of 
Sidonius's popish catechism, which was afterwards printed 
both in Latin and Dutch. He wrote also a confutation of 
George Majors who held that a man is justified by faith/ 
but not saved, &c. He was one of those who strongly op* 
posed the Interim. 

His great delight, in the way of relaxation from his more 
serious engagements, was in his garden, in which he 
formed a great collection of curious plants. Haller men- 
tions his publication " De succino Borussico, de Alee, de 
Herbis Borussicis, et de Sale," 1590, 8vo. which Freher 
and other biographers speak of as three distinct publica- 
tions. In 1553 he was chosen superintendant of Magde- 
burg, but the count Mansfeld and his countrymen strongly 
opposed his removal from them, yet at last, in consequence- 
of the application of the prince of Anhalt, ' consented to it. 
A\ Magdeburg, by his preaching and writings he greatly 
promoted the reformed religion, and had a considerable hand 
in the voluminous collection, entitled " The Magdeburg 
Centuries," which Sturmius used to say had four excellent 
qualities, truth, research, order, and perspicuity* In 1560, 
on the foundation of the university of Jena by the elector of 
Saxony, he was solicited by his highness to become pro- 1 
fessor of divinity, and performed the duties of that office 
until some angry disputes between Illyricus and Strigelius 
inclined him to resign. He was after a short stay at Mag-< 
deburg, chosen, in 1562, to be superintendant at Wismar. 
He now took his degree of doctor in divinity at the univer- 
sity of Rostock, and remained at Wismar seven years, at 


W I G A N 0. 4* 

the end of which a negotiation was set on foot for his re- 
turn to Jena, where he was made professor of divinity and 
superintendant. - Five years after he was again obliged to 
leave that university, when the elector Augustus succeeded 
bis patron the elector William. On this be went to the duke 
of Brunswick' who entertained him kindly, and he was soon " 
after invited to the divinity -professorship of Konigsberg, 
and in two years was ^appointed bishop there. He died 
1 587, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. He wrote a pro* 
digious number of works, principally commentaries on 
different parts of the Bible, and treatises on the contro- 
versies with the popish writers. He was esteemed a man 
of great learning, a profound theologian and lib (ess esti- 
mable in private life. He rankftiigh Among the promoters 
of the reformation in Germany. 1 

. WILCOCKS (Joseph), a late amiable and ingenious 
writer, was the only son of Dr. Joseph Wikocks, of whom 
we have the following particulars. He waa born in 1673, 
and was educated at Magdalen-eollege, Oxford, .where be 
formed a lasting friendship wi A Mr. Boulter, • afterwards 
primate of Ireland; Mr. WHcocks was chosen • a demy of 
his college at the same election with Boulter and Addison, 
and from the merit and learning of the elect, this was com- 
monly called by Dr. Hougb, president of the college, 
" the golden election." He was ordained by bishop Sprat, 
and while a young man, went chaplain to the -English fac- 
tory at Lisbon ; where, as in all the other scenes of his ' 
life, he acquired the public love and esteem, and was long 
remembered with grateful respect. While here, such was' 
his sympathy and his courage, that although he had not 
then had the small-pox, yet when that dreadful malady 
broke out in the factory, he constantly attended the sick 
and dying. On bis return to England, be Was appointed 
chaplain to George I. and preceptor to his royal grand- 
daughters, the children of George II. He also had a pre- 
bend of Westminster, and in 1721 was made bishop of 
Gloucester, the episcopal palace of which he repaired, 
which for a considerable time before had stood uninhabited; 
and thus he became the means of fixing the residence of 
future bishops in that see. In 1731 he was translated to 
the bishopric of Rochester, with which he held the deanry . 
of Westminster. Seated in this little diocese, he declined 

1 Melobior Adftfn.— • Freheri Thcatjrum — *^axii Ooomast* 

48 W I L C O C K S. 

any higher promotion, even that of the Archbishopric of 
York, frequently using the memorable expression of bi- 
shop Fisher, one of his predecessors, "Though this my 
wife be poor, I must not think of changing her for one 
more opulent." The magnificence of the west-front of 
Westminster-abbey, during his being dean, is recorded as 
a splendid monument of bis zeal for promoting public 
works, in suitable proportion to his station in life. He 
would doubtless have been equally zealous in adorning 
and enlarging his cathedral at Rochester, bad there T>een 
grouqd to hope for national assistance in that undertaking ; 
but its episcopal revenues were very inadequate to the ex- 
pence. He was constantly resident upon his diocese, and 
from the fatigue of bis last Visitation there, he contracted 
the illness which terminated his life by a gradual decay, 
March 9, 1756, aged eighty-three. He was buried in a 
vault in Westminster-abbey, under the consistory court, 
which he had built the year before, by permission from the 
Chapter. His son erected a monument for him next to 
that of Dr. Peeree. He married Jane, the daughter of 
John Milner, esq. sometime bis Britannic majesty's consul 
at Lisbon, who died in her twenty-eighth year. By her 
he bad Joseph, the more immediate subject of the present 

Mr. Joseph Wilcocks was born in Pean's-yard, West- 
minster, Jan. 4, 1723, during the time his father was bi- 
shop of Gloucester, and a prebendary of Westminster. In 
1736 he was admitted upon the foundation at Westminster- 
school, whence be was elected to Christ-church, Oxford 
in 1740, and proceeded regularly to the degree of M. A, 
in 1747. He very early distinguished himself at college, 
and obtained the second of three prizes before the end of 
the year he entered, the first of them being gained by his 
friend and contemporary, Mr. Markham, afterwards arch* 
bishop of York. As his estate was. considerable, he chose 
no particular profession, but devoted his property* to vari- 
ous acts of beneficence, and his time to study. He was 
particularly attentive to biblical learning, and to every 
thing that could promote the cause of piety. His humility 
and diffidence were carried rather to an extreme ; and from 
the same excess in the sensibility of his conscientious feel- 
irjgs, he forebore to act as a magistrate, having for a short 
time undertaken it as a justice, in the county of Berks. 
Having in early life paid his addresses to a lady whom his 




father deemed it imprudent for . him to marry in point ©f 
circumstances, he submitted to parental authority, but 
continued unmarried ever after. 

His mode of life, however, though exemplary in the 
highest degree, in point of conduct, is not one of those 
that furnish many or striking events ; and we cannot better 
hold forth that example to the imitation of others, than in 
the following artless narrative of one of his old servants. 
" One of his very amiable qualities was to consider him- 
self as a citizen of the world, and mankind in general as 
his brethren and friends ; consequently, he endeavoured to 
do them all the good in bis power. I think I may also 
safely say, the 'great rule of bis life and conduct was to be 
a true disciple and follower of all the beneficent actions of 
our Saviour, and to interweave bis examples into his daily 
exercise and practice. He used to rise early, and was a 
very great (Economist of his time; labouring to keep a 
most exact account of all his domestic concerns, and every 
thing that belonged tp his receipts and expenditure. Even 
his numerous gifts and charities, I believe, were daily 
committed to paper, and all looked over in the evening, 
and balanced, noting every error and deficiency ; and if 
he did not perceive be had done one or more acts of charity 
and beneficence, be thought he had lost a day. He w*s 
the most dutiful and affectionate son, the most kindnepbew, 
cousin, or relation to all who stood in any degree of kin- 
dred. To servants, workmen, and tenants, the most gentle 
and beneficent ; and to his poor neighbours an affectionate * 
father, paying for schooling for their children, and even 
erecting schools, which is, perhaps, too well known to re- 
quire mentioning. When travelling, he would inquire at 
the inns, who was in sickness or necessity in the place* 
leaving money for their relief. He frequently released 
debtors from prison, and had great charity to beggars. 
He frequently sent medical assistance to the sick, and gave 
large sums to hospitals; when abroad, he gave large sums 
also to poor convents, and to the necessitous of all coun- 
tries and religions. He was always ready to assist every 
increase or improvement of learning, witness the very large * 
and laborious share he took in assisting the collation of the 
Hebrew text of the Bible, by opening many of the foreign . 
Jibraries in Europe, through his interest and labour, and 
employing professors to collate at his own ex pence. His 
humanity to the brute creation was very great, and his 
Vol. XXXII. E 

W I L C O C K 8. 

tenderness even to insects. He preserved a reverential re- 
spect for the place of his nativity, for the places where he 
had received his education, and for those who had been 
companions of his youth ; likewise for the memory of those 
who had been in any way instrumental in forming bis mo- 
rals and perfecting bis learning ; and this was preserved 
even to their friends and posterity." 

These, and many other acts of beneficence, both of a 
public and private nature, the latter always performed 
with the utmost delicacy, are specified at large in the very 
interesting memoirs prefixed to the last edition of bis 
" Roman Conversations," by Mr. Bickerstafi, the successor 
of Mr. Brown, the bookseller, to whom he bequeathed that 
edition* with an express provision, " to indemnify him 
from anjr loss which might be incurred by the expences of 
the first edition." His classical taste, contracted by long 
reading, led him to Italy, and it appears to have been in 
the once ". metropolis of the world," that he laid the foun- 
dation of the " Roman Conversations," his principal work, 
which may justly be recommended to the young, and in-* 
deed to readers in general. In it he separates the truth of 
Roman history from the errors which disfigure it, bestow- 
ing just praise on the real patriots of Rome, and equally 
just censure on those whose patriotism was only feigned ; 
and distinguishing between the insidious arts of dema- 
gogues, and the integrity of true friends to the public. In 
nice investigations of character, he appears to be free 
from prejudice, attentive to truth, and often strikingly 
original in his remarks. The chief defect is a want of re- 
gard to style, and a prolixity of remark and digression, 
which perhaps will be more easily pardoued by the old 
than the young, for whom the work was chiefly calculated ; 
yet it is a work which cannot fail to be perused by every 
student of Roman history with the greatest advantage. It 
is calculated to excite religious and moral reflections on 
that history, and to adapt and direct the study of it to the 
best and wisest purposes of a Christian education. 

In the " Carmina Quad ragesira alia" are many good 
verses written by Mr. Wilcocks, who also was the compiler 
of the H Sacred Exercises," now in use at Westminster- 
school. We are not informed of any other publication 
from his pen, except a little piece in the Philosophical 
Transactions, vol. liii. entitled " An Account of some sub- 
terraneous Apartments, with Etruscan Inscriptions) and 

W I L C O C K S. Si 

paintings, discovered at CivitaTurchino, in Italy." These, 
we are told, were explored as here described, at the sole 
expence of our author^ 

Mr. Wilcocks died, of repeated attacks of the palsy, 
Dec. 23, 1791, at the close of his sixty-ninth year. He 
left behind him the " Roman Conversations" prepared for 
the press. They were composed by him, indeed, at an 
early period of his present majesty's reign ; but modest 
diffidence would not allow him to publish them in his life* 
time, otherwise than by printing off a few copies, which he 
distributed among his intimate., friends. With the hope,' 
however, that the work might be more extensively useful, 
and particularly to younger minds, he gave directions that 
it should appear soon after his decease. Accordingly, in 
May 1792, the first volume was published ; but, in conse- 
quence of a written injunction left by the worthy author, 
the second volume did not come out until a year after: 
In 1797, a new and much corrected edition was published 
by Mr. Bickerstaff, with memoirs of the author, to which 
we are indebted for the preceding sketch. Many particu- 
lars of Mr. Wilcocks's life are evidently, although under 
some disguise, interwoven in his " Roman Conversations." * 

WILD (Henry), a tailor, who, from an extraordinary 
love of study, became a professor of the Oriental lan- 
guages, was born in the city of Norwich about 1684, where 
he was educated at a grammar-school till he was almost 
qualified for the university ; but his friends, wanting for- 
tune and interest to maintain him there, bound him ap- 
prentice to a tailor, with whom he served seven years,' add 
afterwards worked seven years more as a journeyman. 
About the end*of the last seven years, he was seized with 
a fever and ague, which continued with him two or three 
years, and at Jast reduced him so low as to disable him 
from working at his trade. In this situation he amused 
himself with some old books of controversial divinity, in 
which he found great stress laid on the Hebrew original 
of several texts of scripture; and, though'he had almost 
lost the learning he had obtained at school, his strong de- 
sire of knowledge excited him to attempt to make himself 
master of that language. He was at first obliged to make 
use of an English Hebrew grammar and lexicon; but, by 

1 Memoirs ai above.— Brit Crit vok II. for 1793. — Maaniaf and Brajr't J 
HUt of Surrey, vol. I. ~. 

i ... 

£2 . . 

52 .WILD, 

degrees, recovered the knowledge of the Latin tongue, 
which he had learned at school. On the recovery, of his 
health, he divided his time between his business and hit 
studies, which last employed the greatest part of bis nights. 
Thus, self-taught, and assisted only by his great genius, 
he, by dint of continual application, added to the know* 
ledge of the Hebrew that of all or most of the oriental lan- 
guages, but still laboured in obscurity, till at length he 
was accidentally discovered. The worthy Dr. Prideanx, 
dean of Norwich, being offered some Arabic manuscripts 
in parchment, by a bookseller of that city, thinking, per- 
haps, that the price demanded for them was too great, 
declined buying them ; but, soon after, Mr. Wild bearing 
of them, purchased them ; and the dean, on calling at the 
shop and inquiring for the manuscripts, was informed of 
their being sold. Chagrined at this disappointment, he 
asked of the bookseller the name and profession of the per- 
son who had bought them ; and, being told he was a tailor, 
he bad him instantly to run and fetch them, if they were 
not cut in pieces to make measures : but he was soon re- 
lieved from his fears by Mr. Wild's appearance with the 
manuscripts, though, on the dean's inquiring whether he 
would part with them, he answered in the negative. The 
dean then asked hastily what he did with them: he replied, 
that he read them. He was desired to read them, which 
he did. He was then bid to render a passage or two into 
English, which he readily performed, and with great ex- 
- actness. Amazed at this, the dean, partly at his own ex- 
pence, and partly by a subscription raised among persona 
whose inclinations led them to this kind of knowledge, sent 
him to Oxford ; where, though he was never a member. of 
the university, be was by the dean's interest admitted into 
the Bodleian library, and employed for soma years in 
translating or making extracts out of Oriental manu- 
scripts, and thus bad adieu to bis needle. This appears 
to bare been some time before 1718. At Oxford, he, was 
known by the name of the Arabian tailor. He constantly 
attended the library all the hours it was open, and,, wbeti 
it was shut, employed most of his leisure-time hi teaching 
the Oriental languages to young gentlemen, at the mo-, 
derate price of half a guinea a lesson, except for the Ara- 
bic, for which he bad a guinea, and his subscriptions for 
teaching amounted to no more than 20 or 30/. a year. Un- 
happily for him, the branch of learning in which he ex- 

WILB. sa 

celled was cultivated bat by few; and the reverend jdr. 
Gagnier, a Frenchman, skilled in the Oriental tongues, 
was in possession of all the favours the university could be* 
stew in this way, being recommended by the heads of col- 
leges to instruct young gentlemen, and employed by the 
professors of those languages to read public lectures in 
their absence. 

Mr. Wild's person was thin and meagre, and his stature 
moderately tall. He had an extraordinary memory ; and, 
as his pupils frequently invited him Co spend an evening 
with them, be would often entertain them with long and 
curious details out of the Roman, Greek, and Arabic, his* 
tories. His morals were good ; he was addicted to no vice, 
but was sober, temperate, modest, and diffident of himself, 
without the least tincture of vanity. About 1720 he re* 
moved to London, where he spent th# remainder of his life 
under the patronage of Dr. Mead. When he died is not //Z/^fj 
known, but in 1734, which is supposed to have been 
after bis death, was published his translation from the Ara- 
bic of " Mahomet's Journey to Heaven," which is the only 
piece of bis that was ever printed. The writer of his life 
informs us that it was once suspected that be was a Jesuit 
in disguise, but for this there appears to have been no 
foundation. Before be went to Oxford, we have the fol- 
lowing notice respecting him- in a letter from Dr. Turner 
to Dr. Charlett, dated Norwich, March 4, J 7 1 4. '* A tay- 
lor of this town, of about thirty years of age, has within 
seven years, mastered seven languages, Latin, Greek, 
Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syriac, Arabic, and Persic. Mr. Pro- 
fessor Ockley being here since Christmas has examined 
him, and given him an ample testimonial in writing of his » 
skill in the Oriental languages. Our dean also thinks him 
very extraordinary. But he is very poor, and his landlord 
lately seized a Polyglot Bible (which he had made shift to 
purchase) for rent. But there is care taken to clear his 
debts, and if a way could be thought of to make him more 
useful, I believe we could get a subscription towards part 
of his maintenance." This we find by the above narrative 
was accordingly done. 1 

WILD (Robert), a nonconformist divine, poet, and 
wit, was born at St. Ives in Huntingdonshire in 1609, and 
was educated at the. university of Cambridge. In 1642 he 

* XJenU Mag. vol, XXV.—" Letters by Eminent Persons, " 3 vols. 8yo* 1811. 

S4 WILD. t 

yify created bachelor of divinity at Oxford, and, probably 
.had the degree of doctor there also, as he was generally 
called Dr. Wild. In 1646 he was appointed rector of 
Aynho in Northamptonshire, in the room of Or. Longman, 
ejected by the parliamentary visitors ; and on this occa- 
sion Calamy's editor gives us one of his witticisms. He 
and another divine had preached for the living, and Wild 
-being asked whether he or hi* competitor had got it, he 
answered " We have divided it ; I have got the AY, and 
lie the NO." Wood says he was. " a fat, jolly, and boon 
presbyterian," but Calamy asserts that those who knew 
him commended him not only for his facetiousness, but 
.also his strict temperance and sobriety ; and he was serious, 
where seriousness was wanted. He was ejected from 
Aynho at the restoration. He died at Oundle, in North* 
amptonshire in 1679, aged seventy. His works afford a 
curious mixture. 1. "The tragedy of Christopher Love 
at Tower-hill, 19 Lond. 1660, a poem in one sheet 4to. 
2. "Jter Boreale, attempting something upon the success- 
ful and matchless march of the L Gen. George Monk 
from Scotland to London," ibid. 1660, 4to, in ridicule of 
the republican party. This was at that time a favourite 
subject, and Wood mentions three other Iter Boreale' s by 
Eades, Corbet, and Master. 3. €t A poem on the impri- 
sonment of Mr. Edmund Calamy in Newgate," 1662, 
printed on a broad sheet, which produced two similar broad- 
sheets in answer, the one " Antiboreale, an answer to a 
jewd piece of poetry upon Mr. Calamy, &c." the other 
" Hudibras on Calamy's imprisonment and Wild's poetry .'• 
These, with his Iter Boreale, and other pieces of a similar 
♦ cast and very indifferent poetry, but with occasional 
flashes of genuine humour, were published together in 
1668 and 1670. Wood mentions "The Benefice, a co- 
medy," written in his younger years, but not printed till 
1689. Wood adds, that there " had like to have been'* a 
poetical war between Wild and Flax man, but how it ter- 
minated he knows not. Wild had the misfortune to have 
some of his poems printed along with some of lord Roches- 
ter's. He has a few sermons extant. 1 
' WILDBORE (Charles), an ingenious mathematician, 
was born in Nottinghamshire, and educated at the Blue 

1 Ath. Oi. vol. II.— Calamy by Palmer. — Keiiitula, vol. L where it an ax* 
tract Iron bit " Iter Boreale." 

W I L D B O R E. 35 

Coat school of Nottingham. Of his early history we have 
little information* but it appears tbat he kept an academy 
at Bingham, in the above county, for some years, and 
afterwards was preferred to the living of Sulney, where he 
died at an advanced age, Oct. 30, 1802. In his latter days 
be had a remarkably strong and retentive memory, as a 
proof of which, he told a friend that he made a common 
practice of solving the most abstruse questions in the ma- 
thematics without ever committing a single 6gure, &c. to 
paper till finished ; and, upon its being observed " bow 
much pen and paper might assist him I" he replied, " I 
have to thank God for a most retentive memory ; and so 
long as it is enabled to exercise its functions, it shall not 
have any assistance from art." When his mind was occu- 
pied * in close study, he always walked to and fro in an 
obscure part of his garden, where be could neither see nor 
be seen of any one, and frequently paced, in this manner, 
several miles in a day. 

Though so skilful in mathematics, he did not favour the 
world with any separate publication bearing his own name, 
and often used the signature of Eumenes ; but he poured 
much light upon the regions of science through the medium 
of those periodical publications which are chiefly devoted 
to mathematical researches. He contributed a number of 
valuable articles to Martin' 9 " Miscellaneous Correspond- 
ence," between the years 1755 and 1763, particularly ah 
excellent paper, in which be made it his business to prove 
that the moon's orbit was always concave, with respect to 
the sun. He began his contributions to the " Gentleman's 
Diary" in 1759, when that performance was conducted by 
Mr. T. Peat. In the same year be commenced his com- 
.murjications to the '* Ladies' Diary," which was edited by. 
professor Simpson, of Woolwich. In 1773 and 1774 be 
carried op a spirited but amicable controversy, in Dr. Hut- 
ton's " Miscellanea Mathematica," with Mr. John Dawson, 
of Sedbergb, a gentleman well knpwn at Cambridge, and 
the tutor of many pupils who have been senior- wranglers 
of that university. The subject of this controversy was 
"the velocity of w&ter issuing from a vessel when put in 
motion." In 1780 his friend Dr. Hutton procured for him 
the editorship of the " Gentleman's Diary," an honqiir 
which he had long wished to attain, and he was highly gra- 
tified by the circumstance. From that period his valuable 
communications to this publication always appeared under 


the character of Eumeues, and chose in the Ladies 9 Diary 
under that of Amicus. The prize-question in the Diary 
for 1803 is by Mr. Wildbore, and is a very curious and in- 
tricate question in the diophantine algebra. 

.At an early period of life he was a reviewer of the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, in which trust, as well as several 
others committed to his care and inspection, he so well ac- 
quitted himself, that he was solicited to become a member of 
the royal society ; bat this honour he very modestly de- 
clined, in a letter to the then president, remarking, amongst 
other things, " that his ambition had never led him to visit 
the metropolis ; and if he accepted the honour of being 
one of that learned society, he should wish, not to be a 
passive, but an active member ; to be which he supposed 
that it would be necessary for him to come forward m the 
world, which he had not the least inclination to do, pre- 
ferring bis village retirement, infinitely beyond the 4 busy 
hum of men, 9 and to be styled ' the bumble village pas- 
tor, 9 without the addition of the initials F. R. S." He was 
intimately acquainted, by correspondence, with many learn- 
ed men (for he scarcely ever saw any of them), particularly 
with Dr. Hutton, for whom he entertained a very high 
esteem. ' 

WILDE, or WYLD (John), a lawyer, and a very pro- 
minent character during the usurpation, was the eldest son 
of a lawyer, as bis father is said to have been serjeant George 
Wilde of Droitwich, in Worcestershire. He was of Baliol 
college, Oxford, and in 1610, when he took his degree of 
M, A. was a student in the Inner Temple. . Of this society 
he became Lent reader 6 Car. I. afterwards a serjeant at 
law, one of the commissioners of the great seal in 1643, 
and in Oct. 1648, chief baron of the exchequer, and one 
of the council of state. In 1641 he drew up the impeach- 
ment against the bishops, and presented it to the House 
of Lords, and was prime manager not only in that, but on 
the trial of archbishop Laud. "He was the same aho," 
says Wood, " who, upon the command, or rather desire, 
of the great men sitting at Westminster, did condemn to 
death at Winchester one captain John Burley, for causing 
a drum to be beat up for God and king Charles, at New-* 
port, in the Isle of Wight, in order to rescue his captive 

i Gent. Mag. toI. LXXI1, 

WILDE. 57 

king in 1647." Wood adds, that after the execution of 
Burley, Wilde was rewarded with 1000/. out of the privy 
purse at Derby-house, and had the same sum for saving 
the life of major Edmund Rolph, who had a design to have 
murdered the king. When Oliver became protector " he 
retired and acted not/' but after Richard Cromwell had 
been deposed he was restored to the exchequer. On the 
restoration he was of course obliged to resign again, and 
lived in retirement at Hampstead, where he died about 
1669, and was buried at Wherwill, in Hampshire, the 
seat of Charles lord Delawar, who had married his daughter. 
Wilde married Anne, daughter of sir Thomas Harry, of 
Tonge castle, serjeant at law and baronet, who died in 
1624,: aged only sixteen, " being newly delivered of her 
first born." She lies buried in Tonge church, in Staf- 

Such are the particulars Wood has given of this lawyer, 
and they are in general supported by Clarendon and other 
contemporary authorities, and attempted to be contra- 
dicted only byOldmixon and Neal. Oldmixon's evidence 
will not be thought to weigh much against Clarendon's. 
Neal calls him " A great lawyer, and of unblemished mo-, 
rals ; and after the restoration of king Charles II. was made 
lord chief baron, and esteemed a grave and venerable 
judge." But it is grossly improbable that such a man 
should have been thus promoted, and it is besides ex- 
pressly contrary to fact, for sir Orlando Bridge man was 
chief baron at the trial of the regicides, and was succeeded 
by judge Hale. It was the rump parliament only who be- 
stowed the honour on Wilde. 

Neal, perhaps, we know others have, confounded his 
favourite hero, serjeant Wilde, which was his only legiti- 
mate title, with sir William Wild, who was recorder of 
London in 1659, created a baronet Sept. 13, 1660, ap- 
pointed king' 8 serjeant Nov. 10, 1661, and made one of 
the justices of the common pleas in 1668. He was ad- 
vanced to be a justice of the court of king's bench Jan. 21, 
1672. In 1661 and 1674 he published " Yelverton's Re- 
ports," in French. He died Nov. 23, 1679, leaving issue 
sir Felix Wilde, of fit. Clement Danes, in Middlesex, ban. 
The title is now extinct. Sir William Wilde was indeed 
"a grave and venerable judge," and it must not be forgot 
to his honour, that, because he disbelieved the evidence 


of the perjured Bedloe, in the popish plot, he was de- 
prived of his office a few months before his death. ' 

WILKES (John), a very singular political character in 
the earl) part of the presept reign, was born Oct. 17, 1727, 
O. s. in St. John's street, Clerkenwell, where his father, 
Nathaniel, carried on in a very extensive way the trade 
of a distiller, and lived in the true style of ancient English 
hospitality, to which both he and his lady were always par* 
ticularly attentive. Their house was consequently much 
frequented, particularly by many characters of distin- 
guished rank in the commercial and literary world- It was 
in such society that their son John imbibed that taste for 
letters which he continued to cultivate through life. His 
education, therefore, though liberal, was domestic ; and, 
though not severe, yet sufficiently sober. . His philosophy 
(that of enjoying the world, and passing laughingly through 
it) was all his own, and adopted in compliance with his 
view of human nature. And this he was himself very will- 
ing to have believed. His parents (one of them at least) 
were not of the church of England ; and Mr. Wilkes hav- 
ing passed his school years partly at Hertford, and partly 
in Buckinghamshire, was sent, not to either of our English 
universities, but with a private tutor, to the university of 
Leyden, where his talents attracted much notice. 

In 1749 he married Miss Mead, heiress of the Meads 
of Buckinghamshire, from which marriage probably ori- 
ginated his connection with that county. This lady was 
about ten years older than himself, that is, about thirty- 
two. Their dispositions, we are told, were perfectly dis- 
similar, yet he treated her for a time with decent respect* 
Afterwards he became quite alienated from her, and a final 
separation took place in 17 57. ' So depraved were his mo- 
rals, and so destitute was he of a sense of honour, that 
amidst the distresses' which his loose pleasures brought 

x upon him, he endeavoured to defraud this lady of the an- 
nuity stipulated in, the articles of separation ; but this was 
prevented by a law-suit. In April 1754, be offered him- 
self as a candidate tp represent in parliament the borough 

of Berwick, and addressed the electors in terms hot ill 
according with that political spirit which afterwards marked 
his public conduct. He was not, however, successful, but 

* Ath. Ox. vol. t.— Gent. Mag. vol*. LH. LIH. and UV,— Neal's Puritans, 
and Giey't Examination, vol. III. — Heylyn'a Ex amen Histortcum. — Clarendon. ' 
-—Burnet'! Own Times* 

W.ILK E S. 59 

in July 1757, was elected burgess for Aylesbury, and was 
again chosen at the general election in 1761 for the same 
place. Before this period he had formed connections with 
?arious men of rank, but not of the purest character for 
morals, who seem to have admitted him into their society 
as a companion who was not likely to4ay them under any 
restraint. He had, however, formed some connections of 
a better stamp. It appears that, as early as 1754 be was 
known to lord Temple, and to Mr. Pitt, afterwards l6rd 
Chatham. ♦ 

In 1762 he began to engage in political discussion. In 
March of that year he published " Observations on the 
papers relative to the rupture with Spain, laid before both 
bouses of parliament on Friday, Jan. 29, 1762." As much 
of bis information on this subject was supplied by lord 
Temple (who, with Mr. Pitt, had retired from the cabinet 
ia consequence of a negative being put upon their propo- 
sition for an immediate war with Spain) the success of this 
pamphlet is little to be wondered at; , As he did not put 
his name to it, it was ascribed to Dr. Douglas, or Mr. Mau- 
duit, by the sly suggestions of the real author. In the 
beginning of June following he commenced his celebrated 
paper called " The North Briton." /The purpose of this 
was ostensibly to expose the errors of* the then ministry, 
and hold them up to public contempt, but really, to give 
the author that sort of consequence: that: might lead to ad- 
vantages which his extravagant mode of living had by this 
time rendered necessary. We have his own word that he 
had determined to take advantage of the times and to make 
his fortune, and that he soon formed an idea of what would 
silence and satisfy him. " If government," says he, " means 
jpeace or friendship with me, I then breathe no longer hos- 
tility. And, between ourselves, if they would send me 
ambassador to Constantinople, it is all T should wish." — 
Again, " It depends on them (the ministry) whether Mr. 
Wilkes is their friend or their enemy. If he starts as the 
latter, he will lash them with scorpions, and they are al- 
ready prepared ; I wish, however, we may be friends ; and 
I had. rather follow the plan I had marked out in my letter 
frpm Geneva," alluding to the embassy to Constantinople. 
In a subsequent letter he says, " If the ministers do not 
find employment for me, I am disposed to find employ- 
ment for them." In these extracts we have anticipated the 
order of tiinf, for they were written in 1764, when he was 


an exile, but they are necessarily introduced here io unfold 
the real character of Mr. Wilkes, and to determine to what 
species of patriots he belonged. We see at the same time 
here how very near the most popular character of the age 
was to dropping into comparative obscurity, and at what a 
cheap rate the ministry might hate averted the hostility of 
Wilkes, and all its consequences, which we have always 
considered as rqore hurtful than beneficial to his country. 

In the mean time be went on publishing bis " North 
Britons, 9 ' which, although written in an acute and popular 
style, and unquestionably very galling to ministers, had 
not produced any great commotion, nor seemed likely to 
answer the author's purpose. Ministerial writers were em- 
ployed to write against him, and in this way a literary war- 
fare might have gone on for years, without any of the con- 
sequences he expected. One duel, indeed, he had with 
lord Talbot, but neither party was hurt, and Wilkes was 
not benefited. At length, therefore, he began to think he 
had been too tame, or that ministers were become too caU 
lous, and with a view *to a provocation, which could not 
fail to irritate, he made a rude attack on his majesty in No. 
45 of the " North Briton, 9 ' which appeared on the 23d of 
April 1763, and on the morning of the 30th Mr. Wilkes was 
served by a king's messenger with a general warrant, in 
consequence of which he was on the same morning con- 
veyed to the Tower. That " a warrant to apprehend and 
seize, together with their papers, the authors, printers, 
and publishers of a work," without naming who those au- 
thors, printers, and publishers were even suspected to be, 
has an appearance of illegality, cannot be denied. But in 
justice to the secretaries of state who signed it, it should 
be remembered, that for a hundred years the practice of 
their office had been to issue such ; and that in so doing 
tbey did no more than what precedents seemed to justify. 
That they did not, however, in this case, act wisely the 
event shewed. Upon his commitment to the Tower, an 
application was instantly made to the court of common 
pleas for his habeas corpus, and he was brought up on the 
3d of May. % On the 4th he was dismissed from his situa- 
tion as colonel of the Buckinghamshire militia. On the 
6th the validity of his warrant of commitment was argued, 
his plea -of privilege was allowed, and he was in consequence 
discharged. He immediately erected a printing-press in 
bis house in George-street, published a narrative of the 


transactions in which he had been engaged, and renewed 
the publication of the " North Briton/' 'He visited Paris 
a few months after, and was there challenged, ip the month 
of August, by a captain Forbes, who, standing forth as 
the champion of Scotland, asked satisfaction of him, as the 
editor and conductor of the " Nortb Briton/' for the ca- 
lumnies heaped upon his native country. Mr. Wilkes be- 
haved on this occasion with much moderation, and declared 
himself no prize-fighter. Being again urged, however, 
though in terms of politeness, he half complied, but being 
in the mean while put under an arrest, he pledged his ho-, 
nour not to fight on French ground. When set at liberty 
he proceeded to Menin, and there awaited bis challenger, 
but no meeting took place; 

The winter now advancing, Mr. Wilkes returned to 
England, previous to the opening of parliament, and re- 
sumed his labours in the " North Briton," which soon after 
involved bim in another duel with Mr. Martin, member for 
Camelford, and late secretary Ml the treasury. In this 
Wilkes received a dangerous wound in the groin ; but ap- 
peared in. parliament on the first day of the session, and 
bad risen to address the chair of the speaker on the subject 
of bis privilege, as a member of that bouse, having been 
violated. It bad usually been considered aa the established 
custom of parliament to enter upon the discussion of 
breaches of privileges before alt other matters. In this in- 
stance the custom was overruled, and a message from the 
sovereign was conveyed to the commons, informing them, 
that J. Wilkes, esq. was the author of a most seditious and 
dangerous paper, and acquainting them with the measures 
which had been resorted to by the servants of the crown. 
The house, the proofs of the libel being entered upon, pro- 
ceeded to vote, that No. 45 of the " North Britain" was, 
as it had been represented to be, a false, scandalous, and 
malieious libel, &c. and it was ordered to be burnt by the 
common hangman. A day having been appointed for the 
hearing of Mr. Wilkes's defence against the charge of 
being the. author of the libel, be thought it proper to ac- 
quaint the house of the incapacity occasioned by his 
wound, and further time Was in consequence' allowed him. 
The bouse, however, suspecting some unnecessary delay, 
appointed Dr. Heberden and Mr. Hawkins to attend him, 
in addition to his own physician and surgeon ; and further, 
ordered them to report the state of his health. Mr. Wilkes 


politely rejected the offer of their visit. The house, hi 
said, bad desired! them to visit him, but had forgotten to 
desire him to receive them, which he most certainly should 
not. At the same time, in vindication of the professional 
gentlemen whom he himself had employed, he sent for 
Dr. Duncan, one of his majesty's physicians in ordinary, 
and Mr. Myddleton, one of bis majesty's serjeaut-surgeons, 
humorously telling them, that as the House of Common* 
thought it fit that he should be watched, he himself thought 
two Scotchmen most proper for his spies. About a week 
after he suddenly withdrew to France ; a retreat which 
prudence rendered very necessary, his circumstances being 
very much involved. 

From Paris, where he sought ad asylum, he certified to 
the speaker of the House of Commons, by the signatures 
of the physician of the king of France, and other gentle- 
men, his confinement to his room, and the impossibility, 
from his state of health, of his venturing to undertake the 
journey back to England. • In the mean time, although the 
House of Commons had neglected his complaint of pri- 
vilege, be derived bis first considerable triumph from the 
verdict found for him in' the court of common pleas. He 
had early brought bis action against Robert Wood, esq.' 
the under secretary of state, for the seizure of his papers/ 
as the supposed author of the " North Briton." It was 
tried before a special jury dn the 6th of December, and 
lOOOl. damages were given. The charge to the jury, de- 
livered by lord chief justice Pratt, concluded thus : "This 
warrant is unconstitutional, illegal, and absolutely void ; 
it is a general warrant, directed to four messengers, to 
take up any persons, without naming or describing there- 
with any certainty, and to apprehend them together with- 
their papers. If it be good, a secretary of state can dele* 
gate and depute any of the messengers, or any even from 
the lowest of the people, to take examinations, to commit, 
or to release, and do every act which the highest judicial 
officers the law knows, can do or order. There is no or- 
der in our law-books that mentions these kinds of warrants, 
but several that in express words condemn them. Upon 
tbe-maturest consideration, I am bold to say, that this 
warrant is illegal ; but I am far from wishing a matter of 
this consequence to rest solely on my opinion ; I am only 
one of twelve, whose opinions I am desirous should be 
taken in this matter, and I am very willing to allow myself - 


tb be the A meanest of the twelve. There is also a still 
higher court, before which this matter may be canvassed, 
and whose determination is final ; and here I cannot help 
observing the happiness of our constitution in admitting 
these appeals, in consequence of which, material points 
are determined on the most mature consideration, and with 
the greatest solemnity. To this admirable delay of the 
law (for in this case the law's delay may be st>ied ad- 
mirable) I believe it is chiefly owing that we possess the 
best digested, and most excellent body of law which any 
nation on the face of the globe, whether ancient or modern, 
could ever boast. If these higher jurisdictions should de- 
clare my op ; nion erroneous, I submit, as will become me, 
and kiss the rod ; but I must say, 1 shall always consider 
it as a rod of iron for the chastisement of the people of 
Great Britain." 

• We have already mentioned in our account of lord Cam- 
den bow very popular this decisiou made him throughout 
the kingdom, and the same enthusiasm made it be consi- 
dered as a complete triumph on the part of Mr. Wilkes, 
who, however, perhaps, thought differently of it, conscious 
that he had other battles to fight in which he might not be 
so ably supported. On Jan. 10, 1764, he was expelled 
from the House of Commons ; and on Feb. 2 1 was con- 
victed in the court of King's Bench for re-publishing the 
" North Briton, No. 45," and also upon a second indict- 
ment, for printing and publishing an " Essay on Woman/ 1 
This was an obscene poem which he printed at his private 
press, but can scarcely be said to have published it, as be 
printed only a very small number of copies (about twelve) 
to give away to certain friends. The great offence was 
(and this was complained of in the House of Lords), that 
he had annexed the name of bishop Warburton to this infa- 
mous poem, and it was hoped, by the ministry, that hold- 
ing Mr. Wilkes forth as a profligate, might cure the public 
of that dangerous and overpowering popularity they were 
about to honour him with. But this was another of their 
erroneous calculations. The populace at this time, at least . 
the populace of London, were more anxious about general 
warrants, which might affect one in ten thousand, than' 
about morals, which are the concern of all ; and. even some 
of the better sort could see no immediate connection be* : 
tween Wilkes's moral and political offences. 
Ja the mean time being found guilty on both in forma- 


tions, and neglecting to make any personal appearance, 
when called upon to receive the judgment of the court of 
King's Bench, he was, towards the close of the year, out- 
lawed. He had again repaired to France, whence he ad- 
dressed a letter, in defence of his conduct, to the electors 
of Aylesbury, which, like all his publications, was read 
with much avidity. It was in this year (1764), and when 
at Paris, that he addressed those letters to his friends, of 
which we have already given extracts, to prove J:bat, what- 
ever his popularity, be bad no very high expectations from 
it, .and had sense enough to perceive that his deranged 
circumstances could be restored only by making peace 
with administration. His terms, we have seen, were not 
exorbitant, and might probably have been agreed to, had 
they been known, which it is doubtful whether they were. 

The years 1765 and 1766 he passed in a journey 
through Italy. But as he knew too well the nature of the 
multitude, not to be aware that a long retirement would 
soon cause him to be forgotten, even by those whose sym- 
pathy in bis favour was most warm, when the duke of 
Grafton became minister, towards the end of 1766, Mr. 
Wilkes solicited, in a letter to him, the clemency of his 
sovereign -, and finding his address but faintly listened to, 
be, in a second letter to the same nobleman, again called 
the public attention to his case. He endeavoured .also to 
keep bis name alive, by publishing in 1767, " A collection 
of the genuine Papers, Letters, &c. in the Case of J.Wilkes, 
late member for Aylesbury in the county of Bucks ; & Pa- 
ris, chczJ. W. imprimeur, Rue du Columbier, Fauxburgh 
St, Germain, & F Hotel de Saxe" In 1768 he again ap- 
peared personally upon the theatre of public action. On 
the 4tb of March he addressed a letter of submission to the 
king, which was -delivered, by his servant at Buckingham 
Gate. This, like his first letter to the duke of Grafton, 
supplieated pardon, which one of his biographers says be 
was enabled to do without meanness, because " in no one 
syllable of his otherwise offensive publications had he of- 
fended against the personal respect due to the prince on 
the throne." But this writer surely forgets the obvious 
tenour of his No. 45, as well as the repeated and atrocious 
attacks be made on the princess dowager, his majesty's 
mother. • ' 

No attention was paid to this petition, and probably he 
had no great reliance on it, but as he had so long been the 

W i L K £ S. u 

Idol of the people of London, on the 16tb of the tame 
month, be offered himself a candidate to represent the city 
of London, In this he did not succeed, although at the 
close of the poll on the 23d be was found to have polled 
1247 votes. Not disheartened at this failure, he iogme-* 
diately declared bis intention of becoming a candidate fotf 
the county of Middlesex, and on the 98tb was chosen by a 
vast majority. On the 27th of April he was taken up on a 
capias utlagatum, and committed to the King's Bench, and 
on the 18th of June was sentenced, on the two verdicts 
against him, .to be imprisoned twenty«two months, to pay 
two fines of 500/. each, and to give security for his good 
behaviour for sevenyefers, himself in 1000/. and two sure- 
ties in 500/. each. This judgment wps far milder than had 
been expected by the public, and it is said that Mr. Wilkes 
might have made bis peace with government at this time, 
but one condition was proposed to him in which he could 
not concur, namely, not to present a petition relative td his 
case, which be bad tol^the freeholders of Middlesex he » 
should present. He conceived that a public pledge had 
beeo given to the contrary, and from this public pledge be 
resolved not to withdraw. The petition was accordingly 
laid before the House on the following day by sir J. 
Mawbey, and was received as the declaration of a second 

On the 10th of May, 1768, the populace had assemble^ 
in great numbers about the neighbourhood of the King's 
Bench prison, where Mr. Wilkes was in confinement. The 
riot-act was read by the justices of Surrey, and tkfe mob 
not dispersing, the military was ordered to fire : several 
persons were slightly wounded, some more seriously, and 
one was killed on the spot. jLord Weymouth, the secre* 
tary of state, bad written to the magistrates a letter dated 
April 17, exhorting them to firmness in the suppression of 
any popular tumult which might arise : and lord Barring** 
ton, -the secretary at war, returned thanks, after the lOfctf 
of May, in the name of his majesty, to the officers and 
soldiers of thai regiment of guards, which had been em- 
ployed upon the occasion. These two letters were trans**, 
mined to the newspapers by Mr. Wilkes, accompanied 
with some prefatory remarks, in which he termed the un- 
happy transaction a massacre. Of these remarks he avowed 
himself, at the bar of the House of Commons, tq be the 
luthor. The remark* were voted libellous, and be, as rbe 


§& WILKE& 

author of them, was expelled ; bat his conduct appearing 
still more meritorious in the eyes of his constituents, he 
was re-chosen on the 16th of February, 1769, without op- 
position* On the following day be was declared by a ma-' 
jority of the House of Commons ineapahle of being elected 
into that parliament, and the election was vacated, upon* 
the principle that the expulsion of a member of parliament 
was equivalent to exclusion ; . but notwithstanding this re- 
solution, he was a third time elected, again without oppo- 
sition ; a Mr. Dingley indeed offering himself as a candi- 
date, but without the least success. In April, Wilkes waft 
elected a fourth time by a majority of 1143 votes against 
Mr. Luttrel), a new candidate who had only 296, and the 
same day the House of 'Commons confirmed Mr. LuttrelPs 
election. These proceedings were not carried on, how* 
ever, without long discussions in the House,, and a warn* 
controversy from the press, in which many eminent writers 
took a part. 

In the mean time, Wilkes, now within the walls of the 
King's Bench, was approaching nearer to those substantial 
rewards which he valued more than the empty .noise of a 
triumph. From the time of bis first election for Middlesex 
in March 1768, through the whole of 176-9, and even far 
into 1772, he was the sole unrivalled political idol of the 
people, who lavished upon him all in their power to be* 
stow, as if willing to prove that in England it was possible 
for an individual to be great and important through them 
alone. A subscription was opened, for the payment of his 
debts, and 20,000/. are said in a few weeks to have been 
raised for that purpose, and for the discharging his fine* 
A newly established society for the support of the " Bill of 
Rights 9 ' presented him with 300/. Gifts of plate, of wise, 
of household goods, were daily heaped upon hkn, A» 
unknown patriot conveyed to him in a handsomely em- 
broidered purse five hundred guineas. An honest chan- 
dler enriched him with a box containing of candles, the 
magic number of dozens, forty-five. High and low con- 
tended with each other who most should serve and celebrate 
him. Devices and emblems of all descriptions ornamented 
the trinkets conveyed to his prison : the most usual was the 
cap of liberty placed over his crest : upon others was a 
bird with expanded wings, hovering over a cage, beneath 
a motto, " I love liberty. 9 * Every wall bore his name, and 
•very window his portrait. In china, in bronze, in rsaxble, 

W I L fc E S. iS? 

be stood upon the cbiiriney-piece of half the houses in the 
metropolis : add he swung upon the sign-post of every 
Tillage, and of every great road throughout the environs df 

In November l?69, he brought his action, tfhich had 
been prevented by his absehce abroad, against lord Hali- 
fax, for false imprisonment, and the seizure of his papers, 
and obtained a verdict of 4000/. On the 17th of April, 
1770, be was discharged from bis imprisonment. On the 
24th be was sworn as alderman of the ward of Farringdcm 
Without. It was, however, soon discovered that there was 
a difference of opinion in many points between him and 
several of bis former friends* Early in 1771 a rupture be- 
tween him and Mr. Home (afterwards Home Tooke) pro-* 
duced hostilities in the newspapers, and both parties ex- 
erted their abilities in abusing eadh other with much acri- 
mony, to the great entertainment of the public, though 
little to their own credit. After some time it was found 
that the world was perverse enough to believe both the 
gentlemen in their unfavourable representatifcrv of each 
other. Mr. Wilkes soon saw this effect of the controversy, 
and wisely withdrew from it on being chosen sheriff on the 
3d of July, 1771. His antagonist also, being left to him- 
self without an opponent, and feeling the disgrace which 
he had brought on ' himself, also prudently and silently 
quitted the field, discomfited and disappointed. 

On the 8tb of October, 1772, Mr. Wilkes was by the 
livery elected one of the persons to be selected for lord 
mayor, but was not chosen by the court of aldermen ; and 
the same circumstance happened the succeeding year. On 
the third year (1774) he was again elected in the same man- 
ner, and approved by the court of aldermen. On the 20tb 
of October he was again elected member for the county of 
Middlesex, and was permitted to take his seat without mo- 
lestation. The popularity which he had hitherto enjoyed 
was now to suffer some diminution. In the beginning of 
1776 sir Stephen Theodore Janssen resigned the office of 
chamberlain, and Mr. Wilkes was a candidate to succeed 
kitn ; when, notwithstanding every exertion in his favour, 
and every art employed, he lost his election, and Mr. alder- 
man Hopkins was chosen, by a majority of 177. He made 
another effort in the succeeding year with equal ill success; ' 
and on a third attempt in 1778, was again rejected, having 
only 287 votes against 1216. His situation at this time was 

* F 2 


.W 1 I * E S. 

.truly melancholy : bis interest in the city appeared to be 
lost; a motion to pay bis debts had been rejected in the 
common council ; he was involved in difficulties of various 
kinds ; his creditors were clamorous ; and such of his pro- 

Eerty which could be ascertaiued, and amongst the rest 
is books, had been taken in execution : those who for- 
merly supported him were become cold to bis solicitations, 
and languid in their exertions* and the clouds of adversity 
seemed to gather round him on every side, without a ray 
of light to cheer bim. While in this forlorn state, Mr, Hop- 
kins died in 1779, and Mr. Wilkes at length obtained an 
establishment, which, pro6tipg by experience, rendered 
the remainder of his life easy a.nd comfortable. On the 1st 
of December be was chosen chamberlain, by a majority of 
1972 votes, and continued to fill the office with credit to 
himself, and to tbe satisfaction of his constituents, during 
the rest of his life, in spite of some feeble attempts at op* 
position to him. 

In 1782, upon the dismission from office of tbe mi* 
lusters yyho conducted the war against America, 'the ob- 
noxious resolutions against him were, at length, upon his 
own motion, expunged from tbe journals. This was the 
crown of those political labours, which more immediately 
poiicerned bi? own personal actions. He thenceforward 
deemed bimsplf '* a fire burnt out." His popularity was 
fast decaying, and although he tQok the popular aide in the 
Contest betwixt Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox. in 1783, and thereby 
secured bis election in 1784, be did not venture to be a 
candidate in the general election of 1790. That be was 

tiretty wpll tired pf " his followers," appears from a short 
etter to his daughter, written in 1784, in which be says, 
" yesterday was sacred to the powers of dullness, and the. 
anniversary meeting of the Quintuple Alliance* when I was 
obliged to eat stale fish, and swallow sour port, with sir 
£ecil Wray, JWr. Martin the banker, Dr. J ebb, & c , to pro* 
mote the grand refprn> of parliament. I was forced into 
the chair, ancj was so far happy as to be highly applauded, 
both for a long speech, %nd my conduct as president through 
PO arduous day. I have not, however, authenticated to the 
public any account of tbe day's proceeding, nor given to 
the press the various new-fangled toasts which were the 
amusement of tbe hour, and should perish with it." This 

* Apolitical club not 09V f xistinf. 


Insincerity he was at no pains tp disguise, and after he had 
obtained hb wishes as to situation, he appeared always suf- 
ficiently candid in ridiculing the persons who had brought 
bini to it. 

Though now far advanced in years, he shewed no decay 
6f intellect His ahott congratulatory addresses spoken ai 
chamberlain to those public characters, who received be-* 
tween 1790 and 1797 the freedom of the city, were his last 
public exertions. He died Dec. 26, 1797, aged seventy, at 
his house in Grostenaj-aqtfare ; and his remains were in- 
terred m a vault in Grosvenor chapel, South Audley-street, 
according t6 the directions of his will, being near to where 
he died. A hearse and three mourning-coaches, and Miss 
Wilkes's coabh, formed the cavalcade ; and eight labouring 
men, dressed in new black cloaths, bore the deceased to 
the place of interment, for which each tnan received a 
guinea besides the suit of cloaths. He has also directed 
a tablet to be placed to his memory, with these few lines : 

'The Rsmaiks 

John wilkes, 

A FaiBND to Liberty. 
Boin At London, Oct. 17> 1737, 0,S. 


Mr. Wilkes left behind him a daughter, Mai^r, the' off- 
Spring of his marriage With Miss Mead; Miss Wilkes sur- 
vived her father but a few years', she died the 1 2th of March 
1802, aged fifty-one. He left abo two natural children, 
but scarcely any property. 

Wilkes was perhaps the most popular political charac 
ter that ever had been known, or perhaps wilt ever be known 
again, for, by imposing on the credulity, he has added to 
the experience of mankind, and it will be difficult, although 
we have seen it tried, for any other pretender to imitate 
Wilkes with equal effect At one period of his life, he ob- 
tained a very dangerous influence over the minds of the 
people ; bis name was sufficient to blow up the flames of 
sedition, and excite the lower orders of the community to 
acts of violence against his opponents in a manner 'some- 
thing allied to madness. After great vicissitudes of fdrtune, 
he round himself placed in a state of independence and af- 
fluence; gradually declined from the popularity he had 
acquired, and at last terminated a turbulent life in a state 
of neglected quiet. Reviewing the present state of the 

to WIU E S. 

Country, atid comparing it with that in which he begad bi# 
exertions, though some advantages may be placed to hia 
account) we hesitate in giving him credit for those bene- 
ficial consequences which his admirers are apt to ascribe 
to him. We believe he was a patriot chiefly from accident, 
a successful one it must be owned, but not originating in 
principle. This was thought even in his life- time, but it 
has been amply confirmed by two publications which have 
since appeared ; the one " Letters from the year 1774 to< 
the year 1796 of John Wilkes, esq. addressed to his daugh- 
ter," 1804, 4 vols. 12mo, with a well- written memoir of bis 
life, of which we have occasionally availed ourselves ; the 
second, " The Correspondence of John Wilkw, esq. with 
his friends, printed from the original manuscripts, in which 
are introduced Memoirs of his Life, by John Almon," 1 805, 
6 vols. 8vo, a publication in which Mr.. Almon is the great- 
est admirer and the greatest enemy to Mr. Wilkes's charac- 
ter he ever bad. 

Of Wilkes's private character, blackened, with no sparing 
hand, in the latter of these publications, there are parts 
which always conciliated esteem. He was a gentleman of 
elegant manners, of fine taste, and of pleasing conversa- 
tion* Amidst all the vicissitudes of his life, he spared dome 
hours for the cultivation of classical learning, and in 1790, 
paid his worthy deputy (of the ward) John Nichols, esq. 
whom he highly and deservedly esteemed, the compliment 
. of publishing from his press, for the use only of particular . 
friends, splendid editions of the characters of Tbeophrastus 
aod the poems of Catullus; and he had also made considerable 
progress in a translation of Anacr^on. His own letters and 
speeches were collected in 1769, 3 vols. l2mo, his speeches, 
by himself, in 1787, 1 vol. 8vo, to which, in 1788, he added 
a single speech in defence of bis excellent friend, Mr. 
•Hastings; on which be justly prided himself; it being, 
perhaps, the ablest exculpation of that gentleman which has 
appeared in print. Many other of his occasional effusions 
are scattered through the newspapers and magazines of the 
day, and the principal have been reprinted in Mr. Almon'a 
book. 1 

WILKES (Richard), an English antiquary and physi- 
cian, was the eldest son of Mr. Richard Wilkes, of Willen- 


1 Almon'* &rreipondeace.-»and « Letters" nborcmeatiooed,— Qent, Mar, 
1798, fee. 


fall, in the county of Stafford, a gentleman who lived apon 
his own estate, and wiiere his ancestors had been seated 
since the time of Edward IV. His mother was Lucretia, 
youngest daughter of Jonas Asteley, of Woodeaton, in Staf- 
fordshire, an ancient and respectable family. He was born 
March 16, 1690-91, and had his school-education at Trent- 
ham. He was entered of St. John's college, Cambridge, 
March 13, 1709- 10, and was admitted scholar in 1 7 10. On 
April 6, 1711, he attended Mr. Sauoderson's mathematical • 
lectures, and ever after continued a particular friendship 
with that gentleman. In the preface to " Saunderson's 
Elements of Algebra," the reader is told, that whatever 
materials had been got together for publishing Saunder* 
son's life, had been received, among other gentlemen, from 
Mr. Richard Wilkes. He took the degree of B.A. Janu- 
ary 1713^14; and was chosen fellow Jan. 21, 1716*17 ; 
and April 11, 17.16, was admitted into lady Sadler's Alge* 
bra Lecture, and took the degree of M. A. at the com- 
mencement of 1717; also July 4, 1718, he was chosen 
JLtnacre Lecturer. It does not appear that he -ever took 
any degrees in medicine. He seems to have taken pupils 
and taught mathematics in the college from 1715 till the 
time that he left it. It is not known 'when, he took dea- 
con's orders, but a relation of his remembered his having 
preached at Wolverhampton. He abo preached some time ' 
at Stow,, near C hartley* The disgust he took to the mi- 
nistry has been imputed to his being disappointed in the 
hope of preferment in the oburch, and he thought he could 
make his talents, turn to better account, and accordingly 
began to practise physic >at Wolverhampton, Feb. 1720, 
and became very eminent in his profession. On the 24th 
June 1725, he married Miss Rachel Manlove,of Lee's-hill, 
near Abbots Bromley in Staffordshire, with whom he had 
a handsome fortune, and from that time be dwelt with his 
father at Willenhalj. In the beginning of 1747 he bad a 
severe fit of illness, during which, among other employ* 
menu, be composed a whimsical epitaph on himself, which 
may be seen in Shaw's History of Staffordshire. His wife 
dying in May 1756, he afterwards married in October the 
same, year, Mrs. Frances Bendish (sister to, the late Rev. 
sir Richard Wrottesley, of Wrottesley, bart.) who died Dec 
24, 1798, at Frox field, Hampshire, at a very advanced age. 
Dr. Wilkes died March 6, 1760, of the gout in his stomach, 
greatfy lamented by his tenants, to whom he had been an 

72 W I L K E 8. 

indulgent landlord, and by the poor to whom be bad been 
a kind and liberal physician and friend. 
. He published an excellent " Treatise on the Dropsy," 
and during the time that the distemper raged in Stafford- 
shire among the horned cattle, he published a pamphlet, 
entitled " A Letter to the Gentlemen, Farmers, and Gra- 
ziers, in the county of Stafford," calculated to prevent, or 
cure that terrible plague. Among other things, he medi- 
tated a new edition of Hudibras, with notes, &c. As an 
antiquary be is principally known by his valuable collec- 
tions for the history of Staffordshire. His chef-d'oeuvre, 
says Mr. Shaw, is a general history from the earliest and 
most obscure ages to his own times, drawn up with great 
# skill and erudition, which Mr. Shaw has made the basis of 
his own introduction. This, with his other manuscripts, 
were long supposed to have been lost, and were not indeed 
brought to light until 1792, when they fell into the hands 
of Mr. Sbaw, who has incorporated them in bis valuable 
history. 1 

WILKIE (William), a Scotch poet of some fame in hi* 
day, was bom in the parish of Dalmeny, in the county of 
West Lothian, Oct. 5, 1721. His father, although a small 
farmer, and poor and unfortunate, endeavoured to give him 
a liberal education, which he appears to have improved by 
diligence. At the age of thirteen, be was sent to the nut* 
▼ersity of Edinburgh, where he made a rapid progress in 
learning, bnt before he completed his academical course, 
his father died, leaving him no other inheritance than bis 
small farm, and the care of three sisters. Necessity thus 
turned his attention to the study of agriculture, which he 
cultivated with so much success, although upon a conBned 
scale, that he acquired a solid reputation as a practical far- 
mer, and was enabled to provide for himself and bis sisters. 
|Ie still, however, prosecuted his studies, and at the accus- 
tomed period was admitted a preacher in the church of 

For some years this made no alteration in bis mode of 
life ; and as a clergyman he only occasionally assisted in 
some neighbouring churches, while be devoted his princi- 
pal time to his farm and bis studies. He appears to have 
been early ambitious of tbe character of a poet, and having 
read Homer, as Don Quixote read romances, he determined 

l Stuw>» Hist of Staffordshire to!. II. Part I. p. 147, 148, an* PreC to vet* U 

W I L K I E. *73 

totally forth ai bis rival, or continuator; and this enthusi- 
asm produced "The Epigoniad," published in 1753. On 
this poem be is said to have employed (fourteen years, which 
ill agrees with what hts biographers tell us of his propensity 
to poetry, and the original vigour of his jnipd ; for after so 
much labour it appeared with all the imperfections of a 
rough sketch. Its reception by the English public was not 
very flattering, but in his own country "The Epigoniad" 
succeeded so well, that a second edition was called for in 
1759, to which he added a dream in the manner of Spen- 
ser. Yet, as this edition was slowly called for, an extraor- 
dinary appeal from the general opinion was made by the 
celebrated Hume, who wrote a very long encomium on the 
"Epigoniad," addressed to the editor of the Critical Review. 
This has been inserted in the late edition of the " English 
Poets," and those who knew Mr. Hume's taste, friendship, 
or sincerity, will be best able to determine whether he is 

A few years before the publication of the first edition, 
Wilkie was ordained minister of Ratho, and in 1759 was 
chosen professor of natural philosophy in the university of 
St. Andrew's. In 1766 the university conferred upon him 
the degree of doctor in divinity. In 1768, he published his 
* Fables," which had less success than even his " Epigo- 
niad," although they are rather happy imitations of the 
manner of Gay, and the thoughts, if not always original, 
are yet sprightly and just. After a lingering illness, he 
died Oct. 10, 1772. The private character of Dr. Wilkie 
appears to have been distinguished for those singularities, 
-which are sometimes found in men of genius, either from 
early unrestrained indulgence, or from affectation. His 
biographers have multiplied instances of his slovenly and 
disgusting manners, exceeding what we have almost ever 
heard of; yet we are told he preserved the respect of his* 
contemporaries and scholars. His learning, according to 
every account, was extensive, and much of it acquired at 
a very early age. * 

WILKINS (David), a learned divine and editor, was 
born in 1685, but when, or where educated we are not told. 
His name does not appear among the graduates of either 
university, except that among those of Cambridge, we find ' 
he wa» honoured with the degree of D.D. in 1717. Two 

i,£acyclop. Brit.— English Poets, 1810, 21 Vols. 8vo. 

7* W I L K I N 3. 

years before this, he was appointed by archbishop Wale ta> 
•succeed Dr. Benjamin Abbot, as keeper of the archiepis- 
copal library at Lambeth ; and in three years drew up a 
v*ry curious catalogue of all the MS8. and printed books 
in that valuable collection. As a reward for his industry 
jarxl learning, archbishop Wake collated him. to the rectory 
of Mongbam-Parva, in Kent, in April 1716, to that of 
<5reat Chart in 1719, and to the rectory of Hadleigh in the 
tame year. He was also constituted chaplain to the arch- 
•bishop and collated to the rectories of Monks-Ely and 
Booking ; appointed commissary of the deanery of Bock* 
ing, jointly and severally with W. Beaavoir ; collated to a 
•prebend~of Canterbury in 1720, and collated to his grace's 
/option of the archdeaconry of Suffolk in May 1724. In 
consequence of these last preferments, he resigned the 
former, and was only archdeacon of Suffolk and rector of 
Hadleigh and Monks-Ely. at his death, which happened 
Sept. 6, 1745, in the sixtieth year of his age. He married. 
Nor. 27, 1725, the eldest daughter of Thomas lord Fairfax 
of Scotland, a lady who survived him, and erected a monu- 
ment to his memory at Hadleigh. 

Dr.Wilkins's publications were, 1. " Novum Testamen- 
tum Copticum," Oxon. 1716, 4 to. 2. A fine edition, with 
additions, of the "Leges Saxonies," Lond. 1721, fol. & 
An edition of" Seidell's works," begun in 1722, and finished 
in 1726, very highly to the credit of Dr. Wilkins, as well 
as of his learned printer, Bowyer, Lond. 3 vols, folio. This 
work was published by subscription, in a manner that would 
now be thought singular. The small paper copies were 
paid for at the rate of two-pence a sheet, which amounted 
to .€/. 145. : the large paper at three-pence a sheet, amount- 
ing to 10/. 2s. 4. " Concilia Magnae Britanoise," 1736, 
4 vols. fol. Besides these he wrote the preface on the lite- 
rary history of Britain, which is prefixed to bishop Tanner's 
" Bibliotheca." > 

WILKINS (John), an ingenious and learned English 
bishop, was the son of Mr. Walter Wilkins, citizen and 
goldsmith of Oxford, and was born in 1614, at Fawsley, 
near Daventry, in Northamptonshire, in the house of his 
mother's father, the celebrated dissenter Mr. John Dod. 
He was taught Latitf and Greek by Edward Sylvester, a 
teacher of much reputation, who kept a private school in 

1 Nichols's Bowyer* 

W I L K I N S. 75 

the parish of All-Saints in Oxford ; and bis proficiency 
was such, that at thirteen he entered a student of New-inn- 
hall, in 1627. He made no long stay there, but was tc* 
moved to Magdalen -hall, under the tuition of Mr. John 
Tombes, and there took the degrees in arts. He after- 
wards entered into orders; and was first chaplain toAVil- 
liam lord Say, and then to Charles count palatine of the 
Rhine, and prince elector of the empire, with' whom he con- 
tinued some time. To this last patroo, his skill in the ma* 
thematics was a very great recommendation. Upon the 
breaking out of the civil war, he joined with the parliament, 
and took the solemn league and covenant. He was after- 
wards made warden of Wadbam-college by the cdmmittee 
of parliament, appointed for reforming the university ; and^ 
being created bachelor of divinity the 12th of April, 1648, 
was the day following put into possession of his warden- 
ship. Next year be was created D. D. and about that time 
took the engagement then enjoined by the gpwers in being. 
In 1656, be married Robina, the widow of Peter. French, 
formerly canon of Christ-church, and sister to Oliver Crom- 
well, then lord -protector of England : which marriage being 
contrary to the statutes of Wadbam-college, because they 
prohibit the warden from marrying, be procured a dispen- 
sation from Oliver, to retain the wardenship notwithstand- 
ing. . In 1659, he was by Richard Cromwell made master 
of Trinity-college in Cambridge; but ejected thence the 
year0following upon the restoration. Then be became 
preacher to the honourable society of Gray's-inn, and rec- 
tor of St. Lawrence-Jewry, London, upon the promotion 
Dr. Seth Ward to the bishopric of Exeter. About this 
time, he became a member of the Royal Society, was 
chosen of their council, and proved one of their most emi- 
nent members. Soon after this, he. was mfede dean of Rip- 
op; and, in 1668, bishop of Chester, Dr. Tiltotson, who 
aii married bis daughter-in-law, preaching his consecra- 
tion sermon. Wood and Burnet both inform us, that be 
obtained this bishopric, by the interest of Villiers duke of 
Buckingham ; and the latter adds, that it was no small pre- 
judice against him to be raised by so bad a man; Dr. Wal- 
ter Pope observes, that Wilkins, for some time after the 
restoration, was out of favour both at Whitehall and Lam- 
beth, on account of his marriage with Oliver Cromwell's 
sister ; and that archbishop Sheldon, who then disposed of 
almost all ecclesiastical preferments) opposed his promo- 




tion; that, however, when bishop Ward introduced fatal 
afterwards to the archbishop, be was veiy obligingly re* 
carved, and treated kindly by him ever after. He did not 
enjoy his preferment long ; for he died of a suppression of 
Urine, which was mistaken for the stone, at Dr. Tilkrtson's 
hotf*e» in Chancery-lane, London* Nov. 49, 1672. He was 
buried in the chancel of the church of St. Lawrence Jewry ; 
and his funeral sermon was preached by Dr. William Lloyd) 
then dean x>f Bangor, who, although Wilkins bad been * 
' abased and vilified perhaps beyond any man of his time, 
thought it no shame to say every thing that was good ctf 
him. Wood also, different as his complexion and princi* 
pies werfe from those of Wilkins, has been candid enough 
to give him the following character : " He was," says he, 
" a person endowed with rare gifts ; he was a noted theo* 
legist and preacher, a curious critic in several matters, art 
excellent roatbeftiatidian and experimentist, and one as well 
seen in mechanisms and new philosophy, of which he wad 
a great promoter, as any dittft of bis time. He also highly 
advanced the study and perfecting of astronomy, both at 
Oxford while he was warden of Wadham-college, and at 
London while be was fellow of the Royal Society ; and I 
cannot say that there was any thing deficient iti him, but 4 
constant mind and settled principles." 

Wilkins had two characteristics, neither of which was 
calculated to make him generally admired : first, he avowed 
moderation, and was kindly affected towards dissenters, for 
a comprehension of whom he openly and earnestly con- 
tended : secondly, be thought it right and reasonable td 
submit to the powers in being, be those powers who they 
would, or let them be established bow they wtaitd. And 
this making him as ready to swear allegiance to Charles II. 
after he was restored to the crown, as to the usurpers, white 
they prevailed, he was charged with being various and un> 
steady in his principles; with having no principles aft all, 
with Hobbism, and every fbrrtg that is bad. Yet the 
greatest and best qualities are ascribed to bim, if not una- 
nimously, at least by' many eminent and gdod men. Dr. 
Tillotson, in the preface to some " Sermons of Bishop 
Wilkins," published by bim in 1682, animadverts upon a 
slight and unjust character, as he thinks it is, given of the . 
bishop in Mr. Wood's " Historia & Antiquitates Universt- 
tatiB Oxoniensis ;" *' whether by the author," says he, "or 
by some other hand, I am not curious to know :" and con- 

W I L K 1 $ «. 7T 


eludes his animadversions in the following word 5 : " Upon 
the whole, it hath often, been no small matter of wonder to 
me, whence it should come to pass, that so great a man*, 
and so great a lover of mankind, who was so highly valued 
and reverenced by all that knew him, » should yet have the 
bard fate to fall under the heavy displeasure and censure 
of those who knew him not ; and that he, who never Had 
any thing to make himself one personal enemy, should 
Jiave the ill fortune to have so many, I think I may truly 
pay, that there are or have been very few in this age and 
patjoi) 40 well known, and so greatly esteemed and favoured} 
by so many persona of high rank and quality, and of sin* 
gulpr worth and eminence in all the learned professions, a* 
our author was. And this surely cannot be denied him, k 
is so well known to many worthy persons yet living, and 
bath been so often acknowledged even by his enemies, that, 
in the late times of confusion, almost all that was preserved 
s>nd kept up, of ingenuity and gopd learning, of good 
wder and government in the university of Oxford, wqa 
fhiefly owing to bis prudent cqnduct and encouragement t 
which consideration alone, had there been no other, might 
have prevailed with some there to have treated his memory 
With at least common kindness and respect." The other 
band, Dr. Tjllotson mentions, was Dr. Fell, the dean of 
Christ church, and under whose inspection Wood's 
f Athenae Qxonienses" was translated into Latin ; and who, 
among other alterations without the privity of that com- 
piler, ifas supposed to insert the poor diminishing char*** 
ter of bishop Wilkins, to be found in the Latin version 
The friendship which subsisted between our author and 
Pr. Tillotson is a proof of their mutual moderation, for 
Wilkins was in doctrine a strict and professed Calvinist. 
Wfl need quote no more to prove this* than what has; been 
thready quoted by Dr. Edwards in his "Veritas Redux," 
p. $53. <f God might (says Dr. Wilkins) have designed qs 
for vessels of wrath ; and then we had been eternally un- 
done, without all possible remedy. There was nothing to 
mpve bins in us, when we lay all together in the general 
heap of mankind. It was his own free gra?e and bounty, 
that made him to take delight in us, to cbuse us from the 
rest, and to sever us from those many thousands in the 
World who shall perish everlastingly." Gift of Prayer, c. 
28, Jn his'* 1 Ecciesiastes," section 3, he commends ton 
preacher, for his best authors, Calvin, Junius, P. Martyr, 

19 WILK1N8. 

Musculus, Paraeus, Piscator, Rivet, Zaocbius, &c. m 
" most eminent for their orthodox sound judgement" .Bur- 
net, in his Life of Sir Matthew Hale, printed in 1682, 
declares of Wilkins, that " he was a man of as great a mirid, 
as true a judgement, as eminent virtues, and of as good a 
isoul, as any he ever knew •" and in his " History'* he says, 
that, though "he married Cromwell's sister, yet he made 
no other use of that alliance but to do good offices, and to 
cover the university of Oxford from the sourness of Owen 
and Goodwin. At Cambridge he joined with those who 
studied to propagate better thoughts, to take men off from 
being in parties, or from narrow notions, from supersti- 
tious conceits, and fierceness about opinions. He was also 
a great observer and promoter of experimental philosophy, 
which was then a new thing, and much looked dfter. He 
was naturally ambitious, but was the wisest clergyman I 
ever knew. He was a lover of mankind, and had a delight 
in doing good.' 9 The historian mentions afterwards another 
quality Wilkins possessed in a supreme degree ; and that 
was, says he, " a courage, which could stand against a 
current, and against all the reproaches with which ill-na- 
tured clergymen studied to load him." 

All the works of bishop Wilkins are esteemed ingenious 
and learned, . and many of them particularly curious and 
entertaining. His first publication was in 1638, when he 
was only twenty-four years of age, of a piece, entitled 
" The Discovery of a new World ; or, a Discourse tending 
to prove, that it is probable there may be.anotber babitab>e 
World in the Moon ; with a Discourse concerning the pos- 
sibility of a passage thither," in 8vo. The object of this' 
singular work may appear from the fourteen propositions 
which he endeavours to establish, some of which have often 
been quoted in jest or earnest by subsequent wits* or phi- 
losophers* He contends, I. That the strangeness of this 
opinion is no sufficient reason why it should be rejected,' 
because other certain truths have been formerly esteemed 
ridiculous, and great absurdities entertained by common 
consent. II. That a plurality of worlds does not contra-' 
diot any principle of reason or faith. IIL That the hea-' 
vens do not consist of any such pure matter, which can* 

* Among others the famous duchess pressed his surprise that this objection 

of Newcastle objected to Dr. Wilkins, should be made* by a lady who had 

the want of baiting-places in bis way been all her life employed in building 

to the new world, when the doctor es- catties in tJm sir* 

WI L K I N S. T» 


privilege tbem from the . like change and corruption, as 
these inferior bodies are liable, upto. IV. That the moot* 
is a solid compacted opacous body. V* That the moou 
hath not any light of her own. < VI. That there, is a world 
in the moon, hath been the direct opinion of many ancient, 
with some modern mathematicians, and may probably be 
deduced from the. tenets of others. VII. That those spots 
and brighter parts, which by our sight may be distinguished 
in the moon, do shew the difference betwixt the sea anil 
land in that other world* VIII* That the spots represent 
the sea, and the brighter parts the land. IX, That there 
are high mountains, deep vallies, and spacious plains m 
the body of the moon. X. * That there is an atmosphere, 
or an orb of gross vaporous air immediately encompassing 
the body of the moon. XL That as their world is our 
moon, so our world is their moon. XII. That it is pro- 
bable there nay be such meteors belonging to that world 
in the moon as there are with us. XIII, That it is pro^ 
bable there may be inhabitants in this other world ; but of 
what kind they are, is uncertain. XIV. That it is possi- 
ble for some of our posterity to find out a conveyance to 
this other world ; and if there be inhabitants there, to havte 
commerce with tbem. Under this head he observes* 
that " if it be here inquired, what means there may be 
conjectured for Qur ascending beyond the sphere of the 
earth's magoetical vigour ; I answer, says be, J. It is not 
perhaps impossible, that a man may be able to ilye by the 
application of wings to his owne body; as angels are .pic- 
tured, and as Mercury and Daedalus are fained, and as 
bath been attempted by divers, particularly by a Turke ia 
Constantinople,. as Busbequius relates. 2. If there be such, 
a great Ruck in Madagascar, as Marcus Polus the Vene- 
tian mentions, the feathers in whose wings are twelve foot 
long, which can soppe up a horse and his rider, or an ele- 
phant, as our kites doe a mouse ; why then it is but teach^ 
ing one of these to carry a man, and he may ride up thither, 
as. Ganymed does upon an eagle. 3. Or if neither of those 
ways will serve, yet I doe seriously and upon good grounds- 
affirme it possible to .make a flying chariot; iu which a man 
may sit, and give such a motion into it, as shall convey 
him through the aire. And this perhaps might be made 
large enough to carry divers men at the same time, toge- 
ther with foode for their viaticum, and commodities for. 
^rafJBquew It is not the hignesse of any thing in this kind,, 

to W 1 L K I N S. 

that can hinder its motion, if the motive faculty be answer-* 
able thereunto. We see a great ship swimme as well as a 
small corke, and an eagle flies in the aire *s well as a little 
gnat. This engine may be contrived from the same prin- 
ciples by which Archytas made a wooden dove, and Re- 
giomontanus a wooden eagle. I conceive it were ho difli-< 
cult matter, if a man had leisure, to shew more particiU 
larly the meanes of composing it. The perfecting of suck 
an invention would be of such excellent use, that it were? 
enough, not only to make a man, but the age also wfaereit* 
he lives. For besides the strange discoveries, that it might 
occasion in this other world, it would he also 6f inconceiv- 
able advantage for travelling above any other conveiance 
that is now in use. So that notwithstanding all these seem- 
ing impossibilities, 'tis likely enough, that there may be a 
meanes invented of journying to the moone. And bow 
happy shall they be, that are first successefidl iu this at- 

< ■■■ Foelicesq ; Animie, quas nubila supra, 
Et turpes tamos, plenumq ; vaporibus orbexn, 
Inseruit Coelo sancti seintUla Fromethei.' 

Having thus finished this discourse, I chanced upon a late 
fancy to this purpose under the fained name of Domingo 
Gonzales, written by a late reverend and learned bishop 
(Godwin); in which v (besides sundry particulars, wherein 
this later chapter did unwittingly agree with it) there is 
delivered a very pleasant and well contrived fancy concern-* 
ing a voyage to this other world.'* 

Two years after, in 1640, appeared his "Discourse con- 
cerning a new Planet; tending to prove, that it is probable 
eur Earth is one of the planets.'* In this he maintains ; 1. 
That the seeming novelty and singularity of this opinion 
ean be no sufficient reason to prove it erroneous. 2. That; 
the places of Scripture, which seem to intimate the diur- 
nal motion of the sun or heavens, are fairly capable of ano- 
ther interpretation. 3. That the Holy Ghost in many 
places of Scripture does plainly conform his expressions to* 
the error of our conceits, and does not speak of sundry 
things as they are in themselves, but as they appear unto 
us. 4. That divers learned men have fallen into great ab- 
surdities, whilst they have looked for the grounds of philo- 
sophy from the grounds of Scripture. 5. That the words of 
Scripture in their proper and strict construction do not any 
where affirm the immobility of the earth. f.JThat there i* 

W i L K I N 9. 81 

ml any argument from the words of Scripture, principles 
of nature, or observations in astronomy, which can suffix 
ciently evidence the earth to be in the center of the uni- 
verse. 7. It is probable that the sun is the center of the 
world. 8. That there is not any sufficient reason to prove 
the earth incapable of those motions! which Copernicus 
ascribes unto it. 9. That it is more probable the earth 
does move, than the heavens. 10. That this hypothesis is 
exactly agreeable to common appearances. 

His name was not put to either of these works ; but they 
were so well knovWi to be his, that Langrenus, in his map 
of the moon, dedicated to the king of Spain, calls one of 
the lunar spots after Wilkins's name. His third piece, in 
1641, is entitled " Mercury; or, the secret and swift Mes- 
senger ; shewing how a man may with privacy and speed 
communicate his thoughts to a friend at any distance," in 
Svo. His fourth, in 1648, " Mathematical Magic; or, the 
Wonders that may be performed by Mechanical Geometry," 
in Svo. All these pieces were published entire in one vo- 
lume, 8vo, in 1708, under Jthe title of "The Mathematical 
aad Philosophical Works of the Right reverend John WiU 
kins," &c. with a print of die author and general title-page 
handsomely engraven, and an account of his life and writ* 
iogs. To this collection is also subjoined an abstract of a 
larger work, printed in 1668, folio, and entitled " An -Essay 
towards a real Character and a philosophical Language." 
This be persuaded Ray to translate into Latin, which he 
did, but k never was published ; and the MS. is now in 
the library of the Royal Society. These are his mathema- 
tical and philosophical works. He was also the inventor of 
the Perambulator, or x Measuring wheel. His theological 
works are, 1. " Ecclesiastes ; or, a Discourse of the Gift of 
Preaching, as it falls under the rules of Art," 1646. This 
no doubt was written with a view to reform the prevailing 
taste of the times he lived in ; from which no man was ever 
farther than Wilkins. It has gone through nine editions, 
the last in 1718, 8vo. 2. " Discourse concerning the 
heauty of Providence, in ail the rugged passages of it," 
1649. 3. ".Discourse concerning the Gift of Prayer, shew* 
ing what it is, wherein it consists, and how far it is attain- 
able by industry," &c. 1653. This was against enthusiasm 
and fanatfcism. These were published in his life-time; 
after his death, in 1675, Tillotson published two other of 
bis works. 4. " Sermons preached on several occasion?;" 


St W I L K ! N S. 

and, 5. " Of the principles and duties of Natural Religion,** 
both in 8vo. Tillotson tells us, 'in the preface to the latter, 
that 4I the first twelve chapters were written out for the 
press in his life-time; and that the remainder hath beenr 
gathered and made up out of his papers." 1 

WILKINSON (Henry), one of four divines of the name 
of Wilkinson, who made considerable noise at Oxford 
during the usurpation, was born in the vicarage of Halifax 
in Yorkshire, Oct. 9, 1566, and came to Oxford in 1581, 
where he was elected a probationer fellow of Merton col- 
lege, by the interest of his relation Mr. afterwards sir 
Henry Savile, the warden. In 1586 he proceeded in arts, 
and studying divinity, took bis bachelor's degree in that 
faculty. In 1601 he was preferred to the living of Wad- 
desdoo in Buckinghamshire, which he held for forty-six 
years. He was a man of considerable learning and piety, 
and being an old puritan, Wood says, he was elected one 
of the assembly of divines in 1643. He was the author of 
" A Catechism for the use of the congregation of Waddes- 
don," 8vo, of which there was a fourth edition in 1647. 
He published also " The Debt-Book ; or a treatise upon 
Romans xiii. 8. wherein is handled the civil debt of money 
or goods/' Lond. 1625, 8vo ; and other things, the names 
of which Wood has not mentioned. He died at Waddes- 
don March 19, 1647, aged eighty-one, and was buried in 
bis own church, with a monumental inscription. By his 
wife Sarah, the daughter of Mr. Arthur Wake, another 
puritan, he had six sons and three daughters. One of bis 
sons, Edward, was born in 1607, and educated at Magda- 
len-hall, Oxford, which he entered when little more than 
eleven years old, and completed his degrees in arts at the 
age of eighteen. He must have been of extraordinary 
parts, or extraordinary interest, for in 1627, when only 
twenty, he was chosen professor of rhetoric in Gresham 
college. All that Ward has been abfe to discover of him, 
is, that he held this office upwards of eleven years, and 
resigned it in 1638. Another of the rector of Waddesdon's 
sons, a more distinguished character, is the subject of our 
next article." 

WILKINSON (HfiNRY), one of the sons of the pre- 
ceding, and called Long Haury, to distinguish him from 

* Biog. Brit — Ath. Ox. vol. If.— Burnet's Own Times.— Birch's Life of TiU 
ToUon, &<\ 

* Ath. Ok. toI. II.— Watson's Jblifax. 


a contemporary and cousin of the same names* who was 
called Bean Harry, was born at Waddesdon in 1609, and 
in 1622 became a commoner of Magdalen-hall* where, 
making great proficiency in his studies, he took the degrees 
in arts, became a noted tutor, master of the schools, and 
divinity reader in his hall. In 1633, he was admitted B. D. 
aud preached frequently in and near Oxford, " not," says 
Wood, " without girds against the actions, and certain 
men of the times/' by which we are to understand that he 
belonged to that growing party which was hostile to the 
ecclesiastical establishment. Of this he gave so decided a 
proof in a sermon preached at St. Mary's in Sept. 1G40, in 
which he inveighed against the ceremonies, &c. that he was 
ordered to recant, and a form drawn up accordingly. But 
as he peremptorily refused to sign this, well knowing that 
the power of the church was undermined, he was sus-> 
pended from preaching, &c. within the university and its 
precincts, according to the statute. Immediately* how- 
ever, on the meeting of the Long parliament, he complain- 
ed to the House of Commons of the treatment he had met 
with from the vice chancellor: and the committee of reli- 
gion not only took off his suspension, but ordered his ser- , 
nion to be printed, as suiting their views. 

With this encouragement Wilkinson went on preaching 
what he pleased without fear, but removed to London, as 
the better scene of action, where he was made minister of 
St. Faith's, under St. Paul's^ and one of the assembly of 
divines. He was also a frequent preacher before the par- 
liament on their monthly fasts, or on thanksgiving days. In 
1645 he was promoted to the rectory of St. Dunstan's in 
the West*. Soon after he was constituted one of the six 
ministers appointed to go to Oxford (then in the power of 
parliament), and to establish preachings and lectures upon 
presbyterian principles and forms. He was also made one 
of the visitors for the ejection of all heads of houses, fel- 
lows, students, &c, who refused compliance with the now 
predominant party. For these services he was made a 
.senior fellow of Magdalen college (which, Wood says, he 
kept till h£ married a holy woman called the Lady Carr), 
a canon of Christ church, doctor of divinity, and, after 
Chey net's departure, Margaret professor. Of all this he 
was deprived at the'restoration, but occasionally preached 

* Catamy says, St. Dunstan's in the E*st. 

Q 2 


in or about London, as opportunity offered, particularly 
at Clapham, where he died in September 1675, and his 
body, after lying in state in Drapers 9 hall, London, was 
buried with great solemnity in the church of St. Dunstan's. 
His pVinted works are entirely " Sermons" preached before 
the parliament, or in the "Morning Exercise 11 at Cripple- 
gate and Southwark, and seem to confirm part of the cha- 
racter Wood gives of him, that " he was a good scholar, 
always a close student, an excellent preacher (though his 
voice fras shrill and whining), 11 yet, adds Wood, " his ser- 
mons were commonly full of dire and confusion, especially 
while the rebellion lasted. 1 ' ' 

WILKINSON (Henry), denominated sometimes Ju- 
nior, but commonly called Dean Harry, to distinguish 
him from the preceding, was the son of the rev. William 
Wilkinson of Adwick, or Adwickstreet, in the West Riding 
of Yorkshire, the brother of the first Henry Wilkinson, 
rector of Waddesdon ; and consequently cousin to the pre- 
ceding Long Harry. He was born at Adwick in 1616, and 
was educated in grammar at a school in All Saints parish* 
Oxford. He entered a commoner of Magdalen-hall in 
1631, took the degrees in arts, was admitted into holy 
orders, and became a noted tutor, and moderator or dean 
of Magdalen-hall. Being of the same principles with his 
relations, he quitted the university in 1642, and going to 
London, took the covenant, and became a frequent 
preacher. On the surrender of Oxford to the parliamen- 
tary forces, he returned thither, and was created bachelor 
of divinity, and made principal of his hall, and moral phi- 
losophy reader of the university. He also took the degree 
of D. D. and became a frequent preacher at the different 
churches in Oxford. As the governor of a society, Wood 
speaks of him very highly, and his character indeed in this 
Vespect was so welt established, that he might have re- 
mained principal, if he could have conformed. He suffered 
considerably afterwards for nonconformity, while endea- 
vouring to preach at Buckminster in Leicestershire, Gos- 
field in Essex, Sible-Headingham, and finally at Connard 
near Sudbury in Suffolk, where he died May 13, 1690. He 
was buriec) at Milding near Lavenham, in Suffolk. Wood 
says " he was a zealous person in the way he professed, 
but overswayed more by the principles "of education than 

i Ath. Ox. vol. H.— Calamjr. 



W I LK I N S O N. 85 

jea$on. He was very courteous in speech and carriage, 
communicative of his knowledge, generous and charitable 
to the poor; and so public-spirited (a rare thing, adds 
Wood, in a presbyterian), that he always minded the com- 
mon good, more than his own concerns. 1 ' He was a con- 
siderable benefactor to Magdalen- ball, having built the 
library, and procured a good collection of books for it. 

He published, in Latin, various "Condones," and "Ora- 
tiones," delivered at Oxford on public occasions ; and se- 
veral English sermons, besides the following, I. " Catalo- 
gs librorum in Bibl. Aul. Magi. Oxon." Oxford, 1661, 
^8vq.' 2. " The doctrine of contentment briefly explained, 
&c. 9 ' Lond. 1671, 8vo^ 3. " Characters of a sincere heart, 
and the comforts thereof,*' ibid. 1674, 8vo. 4. "Two 
Treatises concerning God's All- Sufficiency, &c." ibid. 
1681, 8vo. In this last work we find a singular aneedote, 
which he says was communicated to him by archbishop 
Usher, with whom he was well acquainted. Our readers 
probably know tbat the Marian persecution nerer reached 
Ireland, and if the following be true, the Irish protestants 
h?d a very narrow escape from that tyranny. " A com- 
mission dc Hareticis comburendis (For burning of heretics) 
was sent to Ireland from queen Mary, by a certain doctor, 
who, at his lodgings at Chester, made his boast of it. One 
of the servants in the inn, being a well-wisher to protes- 
tants, took notice of the words, and found out a method to 
get away the commission, which he kept in his own hands. 
WheiKthe commissioner came to Ireland, he was enter- 
tained with great respect. After some time he appeared 
before the lords of the council, and then opened his box 
to shew his commission, but there was nothing in it but a 
pack of cards. On this he was committed to prison and 
threatened exceedingly ; but upon giving security he was 
released, returned to England, and obtained a new com- 
mission ; as soon, however, as he came to Chester, the re- 
♦ port arrived of queen Mary's death, which stopt his farther 
journey V 1 

WILKINSON (John), brother of the rector of Wad- 
desdon, first-mentioned, and uncle to the two Henrys, was 
born in Halifax, and educated at Oxford, where he was 
very celebrated. He became fellow of Magdalen college, 
and in 1605, when Henry, prince of Wales, was matricu- 

1 Ath, Ox. vol. II,— Calamr. 


lated of Magdalen college, Mr. Wilkinson, then B. D. was 
appointed his tutor, as high a mark of respect as could well 
be paid, and a striking proof of the respect in which he 
was then held. In the same year Mr. Wilkinson was made 
principal of Magdalen-hall; and Wood says, that under his 
government, in 1624, and before, there were three hun- 
dred students in the hall, of which number were forty or 
more masters of arts, but, Wood adds, *'all mostly inclin- 
ing to Calvinism. 1 * On the commencement of the rebel- 
lion, being of the same sentiments as his relations before- 
mentioned, he left Oxford in 1643, and joined the parlia- 
mentary party. After the surrender of the city of Oxford 
to the parliamentary forces in 1646, he returned to Mag- 
dalen-hall, and resumed his office as principal until 1648, 
when he resigned it on being advanced to be president of 
Magdalen-college. He hacl the year before been ap- 
pointed one of the visitors of the university. He did not, 
however, live long to enjoy any of these honours, for he 
died Jan. 2, 1649, and was interred in the church of Great 
Milton in Oxfordshire. It does not appear that Dr. John 
Wilkinson published any thing; the greater part of his life 
he spent as the governor of the two societies of Magdalen- 
hall and Magdalen-college. Notwithstanding his reputa- 
tion in his early years, Wood gives him the character of 
being ?* generally accounted an illiterate, testy, old crea- 
ture, one that for forty years together had been the sport 
of the boys, and constantly yoked with Dr. Kettle : a per- 
son of more beard than learning, &c." It is unnecessary to 
copy more of this character, which agrees so ill with what 
Wood says of him in his account of Magdalen-hall, that 
we are almost inclined to think he is speaking of another 
person. There is much confusion in some of the accounts 
given of these Wilkinsons, and we are not quite sure that 
we have been enabled to dispell it ; but Wood so expressly 
mentions a John Wilkinson Magdalen-hall, as one of the 
visitors of Oxford, and afterwards a physician, that we 
suspect he has mixed the characters of the two. On this, 
account the story of Dr. John Wilkinson having robbed the 
college of some money, which is related by Fuller and 
Heylin, must remain doubtful, for Wood attributes it to 
Henry Wilkinson, the vice-president.^ 

1 A\b. Ox. vol?. I and II.— -Wood's Annals and History of Oxford. — Ward's 
Lives of the Gresham profesiorb.— fuller'! Ch. flirt. 

W I L L A N. 87 

WILLAN (Robert), a learned physician, was born No- 
vember 12, 1757, at the Hill, near Sedbergh in York- 
shire, whei£ his father resided, in the enjoyment of exten- 
sive medical reputation and practice *. He *vas educated 
in the principles of the Quakers, and received his scholas- 
tic tuition exclusively at Sedbergh, at the grammar-school 
of that place, under the care of the reverend Dr. Batcman, 
and the celebrated Mr. Dawson. The, medical profession 
had long been determined upon as the object of bis future 
pursuit, and be commenced his studies in that science at 

i Edinburgh, in the autumn of 1777. After the usual resi- 

dence of three \ T ears in that university, he received the de- 
gree of doctor in 1780, when he published an inaugural 
dissertation, " De Jecinoris Inftammatioue." 

In the autumn of the same year, he repaired to the me- 
tropolis with the view of obtaining farther medical informa- 
tion, and attended lectures with great assiduity. An ar- 
rangement had been made some time previously with Dr. 
Trotter, a relative, and a physician of some eminence at 
Darlington,, in the .county of Durham, but advanced in life, 
in consequence of which he intended to decline practice in 

I that place in favour of his young friend, as soon as he had 

completed his studies. When in London, Dr. Willan was 
introduced to Dr. Fothergill, who, from a just estimate of 
his talents and acquirements, recommended hitn to try his 
fortune in the metropolis, and offered him his assistance. 
Dr. Fothergill, however, died in the month of December, 
in that year ; and in the commencement of the following 
year, 1781, the death of Dr. Trotter alsb occurred ; upon 
which Dr. Willan immediately went to Darlington, where 
he remained about a year; during which period he ana* 
lyaed the sulphureous water at Croft, a village about four 
miles from that place, and wrote a small treatise respect- 
ing its chemical and medicinal qualities, containing also a 
comparison of its properties with those of the Harrogate 
waters. This tract was published in 1782, with the title 
of " Observations on the Sulphur water at Croft, near 
Darlington ;" and a second edition was printed a few years 

In the beginning of 1782, not succeeding in practice at 
Darlington., Dr f Willbn determined to return to London, 

* Dr. Robert Willan, senior, gra- Qualitatibus Aeris." The Hill is now 
doated at Edinburgh in 1*45, and the residence of his eldest son, Riejiani 
pnbfished an* i nan jural thesis, "Da Willan, esq. ', 

88 W I L L A N. 

where the Public Dispensary, in Carey-street, being opened 
in the commencement of 1783, chiefly accomplished by 
the exertions of some of his friends, he was appointed sole 
physician to it ; and under his humane and active superin- 
tendence, together with that of his able and benevolent 
colleague, Mr. John Pearson, the surgeon to the institu- 
tion, the new Dispensary speedily flourished, and became 
one of the most extensive and respectable establishments 
of its kind in London. In March 1785, having passed bis 
examinations before the College of Physicians with great 
credit, he was admitted a licentiate of that body; on which 
occasion he addressed some congratulatory Greek verses to 
the board of censors. 

About 1786 he engaged in the office of teacher, and 
delivered lectures ou the principles and practice of medi- 
cine at the Public Dispensary. But bis success, we be* 
lieve, in this undertaking, was inconsiderable. At a sub- 
sequent period he received, as pupils at the Dispensary, 
young physicians who had recently graduated, and who 
were initiated into actual practice, under his superintend* 
ence, among the patients of the institution; a mode of 
tuition from which they derived much practical knowledge, 
and were gradually habituated to the responsibility of their 
professional duties. Upwards of forty physicians, almost 
all of whom have subsequently attained professional repu- 
tation, or now occupy responsible situations, both in this 
country and abroad, have received the benefit of this in- 

From the moment when Dr. Willan settled in London, 
he pursued his professional avocations with an indefati- 
gable industry and attention, of which there are, perhaps, few 
examples. He never quitted the metropolis for any con- 
sideration of health or pleasure, during a period of thirty 
years. For many years he conducted the medical depart- 
ment of two dispensaries, (having subsequently been fa- 
voured with an appointment to the Finsbury Dispensary, 
in addition to that of Carey-street), during which his un- 
remitting attention to the progress of the diseases which 
came under his care, is evinced by the prodigious collec- 
tion of cases, which he has recorded in MS. mostly in q, 
neat Latin style, in which be wrote with great fluency^ 
During the whole of his career, he was not less assiduously 
employed in examining the records of medicine, both an- 
cient and modern, th^n in the actual observation of dis* 

W I L L AW. 8ft 

eases ; of which the learning and critical acumen displayed 
in his publications, as well as the mass of manuscript cot- 
lections which he has left behind, afford abundant proof. 
His habits of domestic privacy enabled him to dedicate a 
large portion of time to these researches ; and indeed to 
the unabating ardour with which he applied himself to 
them, must be attributed Chat premature injury of his 
health, which shortened the period of his life. 

Dr. Willan's advance to public reputation, and to the 
consequent emoluments of the profession, was regularly 
| progressive, though slow ; and his publications, especially 

| bis treatise on the diseases of the skin, upon which bis 

| posthumous reputation will principally rest, finally placed 

his professional character upon high ground. In the spring 
of 1791, be had the honeur of being chosen a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries. He had been early attached to 
antiquarian researches, and in his juvenile days had, with 
considerable industry and accuracy, collected from the 
Odyssey a history of the manners of the primeval times of 
Greece. Latterly he communicated some papers to this 
, society, 'of which, however, he declined the honour of 

f publication ; particularly, a collection of provincial words, 

and an elaborate essay on the practice of " Lustration by 
Need-fire," (scarcely extinct in some of the norther* 
counties,) which led him into a curious and extensive re- 
search, respecting similar practices in ancient times, and 
the mythological superstitions connected with them. It 
was not until the month of February 1809, that he was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 

The increase of his professional avocations, which had 
compelled him some time before to resign his office in the 
Finsbory Dispensary, led him, in 1800, to wish to lessen 
the fatigue of his duties at the Public Dispensary ; and 
accordingly his friend and pupil,* Dr. T. A. Murray, was 
appointed his colleague in that year. This active and 
intelligent physician, through whose exertions, aided by 
the society for bettering the condition of the poor, the 
Fever institution of the metropolis was established, was un- 
fortunately cut off in February 1802, by the contagion of 
fever, caught in the infected apartments of the first p»»» 
tients who were admitted into the institution. Dr. Willan, 
who had strenuously recommended this establishment, was 
Dominated one of its physicians extraordinary. In Decern.- 
J>er 1 803, finding his private practice incompatible with a 

•0 W.I L L A N. 

proper attention to the concerns of the Dispensary, whick 
he had now superintended for the space of nearly twenty- 
one years, he resigned his office. The governors of the 
charity, in testimony of their gratitude for his services and 
esteem for his character, nominated him consulting phy- 
sician, and made him a governor for life, and likewise pre* 
sented him with a piece of plate, of the value of fifty 
guineas, inscribed with a testimonial of their attachment 
and respect*. 

For several years previous to bis resignation, Dr. Willan's 
fame and character had been fully established, and the 
emoluments derived from his practice very ample. He had 
during the preceding course of years, resided successively 
in Ely-place, Holborn, and in Red Lion-square, in con- 
nection with the family before-mentioned ; and lastly, on 
his marriage in the spring of 1801, he settled in Blooms- 
bury-square. He was now not only generally consulted, 
especially by persons labouring under cutaneous diseases, 
but was also deferred to on all occasions by his professional 
brethren, as the ultimate appeal on these subjects : for, 
Jhowever generally skilled in every other department of 
medical practice, his reputation for peculiar knowledge on 
this point had certainly excluded him, in some measure^ 
from that universal occupation in his profession, to which 
he was so well entitled. 

From his childhood Dr. Willan had been of a delicate 
constitution ; his complexion in early life being pale and 
feminine, and his form slender. His extremely regular 
and temperate mode of life, however, had procured him 
an uninterrupted share of moderate health, and latterly 
(even a certain degree of corpulency of person, though 
without the appearance of robust strength. In the Winter 
of 1 3 10, some of his fKends had remarked a slight shrink- 
ing of bulk and change in his complexion; but it was not 
till the following spring that symptoms of actual disease 
manifested themselves, and increased rapidly. With a 
view to obtain some respite from professional fatigue, as 
well as the advantage of a better air, he took a house in 

* This inscription was written by egenorum civium sanandis, vigiuti an- 

the late learned, and revere ml Dr. Mat- nos amplius gratuito et strenue nava- 

thew Raine, one of the governors of tarn, egrotantum apud Londinemes 

the Dispensary, and was as follows, pauperum Patroni, amico amici, L. L.-. 

*' Viro integerrimo, art is »cientia?que D. D. D. A. O. 1804, Preside Com it e 

wee peritissimo, Roberto Willan, M. D. Sandvicense, collate pecuniae Custode- 

•b fejicisiimam operam, in mortis Gnltelmo Waddington." 

• W I L L A N, 91 

June 1811 at Craven- hill, about a mile from town, an tbe 
Ux bridge- road, where he spent his time, with the excep* 
lion of two or three hours in the middle of the day, when 
he went to Bloomsbnry-square, to receive the patients who 
came thither to consult him ; but the probability of becom- 
ing phthisical, under the influence of an English winter, 
induced him to accede to the strenuous recommendation of 
some of his friends, and to undertake a voyage to Ma- 
deira. He accordingly embarked on the 10th of October, 
and arrived at Madeira on the 1st of December. By per- 
severance in an active course of medicine, after his arrival 
at Funehall, nil his bad symptoms were considerably alle- 
viated ; insomuch that, in the month of February, he me- 
ditated a return to the south of England in April. But this 
alleviation was only temporary : his disease was again ag- 
gravated ; the dropsy, and its concomitant obstruction 
to the functions, increased ; and with his faculties remain* 
ing entire to the last, he expired on April 7, 1812, in the 
fifty-fifth year of his age. 

By the death of Dr. Willan the profession was deprived 
! of one of its bright ornaments, and of its zealous and able 

^ improvers; the sick, of a humane, disinterested, and dis- 

cerning physician ; and the world of an estimable and up- 
right man, while in all the relations of domestic life, in- 
deed, he was an object of general esteem and attach- 
! As a professional writer, Dr. Willan appeared early, in 

his contributions to the periodical works. On his arrival 
in. London, he became a member of a private medical so- 
ciety, which held its meetings at a coffee-house, in Cecil- 
street, and which published two volumes of papers, under 
the title of " Medical Communications," in 1784 ^and 
1790. In tbe second of these volumes be published the 
history of "A remarkable case of Abstinence," in a hypo- 
chondriacal yotiog man, which was uninterrupted for the 
space of sixty-one days, and terminated fatally. We be- 
lieve that this was the only medical society of which he was 
ever a member. Several communications from him were 
also printed in the London Medicaljournal, edited between 
the years 1781 and 1790 by Dr. Simmons. In the fourth 
volume, p. 421, a short letter of his appears, stating the 
character of a non-descript Byssus, found in the sulphu- 
reous waters of Aix ; and in the sixth volume of the same 
Journal, he relates a fatal case of obstruction in the bowels, 

( §3 WILLAN. 

to which last he appended seme useful reflections on the 
diagnostic symptoms of these obstructions, as occurring in 
the large or in the small intestines. He has also some com- 
munications in the seventh and eighth volumes^ After 
the publication of the eleventh volume of this Journal, Dr. 
Simmons commenced a new series, under the title of 
u Medical Facts and Observations ;" in the third volume 
of which a paper of Dr. Willan's appeared, containing 
a description of several cases of iscuria renaiis in chil- 

In the year 1796, Dr. Willan commenced a series of 
monthly reports, after the manner of those which Dr. Fo- 
thergili had formerly given to the publick *, containing a 
brief accouut of the state of the weather, and of the pre* 
valent diseases in the metropolis. These reports were pub- 
lished in the " Monthly Magazine," and were continued 
to 1800, when he collected them into a small volume, and 
published them in 1801, under the title of " Reports on 
the Diseases in London." This little work is pregnant 
with important and original medical observations; but, 
from its unassuming pretensions, and desultory arrange- 
ment, has not been sufficiently known and valued by the 

We are unacquainted with the circumstances whieh ori- 
ginally drew the attention of Dr. Willan to the subject of 
cutaneous diseases; but he was led so early as 1784 and 
1785, to attend to the elementary forms of eruptions, if we 
may so speak, upon which he saw that a definite nomen- 
clature could alone be founded, and upon which he erected 
the ingenious system developed in his large work. At that 
period, in his notes of cases, he has seldom designated 
eruptions by their ordinary names ; but speaks of papulae 
scorbutica?, eruptio papulosa, &c. In 1786, his notes ex- 
hibit still more decisive proofs of the careful attention 
which he was directing to this subject, in the minute de- 
scriptions (accompanied by slight sketches with the pen), 
of the forms, magnitude, and progress of eruptions. The 
zeal with which he was at the same time investigating the 
original acceptation of the Greek, Roman, and Arabian 
terms, applied to eruptive diseases, is likewise manifested 
by his copious collections from authors, and by the occa- 
sional alterations of the nomenclature, applied in the 

* In tht Gentleman's Magazine, vol. XX. et seq. 

W I L L A N. 03 

cases, before he had finally determined on his arrange* 
menu This was probably decided about 1789; as in the 
following year his classification was laid before the Medi* 
cal Society of London, and honoured by the assignment 
of the Fothergillian gold medal of that year to the author* 

It was. not till the beginning of 1 798, that the first part 
of this work, including the papulous eruptions, was pub- 
lished, in which, as in the subsequent parts, each variety 
was represented by a coloured engraving. In 1801 the 
second part* including the scaly diseases of the akin, ap- 
peared ; in 1805 the third part, comprising only two ge- 
nera of rashes, viz. measles and scarlet-fever ; and in 1808 
the fourth part, comprehending the remainder of the rashes, 
and the bullae, or large vesications ; the whole containing 
thirty-three plates, and comprising about half of the clas- 
sification* Four orders, characterized by the appearance 
of pustules, vesicles, tubercles, and spots, remain unpub- 
lished. In the interim, however, . from the temporary in- 
terest which the investigation of the vaccine question ex- 
cited, Dr. Willan was induced so far to anticipate the order 
of vesicles, as to publish in 1806 a treatise " Ou Vaccina- 
tion ;" in which he also introduced the subject of chicken- 
pox (another vesicular disease) in consequence of the mis- 
takes which had been committed, in supposing that this was 
small -pox, when it occurred after vaccination. 

In addition to the writings above mentioned, which have 
been committed to the press, Dr. Willan had left some 
others in an unfinished state. During three or four years 
previous to his death he bad employed his leisure in a 
most extensive investigation of the antiquities of medicine, 
if we may so express ourselves, which he had conducted 
with his usual felicity of execution, His principal object 
was the illustration of four subjects, which are enveloped in 
no small degree of obscurity ; namely, 1. The nature and 
origin of the epidemic or endemic ignis sacer, which was 
a frequent cause of much mortality in ancient times, and 
in the middle ages, and has been confounded with the 
plague, to which it had no resemblance but in its fatality : 
2. The evidence of the prevalence of small-pox, measles, 
and scarlet fever, not only in tbe first ages of the Christian 
sera, but at still more ancient periods, of which he has 
brought together, with great ingenuity, a collection that 
appears incontrovertibly to establish the affirmative of tbe 
question : 3. The history of the leprosy of the middle 

$4 W I L L A N. 

ages: and 4. That of the lues venerea. The dissertations 
relative to the two first mentioned topics, Dr. Willan bad 
nearly completed, hating re-modelled the second, by the* 
aid of a friendly amanuensis, during bis residence in Ma- 
deira. They contain a very able and original view of the 
state of disease in the early ages of the world, not founded 
upon any fanciful explanation of terms, but deduced from 
a sagacious developement of facts, which have hitherto 
been concealed under perplexed and mistaken, but suf* 
ficiently intelligible language. He has likewise supported 
the conclusions which he has drawn by evidence collected 
from sources not usually resorted to in such researches. 

Several years ago, Dr. Willan made a collection of ob- 
servations in about two thousand patients, with a view to 
an investigation of medical physiognomy, or temperaments, 
chiefly in regard to the diseases to which each variety of 
temperament is peculiarly predisposed, and to the opera- 
tion of medicines on them respectively. In the prosecu- 
tion of this inquiry he procured several drawings (portraits) 
illustrative of the characteristic marks of the more striking 
varieties. He arrived at some interesting inferences re-' 
specting both the physical and moral constitutions con- 
nected with these external characters, but he did not deem 
the matter sufficiently matured to lay 'Before the public. 

^ In conclusion, we must not omit to mention a juvenile 
work published by Dr. Willan, on a theological subject ; 
namely, a <ff Life of Christ," related in the words of the 
evangelists, of whose details he selected those parts re- 
spectively which were most full ^nd explicit; and he il- 
lustrated the whole by critical notes and explanations, 
which were particularly full in regard to the diseases men- 
tioned by those sacred writers. A second editiou of this 
work, with additional illustrations, was published in 1802. 1 
WILLET (Andrew), a learned divine, was born in the 
city of Ely in 1562. His father, Mr. Thomas Willet, was 
sub-almoner to Edward VI. and a sufferer during the perse* 
cutious in queen Mary's reign ; but in that of queen Eli* 
zabeth, was preferred to the rectory of Barley in Hertford* 
shire, and to a prebend in the church of Ely. His son, 
who had been a very diligent and successful student while 
at school, was sent in his fourteenth year to Peter-house, 

1 Abridged from the Life of Dr. Willan, in the * ¥ Edinburgh Medical and 
Surgical Journal," No. 32; and obligingly cunmmnicated to us by the learned 
author. Dr. Bateman, of Bloomsbury-tquare. 


Cambridge) whence he afterwards removed to Christ's col-* 
lege, and obtained a fellowship. After passing thirteen 
years in the university, during which he afforded many 
proofs of extraordinary application and talents, queen 
Elizabeth gave him his father's prebend in Ely, about 1598, 
the year his father died. One of his name was also rector 
of Reed, in Middlesex, in 1613,. and of Chishall Parva, 
in Essex, in 1620, but it is doubtful whether this was the 
same person. Itseems more certain, however, that he had 
the rectory of Childerley, in Cambridgeshire, and in 1597 
tbat of Little Grantesden, in the same county, for which 
betook in exchange the rectory of Barley, vacant by his 
father's death. He was also chaplain to prince Henry. 
About, this time he married a relation to Dr. Goad, by 
whom be had eleven sons and seven daughters. 

Dr. Willet was usually called a living library, from the 
great extent of his reading and of his memory. He was 
also not less admired as a preacher, not only in his parish, 
but at<?ourt. He also obtained a great degree of celebrity 
by his numerous publications, particularly his " Synopsis 
Papism i ; or a general view of papistrie," a work dedicated 
to the queen, which, although a folio of 1300 pages, passed 
through five editions, and was much admired in both uni- 
versities, and by the clergy and laity at large, as the best 
refutation of popery, which had then appeared. He died 
of the consequences of a fall from bis horse, at Hoddesdon, 
tu Hertfordshire, Dec. 4, 1621, in the fifty-eighth year of 
his age. He was interred in the chancel of Barley church, 
where there is a representation of him at full length, in a 
praying attitude, and with an inscription, partly Latin and 
partly English. 

Besides his " Synopsis Papismi," Dr. Willet was the 
author of many works, principally commentaries on the 
scriptures; as, 1. " Hexapla.on Genesis and JSxodus," fol. 
1632. 2. « On Leviticus," l£3l, fol. 3. " On Daniel," 
1610, fol. 4. "On the Romans," 16 1 1, fol. &c. 5. «Trac- 
tatus de Salomonis nuptiis, vel Epithalamium in nuptiis 
inter Comlt. Palatinum et Elizabethan* Jacobi rfcgis filiam 
unicam," 1612, 4to. 6. " De Gratia generi humano iti 
primo parente collata, de lapsu Adami," &c. Leyden, 1609, 
8vo. 7. " Thesaurus Ecclesi«," Camb. 1604, 8vo. 8. " De 
animse natura et viribus." 9. " Sacra Emblemata," &©. &c. 
with others, the titles of which are given very inaccurately 
by his biographers. *• 

*« W 1 L L E T. 

On6 of his descendants was the late Ralph Willet, esq. 
of Merly, in Dorsetshire, and founder and proprietor of 
the celebrated Merly library, which was disposed of by 
auction some months ago. ! 



WILLIAMS (Anna), an ingenious English lady, was 
the daughter of a surgeon and physician in South Wales, 
where she was born in 1 706. Her father, Zachariah Wil- 
liams, during his residence in Wales, imagined that be 
bad discovered, by a kind of intuitive penetration, what 
had escaped, the rest of mankind. He fancied that he had 
been fortunate enough to ascertain the longitude by mag* 
netism, and that the variations of the needle were equal, 
at equal distances, east and west. The idea fired his 
imagination \ and, prompted by ambition, and the hopes 
of splendid recompence, heMetermined to leave bis bu- 
siness and habitation for the metropolis. Miss William* 
accompanied him, and they arrived in London about 1730; 
but the bright views which had allured him from hit profes- 
sion soon vanished. The rewards which he had promised 
himself ended in disappointment; and the ill success of his 
schemes may be inferred from the only recompence which 
his journey and imagined discovery procured. He was 
admitted a pensioner at the Charter-house. When Miss 
Williams first resided in London, she devoted no inconsi- 
derable portion of her time to its various amusements. She 
visited every. object that, merited the inspection of a po- 
lished and laudably- inquisitive mind, or could attract the 
attention of a stranger. At a later period of life she spoke 
familiarly of these scenes, of which the . impression was 
never erased* though they must, however, have soon lost 
their allurements. Mr. Williams did not long continue a 
member of the Charter-house. A dispute with the masters 
obliged him to remove from this asylum of age and po- 
verty. In 1749 he published in 4to u A true JNarrativje," 
&c. of the treatment he had met with. He was now ex*- 
posed to severe trials, and every succeeding day increased 
the gloominess of his prospects. In 1740 Miss Williams 
lost her sight by a cataract, which prevented her, in a 
great measure, from assisting his distresses, and alleviating 

1 Fuller's Abel Red i virus, and Barksdale's Remembrancer, in both of which 
to Dr. Willet's life by his son-in-law Dr. Peter Smith. — Strype's Whitgift, p, 
435, 543.— Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Nichols's Bowyer, vol. VHI. 

\V t L L I A M & 91 

his sorrows. ' She still, however, felt her passion for li- 
terature equally predominant. She 1 continued the same 
attention to the neatness of her dress ; and, what is more 
extraordinary, continued still the exercise bf her needle, 
a branch of female accomplishment in which she had be- 
fore displayed great excellence. During the lowness of 
her fortune she worked for herself with nearly as much 
dexterity and readiness as if she had not suffered a loss so 
irreparable. Her powers of conversation retained their 
former vigour. Her mind did not sink under these cala- 
mities ; and the natural activity of her disposition ani- 
mated her to uncommon exertions : 

" Though fallen on evil days ; 
On evil days though fallen ; 
In darkness, and with dangers compass'd round, 
And solitude !" 

In 1746, notwithstanding her blindness, she published 
the " Life of the emperor Julian, with notes, translated 
from the French of F. La Bleterie." In this translation 
she was assisted by two female friends, whose names were 
Wilkinson. This book was printed by Bowyer, in whose 
life, by Nichols, we are informed, that he contributed the 
advertisement, and wrote the notes, in conjunction with 
Mr. Clarke and others. The work was revised by Mark* 
land and Clarke. It does not appear what pecuniary ad- 
vantages Miss Williams might derive from this publication. 
They were probably not very considerable, and afforded 
only a temporary relief to the misfortunes of her father. 
About this time, Mr. Williams, who imparted his afflictions 
to all from whom he hoped consolation or assistance, told 
his story to Dr. Samuel Johnson $ and, among other aggra- 
vations of distress, mentioned his daughter's blindness. He 
spoke of her acquirements in such high terms, that Mrs. 
Johnson, who was then living, expressed a desire of seeing 
her ; and accordingly she was soon afterwards brought to 
the doctor's house by her father ; and Mrs. Johnson found 
her possessed of such qualities as recommended her strongly 
for a friend. As her own state of health, therefore, was 
Weak, and ber husband was engaged during the greater 
part of the day in his studies, she gave Miss Williams a 
general invilation : a strict intimacy soon took place ; but 
the enjoyment of their friendship did not continue long. 
Soon after its commencement, Mrs. Johnson was attended 
by her new companion in an illness which terminated fatally. 

Vol. XXXII. H 




Dr. Johnson still retained bis regard for her, and in \1&$+ 
by his recommendation, Mr. Sharp, the surgeon. Undertook 
to perform the operation on Miss Williams's eyes, which is 
usual in such cases, in hopes of restoring her sight. Her 
own habitation was not judged convenient for the occasion. 
She was, therefore, invited to the doctor's. The surgeon's 
skill, however, proved fruitless, as the crystalline humour 
was not sufficiently inspissated for the needle to take effect. 
The recovery of her sight was pronounced impossible. 
Afrer this dreadful sentence, she never left the roof whicb 
had received her during the operation. The doctor's kind- 
ness and conversation soothed her melancholy situation : 
and her society seemed to alleviate the sorrows which his 
late loss had occasioned.* 

When Dr. Johnson, however, changed his residence, she 
returned to lodgings ; and, in 1755, her father published a 
book, in Italian and English, entitled "An Account of an 
Attempt to ascertain the longitude at sea, by an exact 
Theory of the magnetical Needle," 

In 1755, Mrs. Williams's, circumstances were rendered 
more easy by the profits 'of a benefit-play, granted her by 
the kindness of Mr. Garrick, from which she received 200/. 
which was placed in the stocks. ' While Mrs. Williams en* 
joyed so comfortable an asylum, her life passed in one even 
tenour. It was chequered by none of those scenes which 
enliven biography by their variety. The next event of any 
consequence, in the history of Mrs. Williams, was the pub- 
lication of a volume of " Miscellanies in Prose and Verse/' 
in 1766. Her friends assisted her in the completion of 
this book, by several voluntary contributions* and 100/. 
which was laid out in a bridge-bond,' was added to her 
little stock by the liberality of her subscribers. About 
17G6,v Dr. Johnson removed from the Temple, where he 
had lived, for some time, in chambers, to Johnson's-eourt, 
Fleet-street, and again invited to his house the worthy 
friend of Mrs. Johnson. The latter days of Mrs. Williams* 
were now rendered easy and comfortable. Her wants were 
few, and, to supply them, she made her income sufficient. 
She still possessed an unalterable friend in Dr. Johnson* 
Her acquaintance was select rather than numerous. Their 
society made the infirmities of age less intolerable, and 
communicated a cheerfulness to her situation, which soli- 
tary blindness would otherwise have rendered truly de- 


• She died at the house of her friend, in Bolt-court, Fleet- 
street (whither they removed about 1775), on the 6th of 
September, 1783, aged seventy-seven years. She be- 
queathed all her little effects to a charity, which had been 
instituted for the education of poor deserted girls, and sup- 
ported by the voluntary contributions of several Jadies. ' 

WILLIAMS (Charles Hanbury), a statesman and wit 
of considerable temporary fame, was the third son of John 
Hanbury, esq. a South Sea Director, who died in 1734. 
Charles, who in consequence of the will of his godfather, 
Charles Williams, esq. of Caerleon, assumed the name of 
Williams, was horn in 1709, and educated at Eton, where 
he made considerable progress in classical literature ; and 
having finished his studies, traveled through various parts 
of Europe. Soon after his return he assumed the name of 
Williams, obtained from his father the estate of Coldbrook, 
' and espoused, in 1732, lady Frances Coningsby, youngest 
daughter of Thomas, earl of Coningsby* 

On the death of his father in 1733, he was elected mem- 
ber of parliament for the county of Monmouth, and uni- 
formly supported the administration of sir Robert Walpole, 
whom be idolized ; he received from that minister many 
early and confidential marks of esteem, and in 1739 was 
was appointed by him paymaster of the marines. His 
name occurs only twice as a speaker, in Chandler's de- 
bates : but the substance of his speech is given in neither 
instance. Sprightliness of conversation, ready wit, and 
agreeable manners, introduced him to the acquaintance of' 
men of the first talents.: he was the soul of the celebrated 
coterie, of which the most conspicuous members were, lord 
Hervey, Winnington, Horace Walpole, late earl of Orford* 
Stephen Fox, earl of Ilchester, and Henry Fox, lord Hol- 
land, with whom, in particular, be lived in the strictest habits 
of intimacy and- friendship. At this period he distinguished 
himself by political ballads remarkable for vivacity, keen- 
ness- of invective, and ease of versification. In 1 746 he was 
installed knight of the Bath, and soon after, appointed envoy 
to the court of Dresden, a situation which he is said to have 
solicited, that its employments might divert his grief for the 
death of his friend Mr. Winnington. The votary of wit and 
pleasure'was instantly transformed into a m£n of business, 

» Gent, Mag. vols. XX. LIU. and LVIL-~London Mag. 1784.— Hawkbfi 
Life of John8on.«-*-Boswe)l's Life of Johnson.— Nichols's Bowyar. 

h a 

100 W 1 L L 1 A to s. 

and the author of satirical odes penned excellent dispatches* 
He was well adapted for the office of a foreign minister, 
and the lively, no less than the solid, parts of his character, 
proved useful in his new employment; flow of conversa- 
tion, sprightliness of wit, politeness of demeanour, ease of 
address, conviviality of disposition, together with the de- 
licacy of his table, attracted persons of all descriptions. 
He had .an excellent tact for discriminating characters, hu- 
mouring the foibles of those with whom he negociated, and 
conciliating those by whom the great were either directly 
or indirectly governed. 

In 1749 be was appointed, at the express desire of the 
king, to succeed Mr. Legge as minister plenipotentiary 
at the court of Berlin; but in 1751 returned to his embassy 
at Dresden. During hi» residence at these courts, he 
transacted the affairs of England and Hanover with so 
much address, that he was dispatched to Petersburg, in a 
time of critical emergency, to conduct a negociation of 
great delicacy and importance. The disputes concerning 
the limits of Nova Scotia, and the possessions of North 
America threatened a rupture between Great Britain and 
France ; hostilities were on the point of commencing in 
America, and France had resolved to invade the Low* 
Countries, and the electorate of Hanover, and to excite a 
continental war. With this view the cabinet of Versailles; 
proposed to the king of Prussia, to co-operate in invading 
the electorate, and attacking the dominions of the house 
of Austria, hitherto the inseparable ally of England* The 
British cabinet, alarmed at this aspect of affairs, formed a 
plan of a triple alliance between Great Britain, Austria, 
and Russia, and to promote the negociation, the king re- 
paired to Hanover, accompanied by the earl of Holder- 
nesse, secretary of state. 

Sir Charles Hanbury Williams arrived at St. Petersburg 
in the latter end of June ; the negociation had been already 
opened by Mr. Guy Dickins,nvho lately occupied the post 
of envoy to the court of Russia; but his character aud 
manners were not calculated to ensure success* He was 
treated with coldness and reserve by the empress, and had 
rendered hipaself highly offensive to the great chancellor* 
count Bestucheff. On the first appearance of the new am- 
bassador, things immediately wore a favourable aspect ; at 
bis presence all obstacles were instantly removed, and alt 
difficulties vanished. The votary of wit and pleasure was. 


well received by the gay and voluptuous Elizabeth; he at- 
tached to his cause the great duke, afterwards the unfortu- 
nate Peter the Third; and his consort, the princess of 
Anhalt Zerbst, who became conspicuous under the name 
of Catherine the Second. All the ministers vied in loading 
him with marks of attention and civility; be broke through 
the usyal forms of etiquette, and united in his favour the 
discordant views of the Russian cabinet) he conciliated the 
unbending and suspicious Bestucheff; warmed the phleg- 
matic temper of the vice-chancellor, count Voronaoff; and 
gained the under agents, who were enabled, by petty in* 
trigues and secret cabals, to thwart the intentions of the 
principal ministers. He fulfilled literally the tenor of his 
own expressions, that he would "make use of the honey* 
moon of his ministry," to conclude the convention as 
speedily as possible qft the best terms which could be ob- 
tained : be executed the orders of the king, npt to sign 
any treaty in which an attack on any of his majesty's allies, 
or on any part of his electoral dominions, was not made a 
casus fdtderis : in six weeks after his arrival at St. Peters- 
burg, he obtained the signature, without using all the full 
powers intrusted to him by the British cabinet, and instantly 
transmitted it to Hanover. 

His sanguine imagination exaggerated the merit of his 
services; and he fondly expected air instantaneous answer 
filled with expressions of high applause. Some time, how- 
ever, elapsed before any answer arrived ; at length the ex- 
pected messenger came ; he seized the dispatches, and 
opened them with extreme impatience, in the presence of 
his confidential friend, count Poniatowski, afterwards king 
of Poland. In a few minutes he threw the letter which he 
was reading on the floor, struck his forehead with both his 
bands, and remained for some time absorbed in a deep re- 
verie. Turning at length to count Poniatowski, he ex- 
claimed, " Wall Id you think it possible ? Instead of re- 
ceiving thanks for my zeal and activity in concluding the 
convention, I am blamed for an informality in the signa- 
ture, and the king is displeased with my efforts to serve 
him." This interesting anecdote, Mr. Coxe, from whose 
w Toqr in Monmouthshire" this life is abridged, received 
from the late king of Poland himself in 1785. To the 
same work we must refer for a particular detail of the in- 
trigues which baffled the endeavours of sjr Charles, and in* 


daced bifn to make repeated and earnest entreaties, in con» 
sequence of which, permission was granted for his return, 
but he was induced to continue in his post until all his 
efforts proved unsuccessful, and the empress coalesced with 
Austria and France. In the midst of this arduous business 
bis health rapidly declined, his head was occasionally af* 
fected, and his mind distracted with vexation ; the irregu- 
larities of his life irritated his nerves, and a fatiguing jour- 
ney exhausted his spirits. 

Soon after his arrival at Hamburgh, in the autumn of 
1757, he was suddenly smitten with a woman of low in-* 
trigue, gave her a note for 2000/. and a contract of mar- 
riage, though his wife was still living : he also took large 
doses of stimulating medicines, which affected his head, 
and he was conveyed to England in a state of insanity. 
During the passage, he fell from the deck into the hold, 
and dangerously bruised his side ; be was blooded four 
times on board, and four* times immediately after bis ar- 
rival in England. In little more than a month be recovered, 
and passed the summer at Coldbrook-house. But towards 
the latter end of 1759, he relapsed into a state of insanity, 
and expired on the second of November, aged fifty. 

His official dispatches, says Mr. Cose, are written with 
great life and spirit ; he delineates characters with truth 
and facility ; and describes his diplomatic transactions witht 
minuteness and accuracy, but without tediousness or for- 
mality. His verses were highly prized by his contempo- 
raries, but in perusing those which have been given to the 
public, " Qdes, 1775, }2mo," and those which are still in 
manuscript, tbe greater part are political effusions, or li- 
centious lampoons, abounding with local wit and temporary 
satire, eagerly read at the time of their appearance, but 
little interesting to posterity. Three of his pieces, how-, 
ever, deserve to be exempted from this general character ; 
his poem of " Isabella, or the Morning," is remarkable for 
ease of versification, and happy discrimination of character ; 
his epitaph on Mr. Winnington is written with great feel- 
ing; and his beautiful " Ode to Mr. Pointz," in honour of 
the duke of Cumberland, breathes a spirit of sublimity * 
which entitles the author to the rank of a poet, and excites 
our regret that hU muse was not always employed on sub- 
jects worthy of his talents. 

He wrote a very julmisable paper in the World, No. 37, 



not noticed by Mr. Coxe, but which from the date appears 
to have been the employment of a leisure hour when at St. 

Sir Charles left by his wife two daughters ; Frances, first 
wife of William Anne, late earl of Essex, and Charlotte, 
who espoused the honourable Robert Boyle Walsingham, 
youngest son of the earl of Shannon, a commodore in the 
navy. On his death without issue male, the estate and 
mansion of Coldbrook came to his brother George, who 
-died in 1764, and now belongs to his son John Hanbury 
Williams, esq. the present proprietor. * ' 

WILLIAMS (Daniel), an eminent divine among the 
dissenters, and a munificent benefactor to their and other 
societies, both of the learned and charitable kind, was born 
about 1644, at Wrexham, in the county of Denbigh, in 
North Wales. No particulars are known of his parents, 
or of his early years, but it appears that he laboured under 
some disadvantages as to education, which, however, he 
surmounted by spirit and perseverance. He says of him- 
self, that "from five years old, he had no employment, but 
his studies, and that by nineteen he was regularly admitted 
a preacher." As this was among the nonconformists, it is 
probable that his parents o* early connections lay among 
that society. "As he entered on his ministry about 1663, 
when the exercise of it was in danger of incurring the pe- 
nalties of the law, he was induced to go to Ireland, and was 
there invited to be chaplain to the countess of Meath. 
Some time after he was called to be pastor to a eongra- 
gatioti of dissenters assembling in Wood-street, Dtfblin, 
in which situation he continued for nearly twenty years, 
And was highly approved and useful. Here he married 
his first wife, a lady of family and fortune, which last, 
while it gave him a superior rank and consequence to 
.many of his brethren, he contemplated only as the means 
of doing good. 

During the troubles in Ireland, at the latter end of the 
reign of king James II. he found it necessary to return to 
London in 1687, and resided in London. Here he was of 
great use upon a very critical occasion. Some of the court 
agents at that time endeavoured to bring the dissenters 
in the city to address the king upon his dispensing with 
<the penal laws. In a conference at one of their meetings 

1 Cttye'i Tour la Monmouthshire. 


upon that occasion, in the presence of some of the agents, 
Mr. Williams declared, " That it was with him past doubt, 
that the severities of the former reign upon the protestant 
dissenters were, rather as they stood in the way of arbitrary 
power, than for their religious dissent So it were better 
for them to be reduced to their former hardships, than 
declare for measures destructive of the liberties of their 
country ; and that for himself, before he would concur in 
?uch an address, which should be thought an approbation 
pf the dispensing power, he would choose to lay down his 
liberty at his majesty's feet." He pursued the argument 
with sqcb clearness and strength, that all present rejected 
the motion, and the emissaries went away disappointed. 
There was a meeting at the same time of a considerable 
number of the city clergy, waiting the issue of their deli- 
beration, who were greatly animated and encouraged by 
this resolution of the dissenting ministers. Very recent 
experience has shewn how much Mr. Williams differs in 
this matter from his descendants, many of whom have been 
the professed advocates for what is called catholic eman- 

After the revolution, Mr. Williams was not only fire? 
quently consulted by king William concerning Irish affairs, 
with which he was well acquainted, but often regarded at 
court on behalf of several who fled from Ireland, and were 
capable of doing service to government. He received 
great acknowledgments and thanks upon this* account, when, 
in 1700, he went b^ck to that country to visit his old friends, 
and to settle some affairs, relative to his estate in that king- 
dom. After preaching for some time occasionally in Lon- 
don, he became pastor of a numerous congregation at 
Band-alley in Eisbopsgate- street in 1688, and upqq the 
death of the celebrated Richard Baxter in 1691, by whom 
he was greatly esteemed, he succeeded him as one of those 
who preached the merchants 1 -lecture, at Pinners'- ball, 
Broad-street* But it was not long before the frequent 
clashings in the discourses of these lecturers caused a di- 
vision. Mr. Williams bad preached warmly against soqie 
antinomian tenets, which giving offence to many persons, 
a design was formed to exclude him from the lecture. 
Upon this he, with Dr. Bates, Mr. Howe, and Mr. Alsop, 
&c. retired and raised another lecture at Salter's,- hall on 
the same day and hour. This division was soon after in- 
creased by the publication of some of Dr. Crisp's works. 


(See Crisp) and a controversy took place as to the more 
or less of antinpmianism in these works, which lasted for 
some years, and was attended with much intemperance 
and personal animosity. What is rather remarkable, the 
contending parties appealed to bishop Stillingfleet, and 
Dr. Jonathan Edwards of Oxford, who both approved of 
what Mr. Williams had done. Mr. Williams's chief pub- 
lication on the subject was entitled " Gospel Truth stated 
and vindicated," 1691, 12mo. The controversy by his 
friends was called the antinomian, but by Dr. Crisp's ad- 
vocates the neonomian controversy. Mr. Williams was not 
only reckoned a heretic, but attempts were even made to 
injure bis moral character, which, however, were defeated 
by tbe unanimous testimony of all who knew him, or took 
the trouble to inquire into the ground of such accusations. 
In his congregation, it is said, he lost no friend. 

Some time after the death of his* wife, be married in 
1701, as his second, Jaoe, the widow of Mr. Francis Bark* 
Stead, and the daughter of one Guill, a French refugee; 
by her also he had a very considerable fortune, which he 
devoted to the purposes of liberality. Of his political sen- 
timents, we learn only, that he was an enemy to the bill 
against occasional conformity, and a staunch friend' to tbe 
union with Scotland. When on a visit to that country in 
1709, he received a diploma for the degree of D. D. from 
the university of Edinburgh, and another from Glasgow. 
One of his biographers gives us the following account of 
bis conduct on this occasion. " He was so far from seek- 
ing or expecting this honour, that be was greatly displeased 
with the occ&sion of it, and with great modesty he en- 
treated Mr. Carstairs, the principal of the college at Edin- 
burgh, to prevent it. But the dispatch was made before 
that desire of his could reach them. I have often heard 
bim express his dislike of the thing itself, and much more 
his distaste at the officious vanity of some who thought 
they had much obliged him when they moved for the pro- 
puring it; and this, not that he despised the honour of 
being a graduate in form in that profession in which he 
was now a truly reverend father; nor in the least, that he 
refused to receive any favours from the ministers of the 
church of Scotland, for whom he preserved a very great 
esteem, and on many occasions gave signal testimonies of 
his respect; but he thought it savoured of an extraordinary 
Vanity, that the English presbyterians should accept a no- 


initial distinction, which' the ministers of the church of 
Scotland declined' for themselves, and did so lest it should 
break in upomhat parity which J hey so severely maintained ; 
which parity among the ministers of the gospel? the pres- 
byterians in England acknowledged also to be agreeable to 
that scripture rute, * Whosoever will be greatest among 
you let him be as the younger,' Luke xxii. 26 ; and Matt, 
xxiii. 8, * Be ye not called Rabbi,* of which text a learned 
writer says, it should have been translated, ' Be ye not 
called doctors ;' and the Jewish writers and expositors of 
their law, are by some authors styled Jewish Rabbins, by 
others, and that more frequently, doctors, &c. &c." Our 
readers need scarcely be told that this is another point on 
which Dr. Williams differs much from his successors, who 
are as ambitious of the honour of being called doctor, as 
be was to avoid it. 

In the latter end of queen Anne's reign, our author ap- 
pears to have had extraordinary fears respecting the pro- 
testant succession, and that he corresponded very freely 
with the earl of Oxford upon that subject, who, however, 
discovering that he had been yet more free in his senti- 
ments in another and more private correspondence, with- 
drew his friendship from him. Soon after, the accession 
of George I. dispelled his fears, and he was at the head of 
a body of the dissenting ministers, who addressed his ma- 
jesty on thfet auspicious occasion. 

Dr. Williams died, after a short illness, Jan. 26, 1715- 
16, in the seventy-third year of his age. He appears to 
have been a man of very considerable abilities, and having 
acquired an independent fortune, had great weight both as 
a member of the dissenting interest, and as a politician in 
general. As he had spent much of his life in benevolent ac- 
tions, at his death he fully evinced, that they were the go- 
verning principles of his character. The bulk of his estate 
he bequeathed to a great variety of charities. Besides the set- 
tlement on his wife, and legacies to his relations and friends, 
be left donations for the education of youth in Dublin, and 
for an itinerant preacher to the native Irish ; to the poor 
in Wood-street congregation, and to that in Hand-alley, 
where he had been successively preacher; to the French 
refugees; to the poor of Shoreditch parish, where he 
lived; to several ministers 9 widows; to St. Thomas's hos- 
pital ; to the London workhouse ; to several presbyteriaa 


meetings in the country ; to the college of Glasgow ; to 
the society for the reformation of manners ; to the society 
of Scotland for propagating Christian knowledge ; to the 
society for New- England, to support two persons to preach 
to the Indians ; to the maintaining of charity-schools in 
Wales, and the support of students ; for the distribution 
of Bibles, and pious books among the poor, &c. He also 
ordered a convenient building to be purchased, or erected, 
for the reception- of his own library, and the curious col- 
lection of Dr. Bates, which he purchased for that purpose, 
at the expence of between five and six hundred pounds. 
Accordingly, a considerable number of years after his death, 
a commodious building was erected by subscription among 
the opulent dissenters, in Redcross-street, Cripplegate, 
where the doctor's books were deposited, and by subse- 
quent additions, the collection has become a very consider- 
able one. It is also a depository for paintings of, noncon- 
formist ministers, which are now very numerous ; of ma- 
nuscripts, and other matters of curiosity or utility. In 
this place, the dissenting ministers meet for transacting all 
business relating to the general body. Registers of births 
of the children of protestaut dissenters are also kept here 
with accuracy, and have been, in the courts of law, allowed 
equal validity with parish registers. The librarian, who 
resides in the house, is usually a minister, chosen from 
among the English presbyterians, to which denomination 
the founder belonged. Dr. Williams's publications, be- 
sides his " Gospel Truth stated," are chiefly sermons 
preached on occasion of ordinations, or funerals. These 
were published together in 1738, 2 vols. 3vo, with some 
account of his life. * 

WILLIAMS (David), a literary and religious projector 
of some note, was born at a village near Cardigan, in 1738, 
and after receiving the rudiments of education, was placed 
in a school or college at Carmarthen, preparatory to the 
dissenting ministry ; which profession he' entered upon in 
obedience to parental authority, but very contrary to his 
own inclination. His abilities and acquirements even then 
appeajred of a superior order ; but he has often in the lat- 
ter part of his life stated to the writer of his memoirs, in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, that he bad long considered it 

1 Calamy.— Gen. Diet. — Memoirs of his Life, 1718, Svo. — Wilson's Hist, of 
Dissentiug Churches. — The best accoupt of the controversy relating to Dr. Crisp 
Is in Nelson's Jjfc of bishop Bull, pp. 259—276, 

108 WILLIAMS. , 

as a severe misfortune, that the most injurious impressions 
were made upon his youthful' and ardent mind by the cold, 
austere, oppressive, and unamiable manner in which the 
doctrines and duties of religion were disguised in the stern 
ai\d rigid habits of a severe puritanical master. From this 
college be took the office of teacher to a small congrega- 
tion at Fro me, in Somersetshire, and after a short resi- 
dence was removed to a more weighty charge at Exeter. 
There the eminent abilities and engaging manners of the 
young preacher opened to him the seductive path of plea- 
sure ; when the reproof that some elder members of thd 
society thought necessary, being administered in a manner 
to awaken resentment rather than contrition ; and the eagle 
eye of anger discovering in bis accusers imperfections of a 
different character indeed, but of tendency little suited to 
a public disclosure, the threatened recrimination suspended 
the proceedings, and an accommodatipn took place, by 
which Mr. Williams left Exeter, and was engaged to the 
superintendence of a dissenting congregation at Highgate. 
After a residence there of a year or two, he made his first 
appearance in 1770, as an author, by a " Letter to David 
Garrick," a judicious and masterly, critique on the actor, 
but a sarcastic personal attack on the man, intended to 
rescue Mossop from the supposed unjust displeasure of the 
modern Roscias: this effect was produced, Mossop was 
liberated, and the letter withdrawn from the booksellers. 
Shortly after appeared "The Philosopher, in three Con- 
versations, 1 ' which were much read, and attracted con- 
siderable notice. This was soon followed by " Essays on 
Public Worship, Patriotism, and Projects of Reformation;" 
written and published upon the occasion of the leading re- 
ligious controversy of the day ; but though they obtained 
considerable circulation, they appear not to have softened 
the asperities of either of the contending parties. The 
Appendix to these Essays gave a strong indication of that 
detestation of intolerance, bigotry, and hypocrisy which 
formed the leading character of his subsequent life, and 
which bad been gradually taking possession ef his mind 
from the conduct of some of the circle of associates into 
which his profession had thrown him. 

He published two volumes of " Sermons," chiefly upon 
Religious Hypocrisy, and then discontinued the exercise 
of his profession, and his connection with the body of dis- 
senters. He now turned his thoughts to the education of 


youth, and in 1773, published "A Treatise on Education,*' 
recommending a method founded on the plans of Comme- 
nius and Rousseau, which he proposed to carry into effect. 
He took a house in Lawrence-street, Chelsea, married a 
young lady not distinguished either by fortune or connec- 
tion, and soon found himself at the head of a lucrative and 
prosperous establishment. A severe domestic misfortune 
in the death of bis wife blighted this prospect of fame and 
fortune : his fortitude sunk under the shock ; his anxious 
attendance upon her illness injured his own health, the in- 
ternal concerns of the family became disarranged, and he 
left his bouse and his institution, to which he never again 

During his residence at Chelsea, he became a member 
of a select club of political and literary characters, to one 
of whom, the celebrated Benjamin Franklin, he afforded 
an asylum in his house at Chelsea during the popular fer- 
ment against bim, about the time of the commencement of 
the American war. In this club was formed the plan of 
public worship intended to unite all parties and persuasions 
in one comprehensive form. Mr. Williams drew up and 
published^ " A Liturgy on the universal principles of Re- 
ligion and Morality ;" and afterwards printed two volumes 
of Lectures, delivered with this Liturgy at the chapel in 
Margaret-street, Cavendish-square, opened April 7, 1776. 
This service continued about four years, but with so little 
public support, that the expence of the establishment 
nearly involved the lecturer in the loss of his liberty- As 
the plan proposed to include in one act of public worship 
every class of men who acknowledged the being of a God, 
and the utility of public prayer and praise, it necessarily 
left unnoticed every other point of doctrine; intending, 
that without expressing them in public worship, every man 
should be left in unmolested possession of his own peculiar 
opinions in private. This, however, would not satisfy any 
of the various classes and divisions of Christians ; it was 
equally obnoxious to the churchman and to the dissenter; 
and as even the original proposers, though consisting only 
of five or six, could not long agree, several of them at- 
tempting to obtain a more marked expression of their own 
peculiar opinions and dogmas, the plan necessarily expired. 
Mr. Williams now occupied his time and talents in assisting 
gentlemen whose education had been defective, and in- 
forwarding their qualifications for the senate, the diplo- 

110 W I L L i A M S. 


macy, and the learned professions. In this employment 
he prepared, and subsequently published, " Lectures on 
Political Principles," and " Lectures oti Education, 1 ' in 
3 vols. His abilities also were ever most readily and cheer* 
fully employed in the cause of friendship and benevolence ; 
and many persons under injury and distress have to ac- 
knowledge the lasting benefit of his energetic and power- 
ful pen. 

During the alarm in 1780 he published a tract, entitled 
11 A Plan of Association on Constitutional Principles ; ,f 
and in 1732, on occasion of the county meetings and asso- 
ciations, he gave to the public his " Letters on Political 
Liberty;" the most important perhaps of all his works; it 
was extensively circulated both in England and France, 
having been translated into French by Brissot, and was the 
occasion of its author being invited to Paris, to assist in 
the formation of a constitution for that country. He con* 
tinued about six months in Paris ; and on the death of the 
Icing, and declaration of war against this country, took leave 
of his friends of the Girondist party, with an almost pro- 
phetic intimation of the fate that awaited them. He 
brought with him on bis return a letter from the ttfinister of 
war, addressed to lord Grenville, and intended to give Mr* 
Williams, who was fully and confidentially entrusted with 
the private sentiments and wishes of the persons then in 
actual possession of the government of France, an oppor- 
tunity of conveying those sentiments and wishes to the 
British ministry. Mr. Williams delivered the letter into 
the hands of Mr. Aust, the under secretary of state, but 
never heard from lord Grenville on the subject Some 
further curious circumstances relating to this transaction 
are detailed in a page or two, corrected by Mr. Williams 
himself, in Bisset's " History of George III.'* 

Previously to receiving this invitation he had removed 
from Russell-street to Brompton, for the purpose of exe-> 
cuting an engagement he had formed with Mr. Bowyer, to 
superintend the splendid edition of Hume, and write a 
continuation of the history; but after his return from. 
France he found himself in an extraordinary situation, for 
at the very time he had been denounced in France as a 
royalist, he had been branded in his own^ country as a de- 
mocrat ; and he was informed that his engagement respect- 
ing the History of England could not be carried into effect,, 
inconsequence, as it was stated, of an intimation having 


Veen given that the privilege of dedication to the crown 
would be withdrawn if he continued the work. About this 
time he published the " Lessons to a young Prince," and 
engaged in, and afterwards executed, the "History of 
Monmouthshire," in one vol. 4to, with plates by bis friend 
the rev. John Gardnor. 

With regard to the circumstance upon which he always 
seemed inclined to rest his fame, and which was most dear 
to his heart — the establishment of the Literary Fund, he 
had, so far back as the time of his residence at Chelsea, 
projected a plan for the assistance of deserving authors in 
distress ; and after several ineffectual attempts, be so far 
succeeded in 1788 and 1789 as to found the institution, 
and commence its benevolent operations, and with unre- 
mitting zeal and activity devoted the full force of his abili- 
ties, and the greater part of his time and attention, to 
foster and support the infant institution. He had the 
heartfelt satisfaction of seeing it continually rise in public 
estimation, and at length honoured with the illustrious pa- 
tronage of his royal highness the prince of Wales, who 
generously bestowed an annual donation for the purpose of 
providing^ house for the use of the society, and expressly 
desired that Mr. Williams should reside in it. A singular 
and striking work, written by Mr. Williams and several of 
his zealous and able coadjutors, who each put their names 
to their own several productions, was given by the public 
under the title of " The Claims of Literature ; explanatory 
of the Nature, Formation, and Purposes of the Institution." 

During the pe^ce of Amiens Mr. Williams again visited 
Paris, and is supposed to have been then intrusted with, 
some confidential mission from the government of his own 
country, his remarkable figure . having previously been 
noticed entering the houses of several of the higher mem- 
bers of the then administration. On his return he published 
a much enlarged edition of a little work which the alarm of 
invasion had induced him to write, entitled " Regulations 
of Parochial Police ;" and he is thought to have been the 
author of a sort of periodical publication which appeared 
about that time in numbers, " Egeria ; or Elementary Stu- 
dies on the Progress of Nations in Political Economy, 
Legislation, and Government;" but which does not ap* 
pear to have been continued beyond the first volume* 
The last acknowledged work that proceeded from his 
prolific pen was, " Preparatory Studies for Political Re- 


formers.*' It is curi6us arid instructive to observe the 
marked and striking effect produced by his experience 
of reform and reformers in the struggles of, and conse^ 
quent upon, the French revolution; his diction retain? 
its full vigour, but his anticipations are much less san- 
guine, and his opinions on the pliability of the materials ore 
wjiich reformers are to operate, or in other words, on the 
real character of human nature, seem much changed. About 
five years before his death he was seized with a severe pa- 
ralytic affection, from which he partially recovered, but 
continued to suffer the gradual loss of his corfwreal and 
mental powers ; his memory becapie very considerably 
impaired, and for some length of time preceding his de- 
cease he was unable to walk or move without assistance* 
The tender assiduities of an affectionate niece soothed the 
sorrows of declining nature, and received from him the 
most affecting and frequent expressions of gratitude. The 
state of his mind cannot be so well depicted as by himself 
in the following letter, one of the last he ever wrote, and 
addressed to a clergyman of the church of England, in the 
country : 

"Dear Sir, 

" I am now drawing near my end, and am desirous tor 
conclude my days in peace. I have outlived almost all my 
t el&tions and all- my acquaintance ; and I am desirous tc>' 
exchange the most sincere and cordial forgiveness with 
those I have \n any sort offended. I bad once a great re- 
gard for you ; why it was not continued I have forgotten. 
Indeed, a paralytic stroke has greatly destroyed my me- 
mory, and will soon destroy me. I take leave of my Friends* 
and acquaintance ; among others I takg leave of you. I 
greatly esteemed you and your worthy father, and I hope 
you will only remember what you saw commendable and 
good in me, and believe me very sincerely yours. D. W.** 

It will readily be supposed that this letter brought the 
gentleman immediately to town ; and his friendly offices of 
kindness contributed very much during the last two years 
to the comfort and consolation of his suffering friend, wha 
breathed his last on Saturday morning, the 29 th of June 
i£16, and was interred the Saturday following, in St. 
Anne's church, Soho, under this inscription : 

David Williams, esq. aged 78 years ; 
- Founder of the Literary Fund. 

In the words of bis friend, captain Thomas Morris, " The 


distinguishing traits of Mr. Williams's character were, a 
boundless philanthropy and disinterestedness ; studious of 
every acquisition that forms the taste, but applying the 
strength of his genius to the arts of government and edu- 
cation as objects of the highest importance to the .welfare 
of nations and the happiness of individuals. In his dress 
elegantly plain ; in domestic life attentive to the niceties 
of decorum ; in public politely ceremonious ; in all his 
Aann'ers digniBed and distinguished ; in conversation ele- 
vated ; in his person tall and agreeable, having a com- 
manding look softened with affability." 

A review of the life and writings of this remarkably gifted 
man strongly illustrates the observation, that political and 
moral philosophy, theories of government and education, 
even when displayed with splendid ability, and enforced 
with the most engaging benevolence, and with the best 
and most earnest motives of doing good, are found by a 
painful experience to be wholly inadequate to the task of 
reforming mankind, if employed without the aid of Chris- 
tianity ; it is the Gospel alone that can reach the weak and 
erring heart of man, and found the reformation and inv 
provement of societies upon the purity, the virtue, and the 
piety of individuals. But to this very necessary knowledge 
Mr. Williams was a stranger. In early life he appears to 
have formed himself on the model of the Voltaires, Rous- 
;}eaus } D'Alemberts, and other French writers of a similar 
stamp. They unfortunately had to operate on weak minds, 
And produced incalculable mischief. David Williams, by 
winging forward his opinions and his schemes in a country 
where genuine religion is understood, and at all times ably 
defended, sunk under the argument and ridicule which he 
had to encounter, anil became a harmless visionary. * 

WILLIAMS (Griffith), bishop of 0§sory, in Ireland, 
was born at Caernarvon, in North Wales, about 1589. In 
1603 he was sent to Oxford by his uncle ; but this relation 
failing to support him, he was, after two years, received 
at Cambridge by the kindness of a friend, and admitted of 
Jesus college, where he took his degrees in arts, and after 
entering into holy orders, was appointed curate of Han- 
well, in Middlesex. Afterwards the earl of Southampton 
gave him the rectory of Foscot, in Buckinghamshire; and 
he was for some years lecturer of St. Peter's, Cheapside, 

■ Gent Ma*. ▼«'• LXXXVI. 

Vol. XXXII. I 

•ii4 * Williams. 

London. While in this situation, he informs us, u b» 
persecutions began from the puritans/' who took offence 
at something he had preached and printed ; and it was now 
he published his first book, called " The Resolution of Pi- 
Jate*" v which neither Harris nor Wood mention among his 
works ; and another called " The Delight of the Saints. 
A most comfortable treatise of grace and peace, and many 
other excellent points., whereby men may live like saints 
on earth, and become true saints in heaven, 7 * LoncL 1622, 
fol. reprinted 1635. His boldness in the pulpit raised him 
many enemies, but their persecutions were for some time 
of no avail, until at length they prevailed on the bishop of 
London to suspend him. This appears to have been in his 
twenty-severith year, when, notwithstanding, he went back 
to Cambridge and took his degree of B. D. On his return 
to London he found friends in Abbot, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and in the chancellor Egerton, who gave him the 
living of Llan-Lecbyd, in the diocese of Bangor, worth 
1002. and a better rectory than what he was suspended from 
by the bishop of London. He now found a new enemy. 
Refusing another living in exchange for what he had jus* 
got, the bishop of Bangor presented certain articles against 
him ?t officio, and he was again obliged to appeal to the 
Arcfies. The bishop of Bangor being in town,, the arch* 
bishop of Canterbury sent for them both, and checked the 
bishop for his prosecution, and gave Mr. Williams a licence 
to preach through several dioceses of his province. 

After remaining four years in the diocese of Bangor, in 
which the bishop's conduct made him uneasy, hie went to> 
Cambridge, and took his. degree of D. D. and returning to 
London became domestic chaplain to the earl of Mont* 
gomery (afterwards earl of Pembroke) and tutor to hfe» 
children, and was promoted to be chaplain to the king, 
prebendary of Westminster, and deati of Bangor, to the 
last of which preferments he was instituted March 28, 1634; 
and he held this deanery in commeudam till his death. He 
says that, " before he was forty years old, he narrowly 
escaped being elected bishop of St. Asaph.'*' He remained: 
in the enjoyment of these preferments about twelve years,, 
and in 1641 was advanced to the bishopric of Ossory, but 
the Irish rebellion breaking out in less than a month after 
his consecration, he was forced to take refuge in England, 
and joined the eourt, being in attendance on bis majesty, 
as one of his chaplains, at the battle of Edg$-hill> Oct. 23, 


1642. He remained also with the king during the greater 
part of the winter at Oxford, and then retired to Wales to 
be at more leisure to write his " Discovery of Mysteries,* 
or the plots of the parliament to overthrow both church 
and state/' published at Oxford, 1643, 4to. In the fol- 
lowing year be published his " Jura majestatis ; the rights 
of kings both in church and state, granted, first by God, 
secondly, violated by rebels, and thirdly, vindicated by 
the truth, 9 ' Oxford, 4to. * lie had also published in 1643, 
at the same place, "Vindiciae re gum, or the Grand Re<- 
bellion," &c. 

In the mean time he was employed to go to London to 
try to bring over the earl of Pembroke to the royal cause 
(two of whose sons were with the king at Oxford, and had 
been the bishop's pupils). This task he undertook, sur- 
rounded as it was with danger, and obnoxious as he knew 
himself to be by his publications. The negociation failed, 
and the earl was so incensed, that Dr. Williams had rea- 
son to think he would deliver him up to parliament, who 
had recently ordered his last mentioned publication to be 
burnt. He contrived, therefore, and not without some 
difficulty, to obtain a pass from the lord mayor of London, 
"as a poor pillaged preacher of Ireland," and by this 
means got to Northampton, and thence to Oxford, whence 
he went first to Wales, and then to Ireland, where he re- 
mained until after the battle of Naseby, in 1645. 

After this be underwent a series of hardships for his 
loyalty, and lived sometimes in Wales and sometimes in 
Ireland, in a very precarious way, until the restoration. 
As soon as he heard the first news of that event he went to 
Dublin, And preaching on the day of his arrival at St. 
Bride's, was the first man in Ireland who publicly prayed 
for the king. He then repaired to his diocese, and finding 
his palace as well as his cathedral in ruins, set himself to 
repair both, but found many difficulties, and was involved 
in many law-suits before he could recover the revenues 
belonging to the see. He appears to have been perfectly 
disinterested, for, besides what he laid out on these re- 
pairs, he devoted the greater part of his income to cha- 
ritable purposes. He died at Kilkenny, March 29, 1672, 
in the eighty-third year of his age, and was buried on the 
south-side of the chancel of the cathedral. 

Bishop Williams's other works were, 1. " Seven golden 
candlesticks, holding the seven greatest lights of Christian 

I 2 

116 W.II/LIAM& 

Religion," Lond.,1627, 4to. 2. * The True Church shewed 
to all men that desire to be members of the same : in six 
books, containing the whole body of divinity," ibid. 1629,. 
fol. $.' " The right way to the best Religion; wherein is 
largely explained the sum and principal heads of the Gospel* 
in certain sermons and treatises," ibid. 1636, fol. 4. " The 
great Antichrist revealed/' ibid. 1660, fol. In this he at- 
tempted to prove that Antichrist was neither pope, nor 
Turk, nor any one person, but the party which overthrew 
the church and state. He published also some other trea- 
tises arising from the circumstances of the times, and many 
sermons afterwards published collectively, in 1662, fol. 
and 1666, 4to. His most curious production, and from 
which the preceding circumstances of his life are taken, is 
entitled " The persecution and oppression of John Bale, 
and Griffith Williams, bishops of Ossory," Lond. 1664, 
4to. In this he institutes a parallel between bishop Bale 
and himself, as promoted to the same see at the mere mo- 
tion of kings, without any interest or application ; both 
violently expelled from the same house ; both their perse- 
cutions occasioned by their pulpit performances; the one 
by popish, the other by puritan adversaries ;> both their 
dangers by sea were great ; both persecuted by false ac- 
cusers ; to which Mr. Harris adds, " the same licentious 
spirit of railing appears in their writings, which tyb apology 
can excuse." ! 

WILLIAMS (John), an English prelate of great abilities 
end very distinguished character., was the youngest son of 
Edward Williams, esq. of Aber-Conway, in Caernarvon- 
shire, in Wales, where he was born March 25, 1582. He 
Was educated at the public school at Ruthin, in 1598, and 
at sixteen years of age admitted at St. John's college, in 
Cambridge. His natural parts were very uncommon, and 
his application still more so j for he was of so singular and 
happy a constitution, that from his youth upwards he never 
required more than three hours sleep out of the twenty- 
four for the purposes of perfect health. He took' the de- 
gree of A. B. in 1602, and was made fellow of his college - f 
yet this first piece of preferment was obtained by a manda- 
mus from James I. His manner of studying had something 
particular in it. He used to allot one month to a certain 
province, esteeming variety almost as refreshing as cessa- 

1 Aib. Ox. vol. II.— Harris's edition of Ware's Works, 


tiofi from labour; at the end of which he would take qp 
some other subject, and so on, till he came round, to his 
former courses. This method he observed, especially in 
his theological studies; and he found his account in it. He 
was also an exact philosopher, as well as ah able' divine, 
and admirably versed in all branches of literature. In 1605, 
when he took hi* master's degree, he entertained bis friends 
at the commencement in a splendid manner, for he was 
naturally generous, and was liberally supplied with money 
by his friends and patrons. John lord Lumley often fur* 
nished him both with books and money ; and Dr. Richard 
Vaughan, bishop of London, who was related to him, gave 
him an invitation to spend his time at his palace at vacation 
times. Being thus introduced into the best company, con- 
tributed greatly towards polishing bis manners. 

He was not, however, so much distinguished for his 
learning, as for his dexterity and skill in business. When 
he was no more than five and twenty, he was employed by 
the college in some concerns of theirs ; on which occasions 
he was sometimes admitted to speak before archbishop 
Bancroft, wh6 was exceedingly taken with his engaging 
wit and decent behaviour. Another time he was deputed, 
by the masters and fellows of his college, their agent to 
court, to petition the king for a mortmain, a* an increase 
of their maintenance; on this occasion he succeeded iu his 
suit, and was taken particular notice of by the king ; for, 
there was something in him which his majesty liked so well, 
that he told him of it long after when he came to be bis 
principal officer. He entered into orders in his twenty* 
seventh year ; and took a small living, which lay beyond 
St. Edmund's Bury, upon the confines of Norfolk. In 
1611 he was instituted to the rectory of Grafton Regis, in 
Northamptonshire, at the king's presentation ; and the 
same year was recommended to the lord-chancellor Eger- 
ton for his chaplain, but obtained leave of the chancellor 
to continue one year longer at Cambridge, in order to 
serve the office of proctor of the university. While Mr. 
Williams was in this post, the duke of Wirtemberg and his 
train happened to pay a visit to the university. The duke 
having the reputation of a learned prince, it was thought 
proper to entertain him with learned disputations. Mr. 
Williams being on this occasion president or moderator, 
performed his part with equal skill and address. Out of 
compliment to the duke he confirmed all his reasons with 


quotations from, the eminent professors of the German tini- 
rersities, which was so acceptable to the duke and his re- 
tinue, that they would not part with Mr. Williams from 
their company while they continued at Cambridge, and 
afterwards .carried him with them to the palace at New- 
market, and acquainted the king with the honour he had 
done to the literati of their country. The following year 
Mr. Williams took the degree of B. D, and afterward? 
chiefly resided in the house of his patron, lord Egerton, 
who advised with him on many occasions, and testified his 
regard for him by various promotions, particularly the 
reetory of Grafton Underwood, in Northamptonshire ; afed 
in 1613 he was made precentor of Lincoln; rector of 
Waldgrave, in Northamptonshire, in 1614; and between 
that year and 1617 was collated to a prebend and resi- 
dentiaryship in the church of Lincoln, and to prebends in 
those of Peterborough, Hereford, and St: David's, besides 
a sinecure in North Wales. 

The chancellor Egerton dying the 15th of March, 1616* 
17, gave Williams some books and papers, all written with 
bis own hand. His lordship, upon the day of his death, 
called Williams to him, and told him " that if he wanted 
money be would leave him such a legacy in his will as 
should enable him to begin the world like a gentleman." 
" Sir/ 9 days Williams, " I kiss your hands : you have filled 
my cup full ; I am far from want, unless it be of your 
lordship's directions how to live in the world if I survive 
you." " Well," said the chancellor, " I know you are 
an expert. workman ; take these tools to work with; they 
are the best I have ;" and so gave him the books and papers. 
Bishop Hacket says that he saw the notes ; and that they 
were collections for the well-ordering the high court of 
parliament, the court of chancery, the star-chamber, and 
the council-board : so that be had a good stock tp set qp 
with ; and Hacket does not doubt but his system of politics 
was drawn from chancellor Egetton's papers. 

When s\r Francis Bacon was made lord keeper, he of- 
fered to continue Williams his chaplain ; who, however, 
declining it, was made a justice of the peace by bis lord- 
ship for the county of Northampton. He was made king's 
chaplain at the same time, and had orders to attend his 
majesty in his northern progress, which was to begin soon 
after ; but the bishop of Winchester got leave for bim to 
stay and to take his doctor's degree, for the sake of giving 


entertainment to Marco Antonio de Dominis, archbishop 
ofSpalato, who was lately come to England, and desigped 
to be at Cambridge the commencement following. The 
questions which he maintained for his degree were, " Su- 
premus magistratus non estexcommunicabilis," and "Sub- 
ductio calicis est mutilatio sacramenti et sacerdotii." Dr. 
Williams now retired to his rectory ofWaldgrave, where 
he had been at the expence, before he came, of building, 
gardening, and planting, to render it an agreeable resi- 
dence. He bad also provided a choice collection of books, 
which he studied with his usual diligence. As a minister 
he was very attentive to the duties of bis function. He 
read prayers constantly on Wednesdays and Fridays, and 
preached twice every Sunday at Waldgrave, or at Grafton ; 
performing in bis turn also at Kettering, in a lecture 
preached by an association of the best divines in that 
neighbourhood. It was a common saying with him, that 
" the way to gee the credit from the nonconformists was, 
to put-preach them." And his preaching was so much 
liked that his church used to be thronged with the gentry 
of the neighbouring parishes as well as his own. In the 
mean time, he was most of all distinguished for his ex- 
tensive charities to the poor ; tbe decrepid, the aged, the 
widow, and the fatherless, were sure of a welcome share in 
" his hospitality. 

In 1619 Dr. Williams preached before tbe king on Matth. 
ii. 8, and printed his sermon by bis majesty's order. The 
same year he was collated to the deanery of Salisbury, and 
the year after removed to the deanery of Westminster. He 
obtained this preferment by the interest of the marquis of 
Buckingham, whom for some time he neglected to court, 
says bishop Hacket, for two reasons; first, because he 
mightily suspected the continuance of tbe marquis in fa- 
vour at court ; secondly, because be saw that the marquis 
was very apt suddenly to look cloudy upon his creatures, 
as if he had raised them up on purpose to cast them down. 
However,' once, when the doctor was attending the king, 
in the absence pf the marquis, his majesty asked him 
abruptly, and without any relation to the discourse then in 
hand, " When he was at Buckingham ?" " Sir," said the 
doctor, " I have had no business to resort to his lordship." 
"But," replied tbe king, " wheresoever he is, you must 
go to him about my business ;" which be accordingly did, 
and tbe marquis received him courteously. He took this 


as a hint from the king to visit the marquis, to whom he 
was afterwards serviceable in furthering his marriage with 
the great heiress, the earl of Rutland's daughter. He re- 
claimed her ladyship from the errors of the Church of 
Rome to the faith and profession of the Church of England ; 
in order to which he drew up the elements of the true re- 
ligion for her use, and printed twenty copies of it with no 
name, only, "By an old prebend of Westminster." 

The lord chancellor Bacon being removed from his office 
in May 1621, Williams was made lord keeper of the gFeat 
seal of England, the 10th of July following ; and the same 
month bishop of Lincoln, with the deanery of Westminster, 
and the rectory of Wakl grave, in commendam. ~ When the 
great seal was brought to the king from lord Bacon, his 
majesty was overheard by some near him to say, upon the 
delivery of it to hirri, " Now by my soule, 1 am pained at 
the heart where to bestow this ; for, as to my lawyers, I 
thinke they be all knaves. 19 In this high office bishop Wil- 
liams discharged his duties with eminent ability, and witfi 
extraordinary diligence and assiduity. It is said by Hac- 
ket, that when oi^r prelate first entered upon the office, he 
had such a load of business, that he was forced to sit by 
candle-light in the court of chancery two hours before 
day, and to remain there till between eight and nine; 
after which he repaired to the House of Peers, where 
he sat as speaker till twelve or one every day. After a 
short repast at home, he then returned to hear the causes 
in chancery, which he could not dispatch in the morning ; 
or if he attended the council at Whitehall, he came back 
towards evening, and followed his chancery business till 
eight at night, and later. After this when he came borne, 
he perused what papers his secretary brought to him ; and 
when that was done, though late in the night, he prepared 
himself for the business which was to be transacted next 
morning in the House of Lords. And it is said that when 
he had been one year lord keeper, he had finally concluded 
more causes than had been decided in the preceding seven 
years. In the Star-chamber he behaved with more lenity 
and moderation in general, than was usual among the 
judges of that court He would excuse himself from in- 
flicting any severe corporal punishment upon an offender, 
by saying that " councils had forbidden bishops from med- 
dling with blood in a judicial form." In pecuniary fines he 
was also very lenient, and very ready to remit his own share 


in fines. Of this we have the following instance. Sir 
Francis Inglefield had asserted before witnesses, that " he 
could prove this holy bishop judge had been bribed by some 
that had fared well in their causes." The lord keeper im- 
mediately called upon sir Francis to prove his assertion, 
which he being unable to do, was fined some thousand 
pounds to be paid to the king and the injured party. Soon 
after bishop Williams sent for sir Francis, and told him he 
would give him a demonstration that he was above a bribe ; 
and u for my part," said he, " I forgive you every penny of 
my fine, and will beg of his majesty to do the same." This 
piece of generosity made sir Francis acknowledge bis fault, 
and he wjis afterwards received into some degree of friend- 
ship and acquaintance with the lord keeper. Weldon's 
charge of corruption against Williams seems to be equally 
ill founded, nothing of the kind having ever been proved. 

Bishop Williams was very desirous of keeping upon good 
terms with the favourite Buckingham, but it appears, not- 
withstanding, that he withstood him when be had just rea- 
son for it. He sometimes also gave Buckingham good ad* 
vice, which being delivered with freedom, could not be verji 
acceptable to. the haughty favourite. His resolution in 
opposing Buckingham's designs, when he saw weighty rea- 
sons for it, was so remarkable that the king used to say, 
that " he was a stout man, and durst do more than himself. 1 * 
James sometimes really appeared afraid of openly express- 
ing his dislike at such of Buckingham's actions as he really 
disapproved ; and we are told that his majesty thanked 
God, that be had put Williams into the place of lord 
keeper ; " for," said he, <c he that will not wrest justice 
for Buckingham's sake, whom be loves, will never be 
corrupted with money which he never loved." And be- 
cause the lord keeper bad lived for the space of three years 
upon the bare revenues of his office, and was not richer by 
the sale of one cursitor's place in all that time, his majesty 
gave him a bountiful new-year's gift, thinking that it was 
but reasonable to encourage, by his liberality, a man who 
never sought after wealth by the sordid means of extortion 
or bribery. 

The lord keeper made use of his influence with the king, 
in behalf of several noblemen who were under the royal 
displeasure and in confinement. He prevailed with his 
majesty to set at liberty the earl of Northumberland, who 
had been, fifteen years a prisoner in the Tower. ' He pfo-, 


cured also the enlargement of tbe earls of Oxford and 
Arundel, both of whom had been a considerable time under 
confinement. He employed likewise his good offices with 
the king, in behalf of many others of inferior rank, parti- 
cularly some clergymen who offended by their pulpit free- 
doms. One instance we shall extract from his principal 
biographer, as a proof of his address, and knowledge of 
king James's peculiar temper. A Mr. Knight, a young di- 
vine at Oxford, had advanced in a sermon somewhat which 
was said to be derogatory to the king's prerogative. For 
this he was a long time imprisoned, and a charge was about 
to be drawn up against him, tp impeach him for treason- 
able doctrine. One Dr. White, a clergyman far advanced 
in years, was likewise in danger of a prosecution of the 
same kind. Bishop Williams was very desirous of bring* 
ing both these gentlemen off, and hit on the following con- 
trivance. Some instructions had been appointed to be 
drawn up by his care apd direction, for the performance.of 
useful and orderly preaching ; which being under his hand 
to dispatch, he now besought bis majesty that this proviso 
plight pass among the rest, that none of the clergy should 
be permitted to preach before the age of thirty years, nor 
ftfter three-score. " On my soul," said the king, " tbe 
devil, or some fit of madness is in the motion ; for I have 
many great wits, and of clear distillation, that have preached 
before me at Royston and Newmarket to my great liking, 
that are under thirty. And my prelates and chaplains, 
that are far stricken in years, are the best masters of that 
faculty that Europe affords." " I agree to all this," an- 
swered the lord keeper, " and since your majesty will 
pillow both young and old to go up into the pulpit, it is 
but justice that you shew indulgence to the young ones if 
they run into errors before their wits be settled (fpr every 
apprentice is allowed to mar some work before \ie be cun- 
ning in the mystery of his trade), and pity to the old ones, 
if some of them fall into dotage when their brains grow, 
dry. Will your majesty conceive displeasure, and not lay 
it down; if the former set your teeth on edge sometimes, 
before they are mellow-wise ; and if the doctrine of the 
latter be touched with a blemish, when they begin to be 
rotten, and. to drop from the tree •'" " This is not unfit for 
consideration," said the king, " but what do you drive at ?" 
" Shr," replied Williams, " first to beg your pardon for 
mine own boldness ; then to remember you that Knight is 



a beardless boy, from whom exactness of judgment could 
not be expected. And that White is a decrepit, spent 
man, who had not a fee-simple, but a lease of reason, and 
it is expired. Both these that have been foolish in their 
several extremes of years, I prostrate at the feet of your 
princely clemency." In consequence of this application, 
king James readily granted a pardon to both of them- 

Bishop Williams continued in favour during this reign, 
and attended king James at his death, and preached his 
funeral-sermon, on 2 Chrbn. ix. 29, 30, 3 1 , which was after- 
wards printed. That king had promised to confer upon 
him the archbishopric of York at the next vacancy ; but 
bis lordship's conduct in many points not being agreeable 
to the duke of Buckingham, he was removed by Charles 
I. from bis post of lord keeper, Oct. 1626. He was ordered 
also not to appear in parliament, but refused to comply 
with that order, and taking his seat in the House of Peers, 
promoted the petition of right. 

For four years after Williams was consecrated bishop 
of Lincoln, the multiplicity of his affairs prevented his 
visitipg his clergy, yet bis government, it is said, was such 
as to give content to his whole diocese. He managed the 
affairs of it with the greatest exactness by faithful substi- 
tutes,, who gave him a just account of all matters, so that 
he knew the name and character of every one of his clergy, 
and took care to encourage the deserving. When now, 
however, he came to Bugden, he found it necessary to 
repair his house, and the chapel, which be did at a great 
expence, and in a magnificent manner. The concourse 
that reported to this chapel was very great ; and his table 
was generally well filled with gentry, so that the historian 
Sanderson, who is no friend to Williams, said, that " he 
lived at Bugden more episcopally than any of his prede- 
cessors." All the great persons and nobility who bad oc- 
casion to travel that way, used to call upon his lordship, 
from whom they and their retinue were sure of a hearty 
welcome, and the best entertainment. All the neighbour- 
ing clergy also, and many of the yeomanry, were free to 
come to his table, and, indeed, he seldom sat down with- 
out some of the clergy. He was also extremely charitable 
to the poor, and used to say, that " he would spend hi* 
own while he had it; for he thought his adversaries would 
not permit him long to enjoy it/' Had he not lived i n thi? hos- 
pitable manner, yet his conversation, and agreeable man^ 


ner of accommodating himself to his guests, were so gene- 
rally pleasing, that he was not likely to be much alone. 
Many members of both universities, the most distinguished 
for their wit and learning, made him frequent visits ; so 
lhat very often, taking the company and entertainment 
together, Bugden was said to resemble one of the univer- 
sities in commencement time. It was his custom, at his 
table, to have a chapter in the English Bible read daily at 
dinner by one of the choristers, and another at supper in 
Latin by one of his gentlemen. 

This hospitable and splendid manner of living gave of- 
fence to the court, as he was publicly known to be out of 
favour there. It was said, that such a mode of living was 
very improper for a man in disgrace. To which he re- 
plied, that " he knew not what he had done, to live the 
worse for their sakes, who did not love him." His family 
was the nursery of several noblemen's sons; particularly 
those of the marquis of Hertford, and of the earls of Pem- 
broke, Salisbury, and Leicester. These, together with 
many other young gentlemen, had tutors assigned them, 
of whom our prelate took an account, how their pupils 
improved in virtue and learning. To those who were 
about to be removed to the universities, before he parted 
with them, he read himself a brief system of logic, which 
lectures .even his own servants might attend who were ca- 
pable of such instruction : and he took particular care 
that they should be thoroughly grounded in the principles 
of religion. He was exceedingly liberal to poor scholars 
in both universities; and his disbursements this way are' 
said every year to have amounted to a thousand, ami 
sometimes to twelve hundred pounds. He was also very 
generous to learned foreigners. When Dr. Peter du Mou- 
lin fled to England, to avoid persecution in France, bishop 
Williams hearing of him, sent his chaplain, Dr. Hacket, to 
pay him a visit, and supposing that he might be in want, 
bade him carry him some money, not naming any sum. 
Hacket said, that he supposed he could not give him less 
than twenty pounds. " I did demur upon the sum," said 
the bishop, " to try you. Is twenty pounds a fit gift for 
me to give to a man of bis parts and deserts ? Take an 
hundred, and present it from me, and tell him, he shall 
not want, and I will come shortly and visit him myself ;" 
which he afterwards did, and supplied Du Moulin's wants 
while he was in England. He was also a liberal patron of 


kis countryman John Owpn, the epigrammatist, whom 
Me maintained for several years, and when he died be 
buried him, and erected a monument for him at his own 

In the mean time, the duke of Buckingham was not con- 
tent; with having removed our prelate from all power at 
court, but for a long time laboured to injure him, although 
some time before his death he appears to have been rather 
reconciled to him. . With Laud, however, Williams found 
all reconciliation impossible, for which it is not easy to 
assign any cause, unless that their political principles were 
in some respects incompatible, and that Laud was some- 
what jealous of the ascendancy which Williams might ac- 
quire, if again . restored at court. In consequence of this 
animosity, besides being deprived of the title of privy- 
counsellor, Williams was perpetually harassed with law- 
suits and prosecutions; and though nothing criminal could 
be proved against him, yet he was, by these means, put 
to great trouble and expence. Amongst other prosecu- 
tions, one arose from the following circumstances, as re- 
lated by bis biographer Hacket, " In the conference 
which the bishop had with his majesty, when he was ad- 
mitted to kiss bis hand, after the passing of the petition of 
Right, the king conjuring his lordship to tell him freely, 
how he might best ingratiate himself with the people, his 
lordship replied, ' that the Puritans were many and strong 
sticklers ; and if his majesty would give but private orders 
to his ministers to connive a little at their party, and shew 
them some indulgence, it might perhaps mollify them a lit- 
tle, and make them more pliant ; though he did not promise 
that they would be trusty long to any government.' And 
the king answered, that 'he had thought upon this before, 
and would do so.' About two months after this, the bishop 
at his court at Leicester acted according to this counsel 
resolved upon by his majesty ; and witbal told sir John 
Lamb and Dr. Sibthorp his reason for it, ' that it was not 
only his own, but the Royal pleasure.' Now Lamb was 
one, who had been formerly infinitely obliged to the bishop : 
but, however, a breach happening between them, he and 
Sibthorp carried the bishop's words to bishop Laud, and 
he to the king, who was then at Bisham. Hereupon it 
was resolved, that upon the deposition of these two, a bill 
should be drawn up against the bishop for revealing the 
king's secrets, being a sworn counsellor. That hi form a- 


tion, together with some others, being transmitted' to the 
council-table, was ordered for the present to be sealed 
top, and committed to the custody of Mr. Trumbal, one 
of the clerks of the council. Nevertheless the bishop made 
a shift to procure a copy of them. And so the business 
rested for some years. However, the bishop was still 
more and more declining in favour, by reason of a settled 
misunderstanding between him and bishop Laud, who looked 
upon Williams as a man who gave encouragement to the 
Puritans, and was cool with respect to our church-disci- 
pline ; while, on the other hand, Williams took Laud to 
be a great favourer of the papists. Laud's interest at court 
was n6w so great, that in affairs of state, as well as of the 
church, he governed almost without controui; so that a 
multitude of lesser troubles surrounded bishop Williams, 
and several persons attacked him with a view to ingratiate 
themselves at court. Abundance of frivolous accusation 
and little vexatious law-suits were brought against him 
daily ; and it was the height of his adversaries policy to 
empty his purse, and clip his wings, by all the means they 
could invent, that so at last he might He wholly at their 
mercy, and not be able to shift for himself. Notwithstand- 
ing all which, what with his innocency, and what with hk 
courage springing from it, he bore up against them all, 
and never shewed any grudge or malice against them. But 
his lordship, perceiving himself to be thus perpetually 
harassed, asked the lord Cottington, whether he could tell 
him, what he should do to procure his peace, and such 
other ordinary favours as other bishops bad from his ma- 
jesty. To which the lord Cottington answered, that the 
splendor in which he lived, and the great resort of com- 
pany which came to him, gave offence ; and that the king 
must needs take it ill, that one under the height of his 
displeasure should live at so magnificent a rate. In the 
next place, his majesty would be better satisfied, if he 
would resign the deanery of Westminster, because he did 
not care that he should be so near a neighbour at White- 
hall. As for the first of these reasons, his natural temper 
would not suffer him to comply with it, and to moderate 
his expences in house-keeping ; and he was not so short- 
sighted as to part with his deanery upon such precarious 
terms; "for," said he, " what health can come from such 
a remedy ? Am I like to be beholden to them for a settled 
tranquillity, who practise upon the ruin of my estate, and 


the tbrall of my honour ? If I forfeit one preferment for fear, 
will it not encourage them to tear cpe in piecemeal here- 
after? It is "not my case alone, but every man's ; and jf 
the law cannot maintain my right, it can maintain no 
man's." So, in spite of all their contrivances to out him, 
he kept the deanery till the king received it from him at 
Oxford in 1644, But they did all they could, since he 
was resolved to hold it, to make him as uneasy as possible 
in it. In this uneasy situation he continued several years; 
and now, it was sufficiently known to all people how much 
he was out of favour ; so that it was looked upon as a piece 
of merit to assist in his ruin. And this perhaps might be 
some incitement to what sir Robert Osborn, high sheriff of 
Huntingdonshire, acted against him in the levying of the 
ship-money. The bishop, for his part, was very cautious 
to carry himself without offence in this matter ; but sir Ro- 
bert, laying a very unequal levy upon the hundred wherein 
Bugden was, the bishop wrote courteously to him to rectify 
it, and that he and his neighbours would be ready to see 
it collected. Upon this sir Robert, catching at the op- 
portunity, posts up to the court, and makes an heavy com- 
plaint against the bishop, that he not only refused the 
payment of ship-money himself, but likewise animated the 
hundred to do so too. And yet for all that, when the bi- 
shop afterwards cleared himself before the lords of the 
council, and they were satisfied that he had behaved him- 
self with duty and prudence, sir Robert was not repre- 
hended, nor had the bishop any satisfaction given him, nor 
was the levy regulated. After this, wa& revived the long 
and troublesome trial against the bishop in the Star-cham- 
ber, which commenced in the fourth year of king Charles I. 
upon some informations brought against him by Lamb and 
Stbthorp. Here he made so noble a defence of himself, 
that the attorney- general, Noy, grew weary of the cause, 
and slackened bis prosecution ; but that great lawyer dying, 
and the information being managed by Kilvert a solicitor, 
the bishop, when the business came to a final determina- 
tion, was fined 10,000/. to the king, and to suffer impri- 
sonment during bis majesty's pleasure, and withal to be 
suspended by the high commission court from itll his dig- 
nities, offices, and functions. In his imprisonment in the 
Tower, hearing that his majesty would not abate any thing 
of his fine, he desired that it might be taken up by 1000/. 
yearly, as his estate would bear it, till the whole should 

128 W.ILLIAM S. 


be paid ; but he could not have so small a favour granted. 
Upon which Kilvert, the bishop's avowed enemy, was or- 
dered to go to Bugden and Lincoln, and there to seize 
upon all he could, and bring it immediately into the ex- 
chequer. Kilvert, being glad of this office, made sure of all 
that could be found ; goods of all sorts, plate, books, and 
such like, to the value of 10,000/. of which he never gave 
account but of 800/. The timber he felled; killed the 
deer in the park; sold an organ, which cost 120/. for 10/.; 
pictures, which cost 400/. for 5/.; made away with what 
books he pleased, and continued revelling for three sum* 
mers in Bugden-house. For four cellars of wine, cyder, 
ale, and beer, with wood, hay, corn, and the like, stored 
up for a year or two, he gave no account at all. And thus 
a large personal estate was squandered away, and not the 
least part of the king's fine paid all this while; whereas if 
it had been managed to the best advantage, it would have 
been sufficient to discharge the whole. It were endless to 
repeat all the contrivances against his lordship during his 
confinement; the bills which were drawn up, and the suits 
commenced against him, as it were on purpose to impo- 
verish him, and to plunge him into debt, that so, if he 
procured his enlargement from this prison, he might not 
be long out of another. However, he bore all these af- 
flictions with the utmost patience ; and if a stranger had 
seen his lordship in the Tower, he would never have taken 
him for a prisoner, but rather for the lord and master of 
the place. For here he lived with his usual cheerfulness 
and hospitality, and wanted only a larger allowance to 
give his guests an heartier welcome ; for now he was con- 
fined to bare 500/. a year, a great part of which was con- 
sumed in the very fees of the Tower. He diverted himself, 
when alone, sometimes with writing Latin poems ; at other 
times with the histories of such as were noted for their 
sufferings in former ages. And for the three years and a 
half that he was confined, he was the same, man as else- 
where, excepting that his frequent law-suits broke his 
studies often ; and it could not be seen that he was the least 
altered in his health or the pleasantness of his temper. 19 

At length when the parliament met in November 1640, 
bishop Williams petitioned the king for bis enlargement, 
and to have his writ of summons to parliament, which his 
majesty thought proper to refuse ; but about a fortnight 
after, the House of Lords sent the gentleman -usher of the 


black rod to demand him of the lieutenant of the Tower, in 
consequence of which he took his seat among his brethren. 
Some being set on to try how he stood affected to his pro- 
secutors, he answered, that " if they had no worse foes than 
him, they might fear no harm ; and that he saluted them 
with the charity of a bishop ;" and when Kilvert came to 
him to crave pardon and indemnity for all the wrongs he 
had done, "I assure you pardon," said the bishop, " for 
what you have done before ; but this is a new fault, that 
you take me to be of so base a spirit, as to defile myself 
with treading upon so mean a creature. Live still by 
petty-fogging and impeaching, and think that I have for- 
gotten you." And now the king, understanding with what 
courage and temper he had behaved himself under his mis- 
fortunes, was pleased to be reconciled to him ; and com- 
manded all orders, filed or kept in any court or registry 
upon the former informations against him, to be taken off, 
razed, and cancelled, that nothing might stand upon record 
to his disadvantage. 

When the earl of Strafford came to be impeached in par- 
liament, Williams defended the rights of the bishops, in a 
very significant speech, to vote in case of blood, as Hacket 
relates; but lord Clarendon relates just the contrary. He 
says, that this bishop, without communicating with any of 
his brethren, very frankly declared his opinion, that " they 
ought not to be present ; and offered, not only in his own 
name, but for the rest of the bishops, to withdraw always 
when that business was entered upon :" an,d so, adds the 
noble historian, betrayed a fundamental right of the whole 
order, to the great prejudice of the king, and to the taking 
away the life of that person, who could not otherwise have 
suffered. Shortly after, when the king declared, that he 
neither would, nor could in conscience, give his royal assent 
to that act of attainder ; and when the tumultuous citizens 
came about the court with noise and clamour for justice ; 
the lord Say desired the king to confer with his bishops for 
the satisfaction of bis conscience, and with bishop Williams 
in particular, who told him, says lord Clarendon, that "he 
must consider, that as he bad a private capacity and a pub- 
lic, so he had a public conscience as well as a private : that 
though his private conscience, as a man, would not permit 
him to do an act contrary to his own understanding, judg- 
ment, and conscience, yet his public conscience as a king, 
which obliged him to do all things for the good of his 

Vol. XXXII. K 


people, and to preserve his kingdom in peace for 
and his posterity, would not only permit him to do that, 
but even oblige and require him J that he saw in what com* 
motion the people were; that his own life, and that of the 
queen and the royal issue, might probably be sacrificed to 
that fury : and it would be very strange, if his conscience 
should prefer the right of one single private person, how 
innocent soever, before all those other lives and the pre- 
servation of the kingdom. This," continues lord Clareb- 
don, " was the argumentation of that unhappy casuist, 
who truly, it may be, did believe himself : w yet he reveals 
another anecdote, which shews, at least if true, that bishop 
Williams could have nb favourable intentions towards the 
unfortunate earl of Strafford. It had once been mentioned 
to the bishop, when he was out at court, whether by autho- 
rity or no was not known, says the historian, that " hi* 
peace should be made there, if he would resign his bi- 
shopric and deanery of Westminster, and take a good 
bishopric in Ireland: 99 which he positively refused, and 
said, " he had much to do to defend himself against the 
archbishop (Laud) here ; but, if he was in Ireland, there 
was a man (meaning the earl of Strafford) who would cot 
off his head within one month." 

In 1641, he was advanced to the archbishopric of York; 
and the same year opposed, in a long speech, the bill for 
depriving the bishops of their seats in the House of Lords ; 
which had this effect, that it laid the' bill asleep for five 
months. Then the mob flocked aooiit the parliament-house, 
crying out, "No bishops, no bishops;" and insulted the 
prelates, as they passed to the House. WiHiamfc was one 
of the bishops who was most Yudely treated by the rabble ; 
his person was assaulted, and his robes torn from his back. 
Upon this, he returned to his house, the deanery of West- 
minster ; and sending for all the bishops then in the town, 
Who were in number twelve* proposed, as absolutely ne- 
cessary, that " they might unanimously and presently pre- 
pare a protestation, to send to the House, against the force 
that was used upon them ; and against all the acts which 
were or shotild be done during the time that they should 
by force be kept from doing their duties in the House ;" 
and immediately, having pen and ink ready, himself pre- 
pared a protestation, which Was sent. But the politic 
bishop Williams is here represented to have been trans- 
ported by passion into impolitic measures ; for, no sooner 


was this protestation communicated to the House than the 
governing Lords manifested a great satisfaction in it ; some 
of them saying, that " there was digitus Dei to bring that 
to pass, which they could not otherwise have compassed :" 
and, without ever declaring any judgment or opinion of 
their own upon it, sent to desire a conference with the 
Commons, who presently joined with tbem in accusing the 
protesters of high treason, and sending them all to the 
Tower ; where they continued till the bill for putting them 
out of the House was passed, which was not till many 
months after. Lord Clarendon says, there was only one 
gentleman in the House of Commons that spoke in the 
behalf of these prelates ; Who said, among other things, 
that "he did not believe they were guilty of high treason, 
but that they were stark-mad, and therefore desired they 
might be sent to Bedlam." 

In June 1642, the king being at York, our archbishop 
was enthroned in person in his own cathedral, but, soon 
after the king had left York, which was in July following, 
was obliged to leave it too ; the younger Hotham, who 
was coming thither with bis forces, having sworn solemnly 
to seize and kill him, for some opprobrious words spoken of 
him concerning his usage of the king at Hull. He retired 
to his estate at Aber Conway, and fortified Conway«castle 
for the king ; which so pleased his majesty, that by a letter, 
Oxford, Aug. the 1st, 1643, the king " heartily desired him 
to go on with that work, assuring him, that, whatever 
moneys he should lay out upon the fortification of the said 
castle should be repayed unto him before the custody 
thereof should be put into any other hand than his 'own, -or 
such as he should command." By virtue of a warrant, Jan. 
2, 1643-4, the archbishop deputes his nephew William 
Hooks, esq. to have the custody of this castle ; and, some 
time after, being sent for, set out to attend the king at Ox- 
ford, whom he is said to have, cautioned particularly against 
Cromwell, who, " though then of but mean rank and use 
in the army, yet would' be sure %o rise higher* I knew 
him," says he, " at Buckden ; but never knew his religion. 
He was a common spokesman for sectaries, and maintained 
their parts with stubbornness. He never discoursed as if 
he were pleased with your majesty and your great officers ; 
indeed he loves none that are more than his equals. Your 
majesty did him but justice in repulsing a petition put up 
by him against sir Thomas Steward, of the Isle of Ely ; but 

k 2 


he takes them all for his enemies that would not let him 
undo his best friend ; and, above all that live, I think he 
is injuriarum pcrsequentissimus, as Port i us Latro said of 
Catiline. He talks openly, that it is fit some should act 
more vigorously against your forces, and bring your per- 
son into the power of the parliament. He cannot give a 
good word of his general the earl of Essex ; because, he 
says, the earl is but half an enemy to your majesty, and 
hath done you more favour than harm. His fortunes are 
broken, that it is impossible for him to subsist, much lest 
to be what he aspires to, but by your majesty's bounty, or 
by the ruin of us all, and a common confusion; as one 
said, ' Lentulus salva republica salvus esse non potuit.* la 
short, every beast hath some evil properties; but Crom- 
well hath the properties of all evil beasts. My bumble 
motion is, either that you would win him to you by pro- 
mises of fair treatment, or catch him by some stratagem, 
and cut him off." 

After some stay at Oxford, he returned to his own coun- 
try, having received a fresh charge from his majesty to 
take care of all North Wales, but especially of Conway- 
castle, in which the people of the country had obtained 
leave of the archbishop to lay up all their valuables. A 
year after this, sir John Owen, a colonel for the king, 
marching that way after a defeat, obtained of prince Ru- 
pert to be substituted under his hand commander of the 
castle; and so surprising it by force entered it, notwith- 
standing it was before given to the bishop under the king's 
own signet, to possess it quietly, till the charges he had 
been at should be refunded him, which as yet had never 
been offered. The archbishop's remonstrances at court 
meeting with no success, he being joined by the country- 
people, whose properties were detained in the castle, and 
assisted by one colonel Mitton, who was a zealous man for 
the parliament, forced open the gates, and entered it. The 
archbishop did not join the colonel with any intention to 
prejudice his majesty's service, but agreed to put him into 
the castle, on condition that every proprietary should pos- 
sess his own, which the colonel saw performed. 

After the king was beheaded; the archbishop spent his 
days in sorrow, study, and devotion ; and is said to have 
risen constantly every night out of his bed at midnight, and 
to have prayed for a quarter of an hour on his bare knees, 
without any thing but his shirt and waistcoat on. He lived 


not much above a year after, dying the 25th of March 1 650 r 
he was buried in Llandegay church, where a monument 
was erected to him by bis nephew and heir, sir Griffith Wil- 
liams. Besides several sermons, he published a book 
against archbishop Laud's innovations in church-matters 
and religious ceremonies, with this title, " The Holy Table, 
Name, and Thing, more antiently, properly, and literally, 
used under the New Testament, than that of Altar. Writ- 
ten long ago by a minister in Lincolnshire, in answer to D. 
Coel, a judicious divine of queen Marie's dayes. Printed 
for the diocese of Lincoln, 1637;" in quarto. Lord Cla- 
rendon, though far from being favourable to this prelate, 
yet represents this "book so full of good learning, and 
that learning so closely and solidly applied, though it 
abounded with too many light expressions, that it gained 
him reputation enough to be able to do hurt ; and shewed, 
that in his retirement he had spent his time with his books 
very profitably. He used .all the wit and all the malice he 
could, to awaken the people to a jealousy of these agita- 
tions, and innovations in the exercise of religion ; not with- 
out insinuations that it aimed at greater alterations, for 
which be knew the people would quickly find a name : and 
he was ambitious to have it believed, that the archbishop 
Laud was his greatest enemy, for his having constantly op* 
posed his rising to any government in the church, as a man 
whose hot and hasty spirit he had long known. 9 ' 

In the mean time, there have not been wanting those,, 
who, without disguising his infirmities, have set archbishop 
Williams in a better light than we find him represented by 
the earl of Clarendon, who seems by no means to have 
loved the. man. Arthur Wilson tells us, that, "though be 
was composed of many grains of good learning, yet the 
height of his spirit, I will not say pride, made him odious 
even to those that raised him ; haply because they could 
not attain to those ends by him, that they required of him* 
But t\eing of a comely and stately presence, and that ani- 
mated with a great mind, made him appear very proud to 
the vulgar eye; but that very temper raised him to aim at 
great things, which he affected : tor the old ruinous body 
of the abbey-church at Westminster was new clothed by 
him ; the fair and ' beautiful library of St. John's in Cam- 
bridge was a pile of his erection ; and a very complete, 
chapel built by him at Lincoln-college in Oxford, merely 
for the name of Lincoln, having no interest in nor relation. 


• * 

to that university. But that which heightened him most 
in the opinion of those that knew him best, was his boun<- 
tiful mind to men in want ; being a great patron to sup- 
port, where there was merit that wanted supply: but these 
great actions, were not publicly visible : those were more 
apparent that were looked on with envious, rather than with 
emulous eyes. 9 * 

Hacket likewise, after observing that he was a man of 
great hospitality, charity, and generosity, especially to gen-» 
tlemen of narrow fortunes, and poor scholars in both uni- 
versities, informs us that his disbursements this way every 
year amounted to 10901. or sometimes 12002. Hacket had 
reason to know his private character ; for he was iris chap- 
lain, and although he may be supposed partial to so emi- 
nent a benefactor, the character he gives of archbishop 
Williams is, in general, not only consistent with itself, but 
with some contemporary authorities. He appears, amidst 
all his secular concerns, to have entertained a strong sense 
of the importance of religion. When a divine once came 
to him for institution to a living, Williams expressed him- 
self thus ; " I have passed through many places of honour 
and trust, both in church and state, more than any of my 
order in England these seventy years before. But were I 
but assured, that by my preaching I had converted but one 
soul unto God, I should take therein more spiritual joy 
and comfort, than in all the honours and offices which have 
been bestowed upon me." 

Archbishop Williams undertook a Latin Commeutary on 
the Bible; and the notes collected from various authors by 
his own hand were formerly in the custody of Mr.Goukuid, 
keeper of Westminster-college library. His lordship know- 
ing well, that to perform such a task completely was above 
the abilities of any one man, intended to leave it to be 
finished by twelve or more of the best scholars in the na- 
tion, whom he had in his eye, and was willing to give them 
twenty thousand -pounds rather than it should be left un- 
finished. He likewise resolved* as notieed by Dr. Pegge, 
in his valuable life of that prelate, to publish the works of 
his predecessor bishop Gtosthead, which were scattered in 
several libraries at home and abroad, and he digested what 
he could procure of them, and wrote arguments upon va- 
rious parts of them. 1 

i Hacket'i Life of Abp. Williams, fol.—PhiUips's and Stearins'! Lira, $?•. 
—Clarendon's Hist— Lloyd's Worthies,— Biog. Brit. 


WILLIAMS (John)» an able divine, and bishop of Chi- 
chester, was bprn in Northamptonshire in 1634, In 16$ I 
he entered a commoner of Magdalen-hall, Oxford, where 
in 16$$ be completed his degree* in arts* anjd was ordained. 
Id 1673 he was collated to the rectory of St. Mildred in the 
Poultry, London, and in 1683 to the prebend of Reymere 
in the cathedral of St. Paul. After the revolution he be* 
eatne chaplain to king William and queen Mary, and was 
preferred to a prebend of Canterbury, and in December 
)6?6 advanced to the bishppric of Chichester, in which, he 
died in 1 709. He was a considerable writer io the con- 
troversies with the papists and dissenters, and preached the 
lectures founded by Mr. Boyle, his sermons on that occa-> 
sioo being published in 1695, 4to, under the title of " The 
characters of Divine Revelation*" He wrote also a " Hi*> 
tqry of the. Gunpowder Treaaon," and many controversial 
pamphlets numerated by Wood. He lived in great inti- 
macy with Tillptson, who says qf him, "J!^ Williams is 
really one of the best men I know, and most unwearied in 
doing good, and his preaching is very weighty and jnpUr 
cious*" When Firmin, the Socinian, published his " Con- 
siderations on the explications of the doctrine of the Tri- 
nity, 1 ' Pr. Williams wrote the same yeqx (.1694) a "Vindi- 
cation of archbishop TilloMon's Four Sermons (concerning 
the divinity and incarnation of pur blessed Saviour) and of 
the bishop of Worcester's sermon pn the .mysteries pf the 
Christian faith." In this, which was not published till 1695, 
after Tillotson's death, Dr. Williams observes that it was not 
without the archbishop's direction and encouragement, that 
he entered upon it, and that had he lived to have perused 
the whole, as he did a part of, it a few dajs before hip 
kit hours, it had cpme with greater advantage into tb# 
world, &c. ' 

WILLIAMS (Rooea), a braye offiqer in the reign of 
queen Elizabeth, was the son of Thomas Williams, Qf Pep- 
rose in Monmouthshire, and educated at Oxfp^d, probably 
in Brasenose college. After leaving the university, he be- 
came a volunteer in the army, and served under the duke 
of Alva. In 1581, he was in the EoglUh army commanded 
by general Norris inFriestand, where Camden says the 
enemy's troops were defeated by sir Roger Williams at 
Northorn, who. probably therefore wis knighted for bis gak 

» Alb. to. vol IL~*Mi'f life 9t TiUWon 


lant exploits before this time, although Wood says that ho- 
nour was not conferred upon him until 1586. In this last* - 
mentioned year he appears again in the army commanded 
by the earl of Leicester in Flanders. When the prince of 
Parma laid siege to Venlo in Guelderland, Williams, with 
one Skenk, a Frieslahder, undertook to pierce through the 
enemy's camp at midnight, and enter the town. They 
penetrated without much difficulty, as far as the prince of 
Parma's tent, but were then repulsed. The attempt, how- 
ever, gained them great reputation in the army. In 1591, 
Williams was sent to assist in the defence of Dieppe, and 
remained there beyond August 24, 1593. What other ex- 
ploits he performed, we know not, but it is probable that 
he continued in the service of his country during the war 
in the Low Countries, of which war be wrote a valuable 
history. He died in London in 1595, and was buried in 
St. Paul's, attended to his grave by the earl of Essex, and 
other officers of distinction. *' He might," says Camden, 
" have been compared with the most famous captains of 
our age, could he have tempered the heat of his warlike 
spirit with more wariness and prudent discretion. 9 ' Wood 
calls him a colonel, but it does not clearly appear what 
rank he attained in the army. From his writings, which 
are highly extolled by Camden, he appears to have been 
a man of Strong natural parts, and sound judgment. His 
principal writing is entitled "The Actions of the Low 
Countries," Lond. 1618, 4to, which has lately been re- 
printed in Mr. Scott's new edition of the Somers's Tracts. 
He wrote also " A brief discourse of War, with bis opinion 
concerning some part of military discipline," ibid. J 590, 
4to, in which he defends the military art of his country 
against that of former days. He mentions in his " Actions . 
of the Low Countries," a " Discourse of the Discipline of 
the Spaniards;" and in Rymer's Fcedera is his "Advice 
from France, Nov. 20, 1590." Some of his MSS. and 
Letters are in the Cotton Library in the British Museum. 1 
WILLIAMSON (Sir Joseph), an eminent statesman 
and benefaetor to Queen's college, Oxford, was son of 
Joseph Williamson, vicar of Bridekirk in Cumberland fjrom 
1625 to 1634. At his first setting out in life be was em- 
ployed as a clerk or secretary by Richard Tolson, esq. ; 
representative in parliament for Cockermouth ; and, when 

1 Atb. Ox. yoI, I. new «dit— -Camdtn'i Queen Elixabetb.— Rettituta, toI. I. 



at London with bis master, begged to be recommended to 
Dr. Busby, that be might, be admitted into Westminster- 
school, where be made such improvement that the master 
recommended bim to the learned Dr. Langbaine, provost 
of Queen's college, Oxford, who came to the election at 
Westminster. He admitted him on the foundation, under 
the tuition of Dr. Thomas Smith (for whom sir Joseph after- 
wards procured the bishopric of Carlisle), and provided for 
him at his own expence ; and when he had taken his ba- 
chelor's degree, February 2, 1653, sent him to France as 
tutor to a person of quality. On his return to college he 
was elected fellow, and, as it is said, took deacon's orders. 
In 1657 he was created A. M. by diploma. Soon after the 
restoration he was recommended to sir Edward Nicholas, 
and bis successor Henry earl of Arlington, principal secret 
tary of state, who appointed him clerk or keeper of the 
paper-office at Whitehall (of which he appointed Mr. Smith 
deputy), and employed him in translating and writing me- 
morials in French; and Jifne 24, 1677, he was sworn one 
of the clerks of the council in ordinary, and knighted. He 
was undersecretary of state in 1665 ; about which time he 
procured for himself the writing of the Oxford Gazettes 
then newly set up, and employed Charles Perrot, fellow of 
Oriel college, who had a good command of his pen, to do 
that office under bim till 1671. In 1678, 1679, 1698, 
1700, he represented the borough of Thetford in parlia- 
ment. In 1685, being then recorder of Thdtford, he was 
again elected, but Heveningham the mayor returned him- 
self, and on a petition it appeared that the right of elec- 
tion was in the select body of the corporation before the 
charter ; and in 1690 he lost his election by a double re- 
turn. Wood says he was a recruiter for Thetford to sit in 
that parliament which began at Westminster May 8, 1661. 
At the short treaty of Cologne, sir Joseph was one of the 
British plenipotentiaries, with the earl of Sunderland and 
sir Leolin Jenkins, and at his return was created LL.D. 
June 27, 1674, sworn principal secretary of state Septem- 
ber 1 1,' on the promotion of the earl of Arlington to the 
chamberlainship of the household, and a privy counsellor. 
On November 18, 1678, he was committed to the Tower 
by the House of Commons, on a charge of granting com- 
missions and warrants to popish recusants ; but be was the 
same day released by the king, notwithstanding an address 
from the House. He resigned his place of secretary Fe- 

158 W I LL I A M S O N. 

Jwuary 9, 1678, and was succeeded by the earl of Sunder- 
food; who, if we believe Rapin, gave him 6000/. and 500 
guineas to induce him to resign. In December that year 
he married Catheriqe Obrien, baroness Clifton, widow of 
Henry lord Obrien, who died in August. She was sister 
and sole heiress to Charles duke of Richmond, and brought 
sir Joseph, large possessions in Kent and elsewhere, besides 
the hereditary stewardship of Greenwich. Some ascribe 
the loss of the secretary's place to this match, through the 
means of lord Danby, who intended this lady for his son. 
She died November 1702. Sir Joseph was president of 
the Royal Society in 1678. Under 1674, Wood says of 
him that " he had been a great benefactor to his college, 
and may be greater hereafter if he think fit." Upon some 
slight $hewn by the college, he had made a will by which 
he had given but little to it, haying disposed of his intended 
benefaction to erect and endow a college at Dublin, to, be 
called Queen's college, the provosts to be chosen from its 
namesake in Oxford. But soon after his arrival in Holland 
1696, with Mr. Smith, his godson and secretary, (after* 
wards, 1730, provost of Queen's college, Oxford,) being 
seized with a. violent fit of the gout, he sent for his secre- 
tary, who bad before reconciled him to the place of his 
education, and calling him to his bedside, directed htm to 
take his will out of a drawer in the bureau, and insert a be- 
nefaction of 6000/. When this was done and ready to be 
executed, before the paper had been read to him, "in 
comes sir Joseph's lady." The secretary, well knowing 
he had no mind she should be acquainted with it, endea- 
voured to conceal it ; and on her asking what he had got 
there, be answered, " nothing but news, Madam ;" mean- 
ing, such as she was not to know : and by this seasonable 
and ready turn prevented her further inquiries. 

Dr. Lancaster, the provost, applied this benefaction to- 
wards erecting the south-side of the college. Sir Joseph 
also gave to the library a valuable collection of MSS. espe- 
cially heraldic, and memoirs of bis foreign negociations. 
His benefactions to this college in his life-time* and at his 
death, in plate, books, buildings, and money, amounted to 
8000/. He left by will 500/. to the grandchildren of his 
patron Dr. Langbaine ; and to the parish of Bride-kirk gilt 
bibles and prayer-books, communion-plate, &c. He was 
also a benefactor to the cloth-workers 9 company, of which 
he had been master, and left 5000/, to found a mathemati* 

WILLIS. rs* 

cal schdol for freemen's sons at Rochester, which city he 
had represented in 1689, 1695, 1698, and 1700. He died 
in 1701, and was buried in Westminster-abbey. * 

WILLIS (Thomas), an illustrious English physician, 
was of a reputable family, and born at Great Bedwin, in 
Wiltshire, Jan. 27, 1621, in a house that was often visited 
by his grandson Browne Willis, and of which there is an 
engraving in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1798. He was 
instructed in grammar and classical literature by Mr. Ed- 
ward Sylvester, a noted schoolmaster in the parish of All-. 
Saints, Oxford ; and, in 1636, became a member of Christ 
church. He applied himself vigorously to his studies, and 
took the degrees in arts ; that of bachelor in 1639, that of 
master in 1642. About this time, Oxford being turned 
into a garrison for the king, he with other scholars bore 
arms for his majesty, and devoted bis leisure hours to the 
study of physic ; in which faculty he took a bachelor's de- 
gree in 1646, when Oxford was surrendered to the parlia- 
ment. He pursued the business of his profession, and 
kept Abingdon market He settled in an bouse over against 
Merton college, and appropriated a room in it for divine 
servipe^ where Mr. John Fell, afterwards dean of Christ 
church, whose sister he had married, Mr. John Dolben, 
afterwards archbishop of York, and sometimes Mr. Richard 
Allestree, afterwards provost of Eton college, exercised 
the liturgy and sacraments according to the church of Eng<- 
land, and allowed to others the privilege of resorting thi- 
ther. This measure of theirs is commemorated by a paint*, 
ing in the hall of Christ church, Oxford. 

In 1660, he was made Sedleian professor of natural phi- 
losophy ; and the same year took the degree of doctor of 
physic. Being sent for to most of the people of quality 
about Oxford, and even at great distances, he visited the 
lady Key t in Warwickshire ; and is supposed to have been 
going to her in April 1664, when he discovered, and made 
experiments upon, the famous medicinal spring at Alstrop, 
near Brackley. Willis and Lower first recommended these 
waters, which were afterwards decried by Radcliffe. The 
reason which Granger heard assigned for his decrying them 
was, because the people, of the village insisted upon his 
keeping a bastard ehild, which was laid to him by an infa- 

1 ,&{artia's Hist of Tbetford,"-Bsrik'» Cumberland and Westmoreland— and 
Hitchinson'f Cumberland. 

140 WILLIS. 

mous woman of that place. Upon this the doctor declared 
" that he would put a toad into their well/' and accordingly 
cried down the waters, which soon Ipst their reputation. 

Dr. Willis was one of the first members of the Royal So- 
ciety, and soon made his name as illustrious by his writing* 
as it was already by his practice. In 1666, after the fire 
of London, he removed to Westminster, upon an invitation 
from archbishop Sheldon, and took a house in St Martin's- 
lane. As he rose early in the morning, that be might be 
present at divine service, which he constantly frequented 
before he visited his patients, he procured prayers to be 
read out of the accustomed times while he lived, and at his 
death settled a stipend of 20/. per annum to continue them* 
He was a liberal benefactor to the poor wherever he came, 
having from his early practice allotted part of his profits 
to charitable uses. He wa& a fellow of the college of phy- 
sicians, and refused the honour of knighthood. He was 
regular and exact in his hours ; and his tfeble was the re- 
sort of most of the great men in London. After his settle- 
ment there, his only son Thomas falling into a consump- 
tion, he sent him to Montpellier in France for the reco- 
very of his health, which proved successful. His wife also 
labouring under the same disorder, he offered to leave the 
town; but she, not suffering him to neglect the means of 
providing for bis family, died in 1670. He died, at his 
house in St. Martin's, Nov. 11, 1675, and was buried near 
her in Westminster-abbey. His son Thomas, above men- 
tioned, was born at Oxford in Jan. 16S7-8, educated some 
time in Westminster-school, became a student a Christ 
church, and died in 1699. He was buried in Bletchley 
church, near Fenny-Stratford, the manors of which places, 
his father had purchased of the duke of Buckingham, and 
which descended to his eldest son Browne Willis of Whad- 
don-hall, esq. eminent for his knowledge in antiquities, and 
of whom some memoirs will be given. Wood tells us, that • 
"though Dr. Willis was a plain man, a man of no carriage, 
little discourse, complaisance, or society, yet for his deep 
insight, happy researches in natural and experimental phi- 
losophy, anatomy, and chemistry, for his wonderful suc- 
cess and repute in his practice, the natural smoothness, 
pure elegancy, delightful unaffected neatness of Latin 
style, none scarce hath equalled, much less outdone, him, 
how great soever. When at any time he is mentioned by 
authors, as he is very often, it is done in words expressing 

WILLIS. 141 

their highfest esteem of his great worth and excellency, and 
plated still as first in rank among physicians. And, fur- 
ther, also, he hath laid a lasting foundation of a body of 
physic, chiefly on hypotheses of his own framing.* 9 These 
hypotheses, by far too numerous and fanciful for his repu- 
tation, are contained in the following works : 1. " Diatriba 
duae Medico-philosophicae de fermentatione, altera de fe- 
bribus," Hague, 1659, 8vo, London, 1660, 1665, &c. 12 mo. 
This was attacked by Edm. de Meara, a doctor of physic 
of Bristol, and fellow of the college of physicians, but de- 
fended by Dr. Richard Lower in his " Diatribes Thomas 
Willisii Med. Doct. & Profess. Oxon de Febribus Vindi- 
catio contra Edm. de Meara,' 9 London, 1665, Svo. 2. "Dis*» 
sertatio Epistolica de Urinis :" printed with the Diatribst 
above mentioned. 3. " Cerebri Anatome,' 9 London, 1664, 
Svo, Amsterdam, 1667, in 12mo. 4. " De rattone motus 
musculorum, 99 printed with the " Cerebri Anatome. 99 5. 
" Pathologic Cerebri & nervosi generis specimina, in quo 
agitur de morbis convulsivis & de scorbiito," Oxford, 1667, 
4to, London, 1668, Amsterdam, 1669, &c. 12 mo. 6. " Af- 
fectionum quae dicuntur hysteric© & hypochondriacs Pa- 
thologia spasmodica, vindicata contra responsionem Epis- 
tolarem Nath. Highmore, M. D." London, 1670, 4to, Ley- 
den, 1671, 12mo, &c. 7. " Exercitationes Medico-physic© 
duae, 1. De sanguinis accensione. 2. " De motu muscu- 
lari,' 9 printed with the preceding book. 8. " De anirall 
Brutorum, quae hominis vitals ac sensativa est, exercita* 
tiones duae, &c." London, 1672, 4to and 8vo, Amsterdam, 
1674, 1 2 mo. All these books, except ** Affection urn qu« 
dicuntur hysterics, &c." and that " de animft Brutorum/ 9 
were translated into English by S. Pordage, esq. and printed 
at London, 168 1, folio. 9. " Pharmaceutice Rationalis : 
sire Diatriba de medicamentorum operationibus in humano 
corpora. 9 ' In two parts, Oxford, 1674 and* 1675, 12 mo, 
4to. Published by Dr. John Fell. In the postscript to the 
second part is the following imprimatur put to it by Dr. 
Ralph Bathurst, the author dying the day before. 

." Imprimatur. 
. " Amicissimo Authori post tarn immortale opus nihil 
mortale facturo, tanquam lumina morienti claudens, extre- 
mum hoc officium praestat 

" Rad. Bathurst, Oxon. 
Oxon, Nov. 12, 1675. Vice-Cancell." 

This book was translated into English by an anonymous 

143 WILLIS. 


person* and printed at London, in 1679, in folio} but this 
translation being very faulty, it was corrected by S. Pon- 
dage, esq. above mentioned, and published in his version 
of Or. Willis's Works in 1681. In 1685 there came out 
at London, in 8vo, " The London practice of Physic ; or 
the whole practical parf of physic contained in the works 
of Dr. Willis, faithfully made English, and printed together 
for the public good. 9 ' This contains, I. the first and se- 
cond parts of our author's Pharmaceutice rationalis ; II. his 
treatise of convulsive diseases ; HI. that of the scurvy ; IV. 
that of the diseases of the brain and genus nervosum ; V. 
that of fevers. 1 0. A plain and easy method of preserving 
those that are well from the infection of the plague, or any 
contagious distemper, in city, camp, country, fleet, &c. and 
for curing such as are infeoted with it. Written in 1666, 
but not published till the end of 1690.. AH our author's 
Latin works were printed in two volumes in 4to at Geneva 
in 1676, and Amsterdam in 1682 in 4to. 

Although Dr. Willis's works abound with the reveries of 
the chemical philosophy, and consequently have fallen into 
considerable neglect, there are many useful and curious 
things to be found in them. His " Cerebri Anatome" is 
the best of his works ; but even here, although his anato- 
mical descriptions be good,, yet bis physiological opinions 
must be acknowledged to be altogether extravagant and 
absurd. For example, he lodges common sense in the 
corpus striatum of the brain, imagination in the corpus pal- 
loiium, and memory in the cineritious matter which en- 
compasses the medullary. Yet, after all, what is this to 
the more monstroqp absurdities of .that modern piece of 
quackery, called Craniology ? Vieussen6, who in his "Neu- 
rographia," animadverted on Willis, is notwithstanding 
under great obligations to him, and Willis's enumeration of 
the nerves is still adhered to by anatomists. 

A Dutch physician, named Schelhammer, in a book 
" De Auditu," printed at Ley den in 1684, took occasion to 
animadvert upon a passage in Dr. Willis's bode " de Anjma 
Brutorum," printed in 1672 ; and in such a manner as re- 
flected not only upon his skill, but also upon his integrity. 
But Dr. Derham observes, " that this is a severe and unjust 
censure of our truly-famous countryman, a man of known 
probity, who hath manifested himself to have been as cu- 
rious and sagacious an anatomist, as great a philosopher, and 
as learned and skilful a physician as any of his censurers ; 

WILLIS. 14* 

and bis reputation for veracity and integrity was no lest 
than iny of theirs too." It remains to be noticed, that bis 
" Cerebri Anatome" had an elegant copy of verses written 
in it by Mr. Phillip Fell, and the drawings for .the plates 
were done by bis friend Dr. Christopher Wren, the cele* 
brated architect. 1 

WILLIS (Browne), an eminent antiquary, was born 
Sept. 14, ] 682, at Blandford in Dorset He was grandson 
to the preceding Dr. Willis, and eldest son of Thomas 
Willis, esq. of Bletchley, in Bucks. His mother was daugh- 
ter of- Robert Browne, esq. of Frampton, in Dorsetshire. 
He had the first part of bis education under Mr. Abraham 
Freestone at Bechampton, whence he was sent to West- 
minster-school, and during his frequent walks in the adjoin** 
ing abbey imbibed that taste for architectural, particularly 
Ecclesiastical, antiquities, which constituted the pleasure 
and employment of his future life. At the age of seven- 
teen he was admitted a gentleman commoner of Christ 
church, Oxford, under the tuition of the famous geogra- 
pher Edward Wells, D. D. and when he left Oxford, be 
lived for three years with the famous Dr. Will. Wotton. In 
1702, he proved a considerable benefactor to Fenrjy- Strat- 
ford, by reviving the market of that town. In 1705, he 
waa chosen for the town of Buckingham ; and, during the 
short time he was in parliament, was a constant attendant! 
and generally upon committees. In 1707, he married Ca. 
tbarine, daughter of Daniel Elliot, esq. of a very ancient 
family in Cornwall, with whom he had a fortune of 8000& 
and by whom he had a numerous issue. She died Oct. 3* 
1724. This lady had some literary pretensions. She wrote 
a book entitled " The established Church of England the 
true oatholick church, free from innovations, or diminish* 
ing the apostolic doctrines, the sacraments, and doctrines 
whereof are herein set forth," Lond. 1718, 8vo. What 
the merit of this work may be, we know not ; but her hus- 
band often made a joke of it, and in his own copy wrote 
the following note, "All the connexion in this book is 
owing to the book-binder. 9 ' Between 1704 and 1707 he 
contributed very largely towards the repairing and beau* 
tifyiftg Bletchley church, of which he was patron, and to 
which be gave a set of communion-plate. In 1 7 17-18, the* 

1 ,Ati*. Ojc. toI, II.— Bieg. Brit. — Letter* by Eminent Persons, 1813, 3 vols. 
Sro.— Thomson's Hist, of the RoyeJ Society.— Granger,— Birch's Lives.— Dew* 
Baffttelfi Life. 

144 WILLIS. 

Society of Antiquaries being revived, Mr. Willis became &. 
member of it, and Aug. 23, 1720, the degree of M. A. and 
1749, that of LL. D. were conferred oh him, by diploma, 
by the university of Oxford. From some of his letters in 
1723, it would appear that at that time he had some em- 
ployment in the Tower, or perhaps had only gained access 
to the archives preserved there. At his solicitation, and in 
concurrence with his copsin Dr. Martin Benson, afterwards 
bishop of Gloucester, rector of that parish, a subscription 
was raised for building the beautiful chapel of St. Martin's 
at Fenny- Stratford, which was begun in 1724, and conse- 
crated May 27, 1730. A dreadful fire having destroyed 
above fifty houses and the church at Stoney-Stratford, 
May 19, 1746, Mr. Willis, besides collecting money among 
his friends for the benefit of the unhappy sufferers, re- 
paired, at his own expence, the tower of the church, and 
afterwards gave a lottery ticket towards the re-building of 
that church, which came up a prize. In 1741 he pre- 
sented the university of Oxford with his fine cabinet of 
English coins, at that time looked upon as the most com- 
plete, collection in England, and which he had been up- 
wards of forty years in collecting; but the university 
thinking it too much for him, who \ had then a large 
family, to give the gold ones, purchased them for 150 
guineas, which were paid to Mr. Willis for 167 English 
gold coins, at the rate of four guineas per ounce weight ; 
and even in this way the gold coins were a considerable 
benefaction. This cabinet Mr. Willis annually visited 1 9 
Oct. being St. Frideswide's day, and never failed making 
some addition to it. He also gave some MSS. to the Bodleian 
library, together witt* a picture of his grandfather, 'Dr. 
Thomas Willis. In 1752 he laid out 200/. towards the re- 
pairs of the fine tower at Buckingham church, which fell 
d6wn some years. ago, and he was, upon every occasion, a 
great friend to that town. In 1756, Bow Brickhill church, 
which had been disused near 150 years, was restored and 
repaired by his generosity. In 1757 he erected, in Christ 
church, Oxford, a handsome monument for Dr. lies, canon 
of that cathedral, to whose education his grandfather had 
contributed ; and in 1759, he prevailed upon University 
college to. do the same in Bechampton church, for their 
great benefactor sir Simon Benet, bart. above 100 years 
after his death : he also, at his own expence, placed a mar- 
ble stone over him, on account of his benefactions at Be- 


champton, Buckingham, Stohey-Stratford, &c. Dr. WillU 
died at Whaddon-hall, Feb. 5, 1760, in the seventy-eighth 
year of bis age, and was buried in Fenny- Stratford chape), 
where is an inscription written bj himself. 

The rev. Mr. Gibbefd, curate of Wbaddon, gives bin 
the following character. " He was strictly religious, with- 
out any mixture of superstition or enthusiasm. The honour 
of God was his prime view in every action of his life. He 
was a constant frequenter of the church, and never absented 
himself from the<holy communion ; and, as to the reverence 
he had for places more immediately set apart for religious 
duties, it is needless to mention what his many public 
works, in building, repairing, and beautifying churches, 
are standing evidences of. In the time of health be called 
his family together every evening, and, besides his private 
devotions in the morning, he always retired into his closet 
in the afternoon at about four or five o'clock. In his in- 
tercourse with men he was in every respect, as far as I 
could judge, very upright. He was a good landlord, and 
scarce ever raised his rents ; and that bis servants likewise 
had no reason to complain of their master is evident from 
the long time they geuerally lived with him. He had many 
valuable and good friends, whose kindness he always ac- 
knowledged. And though perhaps be might have some 
disputes with a few people, the reason of which it would 
be disagreeable to enter into, yet it is with great satisfac? 
tion that I can affirm that he was perfectly reconciled with 
every one. He was, with regard to himself, peculiarly so- 
ber and temperate ; and be has often told me, that he de- 
nied himself many things, that he might bestow them bet- 
ter. Indeed, he appeared to me to have no greater regard 
to money than as it furnished bim with an opportunity of 
doing good. He supplied yearly three charity schoojs at 
Whaddon, Bletchley, and Fenny Stratford; and besides 
what he constantly gave at Christmas, he was never back- 
ward in relieving his poor neighbours with both wine and 
money when they were sick, or in any kind of distress. He 
was a faithful friend where he professed it, and always ready 
to contribute any thing to their advantage." 

Many other curious particulars of Dr. Willis's character 
and singularities may be seen in Mr, Nichols's " Literary 
Anecdotes, 9 ' vols. VI. and VIII. and many extracts from 
kis correspondence. It is now necessary to give some 
account of bis labours as an antiquary, which, m general, 

Vol. XXXII. L 

146 WILL IS. 

do the highest credit to his talents, industry, and perse* 
verance, yet perhaps, could not have been carried on with* 
out a considerable proportion of that enthusiasm which 
sometimes embarrassed his fortune, and created many 
oddities of character and behaviour. 

•■ In 1710, when Mr. Gale published his "History and 
Antiquities of Winchester Cathedral," Willis supplied him 
with the history of Hyde abbey, and lists of the abbots of 
Newminster and Hyde, published in that work. In 1715 
and 1716 he published his " Notitia Parliamentaria, or an 
History of the Counties, cities and boroughs in England 
and Wales," 2 vols. Svo, to which he added a third in 1730* 
The first volume was reprinted in 1730, with additions; 
and a single sheet, as far as relates to the borough of Wind-* 
sor, was printed in 1733, folio. In 1717, he published, 
without his name, a kind of abridgment of " The Whole 
Duty of Man," " for the benefit of the poorer sort." In 
the same year, " A Survey of the Cathedral Church of St. 
David's, and the edifices belonging to it, as they stood in 
the year 1715," 8vo % In 1718 and 1719, "An History of 
the mitred Parliamentary abbies and conventual cathedral 
Churches," 2 vols. 8vo. In 1719, 20, and 21, "Surveys of 
the Cathedral churches of Llandaff, St. Asaph, and Bangor, 
&c." 8vo. This led to his greatest and most important work, 
" Survey of the Cathedrals of England, with the Parochiale 
Anglicanum, illustrated with draughts of the cathedrals," 3 
vols. 4 to, 1727, 1730, and 1733 r These volumes contain 
the history of the cathedrals of York, Durham, Carlisle, 
Chester, Man, Lichfield, Hereford, Worcester, Gloucester, 
Bristol, Lincoln, Ely, Oxford, and Peterborough. These 
were first published by Mr. Francis Gosling, afterwards the 
banker and founder of the well* known and highly respected 
firm of that name, who, on giving up the bookselling busi* 
ness, sold the remaining copies to Osborne, who prefixed a 
title with the date 1742, and advertised them as containing 
a history of all the cathedrals. Against this roguish trick, 
Willis thought proper to guard the public in an advertise- 
ment in the public papers. It is to be regretted, however, 
that he did not extend his labours to all the cathedrals, for 
he had during his long life visited every cathedral in Eng- 
land and Wales except Carlisle, which journies he used 
to call fits pilgrimages. 

In 1733 he published " A Table of the Gold Coins of 
the Kiogs* of England," in one sheet folio, which is in the 

W 1 L t 1 & M 

ft Vetusta Monumental Before 1752 he printed *n " Ad- 
dress to the patrons of ecclesiastical livings/ 9 4to, with the 
View to prevent pluralities and non-residence; and in 1754, 
an improved edition of " Ectoii's Thesaurus reruni ecde- 
. siasticarum," 4to. His last publication was the " History 
and antiquities of the Town, hundred, and deanry, of 
Buckingham," London, 1755, 4to« His large collections 
for the whole county are now among his MSS. in the Bod- 
leian library ; and his MS. of the " History of the Hundreds 
of Newport -and Cotslow," transcribed and methodized by 
Mr. Cole, a& now among Mr. Cole's valuable MSS. in the 
British Museum. Willis was not much a gainer by any of 
bis publications, the sale being generally very tardy, of 
which he inakes many-complaints in his private correspond* 
ence. They have all, however, siitce, borne a price more 
suited to their merits. 1 

WILLUGHBY (Francis), a celebrated natural historian, 
was the only son of sir Francis Willughby, knt, and was 
born, in 1635. His natural advantages, with regard to 
birth, talents, and fortune, he applied in such a man- 
ner as to procure to himself honours that might mora 
truly be called his own. He was addicted to study from 
his childhood, and was so great an oeconomist of his time, 
that be was thought by his friends to have impaired his 
health by his incessant application. By this means, how- 
ever, he attained gr$at skill in all branches of learning, 
and got deep insight into the most abstruse kinds of know* 
ledge, and the most subtle parts of the mathematics. But 
observing, in the busy and inquisitive age in which he 
lived, that the history of animals was in a great measure 
neglected by his countrymen, he applied himself particu- 
larly to that province, and used all diligence to cultivate 
and illustrate it. To prosecute this purpose more effec- 
tually, he carefully read over what had been written by 
others on that subject; tod in 1660, we find him residing 
at Oxford for the benefit of the public library. But hef 
had been originally a member of Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his degree of A* B. in 1656, and of 
A.M. in 1659. After leaving Oxford, he travelled, in 
search of natural knowledge, several times over his: native 
country ; and afterwards to France, Spain, Italy, Germany, 

* Life pr«6xed to his Cathedrals.— Nicb6ls'S Bfo^yer—HutchiD^ Hilt 1 of 
Honetshire.— Cole'B M9 Athea* in Brit. Mus.—Bieg. Brit. 



and the Low-Countries, attended by bis ingenious friend* 
Mr. John Ray, and others ; in all which places, says Wood, 
he was so inquisitive and successful, thai -not many sorts ' 
of animals, described by others, escaped bis diligence. 
He died July 3, 1672, aged only thirty-seven ; to the great 
loss of the republic of letters, and much lamented by those 
of the Royal Society, of which he was an eminent member, 
and ornament He left to Mr. Ray the charge of educat- 
ing his two infant sons, with an annuity of 70/, which con-: 
stituted ever after the chief part Of Ray's income. A most* 
exemplary character of him may be seen in Ray's preface 
to his " Ornithology ;" whence all the particulars are con- 
cisely and elegantly summed up in a Latin epitaph, on a 
monument erected to his memory in the church of Middle- 
ton in Warwickshire, where be is buried with his ancestors** 
His works are, " Ornithologiae libri trea: in quibus avea 
omnes hactenus cognitae in metbodum natnris suis convenU 
entem redecue accurate describuotut, descriptiones iconic 
bus elegantissimis, & vivarum avium simillimis, srri incisis 
illustrantur," 1676, folio. . This was prepared for the press, 
corrected and digested into order, by Ray, afterwards by 
him also translated into English, with an appendix, and 
figures engraved at the expense of Mr* Willughby, but of 
inferior merit, 1673, folio. 2. " Historic PiscHim libri 
quatuor, &c" 1686, folio. This was revised and digested 
by Ray, with engravings of many species, not then known 
in Eogland. 3. " Letter containing some considerable, 
observations about that kind of wasps called Icbheumones, 
&c. dated Aug. 24, 1671." See the Phil. Trans. N* 76. 
4. " Letter about the hatching a kind of bee lodged in old 
willows, dated July 10, 1671." Trans. N 9 47. 5. " Let- 
ters of Francis Willughby, esq." added to " Philosophical 
Letters tyftveen the late learned Mr. Ray. and several of 
s correitioodents,!' 8vo. By William Derham. 1 
WILLYMQT IJViluam), a teacher of considerable 
*ote, and a publisher of some school-books of reputation* 
was the second son of Thomas Willymot of Royston, in the 
county of Cambridge, by his wife Rachel, daughter of Dr. 
Pindar of Springfield in Esses. He was bom, we are aot 
told in wbet year, at Royston, and admitted scholar of 
XingVcollege, Cambridge, OcU 20, 1699. He proceeded 

i Birch's Hiit of too Boyal Soeirfy, *ol HI. p. 66.^-Ath. O*. toI. U.— BtOf s 
Brit— Dtrtoa't Life of IUjr.*-IUj'f Jifo, yoL XXVI. of thy work. 

WILL YOM O T. 1«* 

A. B; in 1697, A. M. in 1700, ttld LL. 1707. After. 
taking his muttr-s degree be went as usher la Eton, where 
Cole says " be continued not long, but kept a school at 
Isieworth in Middlesex :" tJarwood, however, says . that 
he was many years' an assistant at Eton, and was the editor 
of several books for the use of boys educated there. Har- 
wood adds that he was tutor, when at King's college, to 
lord Henry and lord Richard Lumley, sons of the earl of 
Scarborough; and Cole informs us that he was private 
tutor in the family of John Bromley, of Horsebeath-hali 
in Cambridgeshire, esq. father of Henry lord Montfort; 
? but here endeavouring to pay his addresses to one of the 
ladies of the family, he was dismissed." When he left 
Eton is uncertain, but- in 1721 we find him master of a 
private school at Isle worth, and at that time one of the 
candidates for the mastership of St Paul's school, in which 
he did not succeed. By an advertisement then published 
by .htm, it would appear that his failure arose in .some 
measure from bis being suspected of an attachment to the 
pretender, which he denies. Some time before this he bad 
studied civil law, and entered himself of Doctors 1 -com- 
mons, but changing his mind, returned to college^ took 
holy orders, and was made vice-provost of King's college 
in the above year, 1721, at which time he was senior fellow. 
In 1735 he was presented to the rectory of Milton near 
Cambridge, after a contest with the college, which refused 
bim, in consideration of his not having remained and per- 
formed the requisite college exercises. Even with this, 
Cole says, be was soon dissatisfied, and would have re- 
turned to his fellowship had it beeir possible* He died 
June 7, 1737, of an apoplexy, tit tbe Swan Inn, at Bed- 
ford, on his return from Bath. Among bis publications for 
tbe use of schools are* 1. " The peculiar use and signifi- 
cation of certain words in tbe Latin tongue," &c. 1705, 8vo« 
2. " Particles exemplified in English sentences, &c." 1703, 
Svo. 3. " Larger examples, fitted to Lilly's grammar- 
rules.* 1 4. " Smaller examples, &c" 5. « Three of Te- 
rence's comedies, viz. the Andria, the Adelphi, and the 
Hecyra, with English notes,'* 1706, 8vo. 0. "Select 
dtories from Ovid's Metamorphoses, with English notes." 
7; " Phsedrus Fabfe*, with English notes," &c. &c. He 
published also " A collection of Devotions for the Altar,** 
2 vols. 8vo; " Lord Bacon's Essays,'* 2 vols. 8vo. and "A. 
new translation of Thomas a Kempis/' 1722. Tbe com- 



mon copies are dedicated " To the Sufferers by the South 
Sea." It was originally dedicated to Dr. Godolphin, pro*-- 
vost of Eton, but as he had abused the fellows -of the col- 
lege in it, upon recollection he called it in, "so," saytf 
Cole, " this curious dedication is rarely to be met with.' 91 

WILMOT (John, Earl of Rochester), a noted wit in 
the reign of Charles II. was the son of -Henry earl of Ro- 
chester ; who bore a great part in the civil wars, and was 
the chief manager of the king's • preservation , after the 
battle of Worcester. He was born April 10, 1647, at* 
Ditchley iu Oxfordshire ; and was educated in grammar 
and classical literature in the free-school at Burford. Here- 
be acquired the Latin to such perfection, that' to his dying 
day he retained a quick relish for the beauties of that 
tongue ; and afterwards became exactly versed in the an* 
thors of the Augustan age, which he often read* In 1659, 
when only twelve years old, he was admitted a nobleman 
of Wadham college in Oxford, under the inspection: of Dr, 
Blandford, afterwards bishop of Oxford and Worcester; 
and, in 1661, was with some other persons of rank created* 
master of arts in convocation : at which time, Wood says, 
he and none else was admitted very affectionately into the 
fraternity by a kiss from the chancellor of the university, 
Clarendon, who then sate in the supreme chair. After- 
wards he travelled into France and Italy; and at his re- 
turn frequented the court, which, Wood ohserves, and 
there is reason to believe very truly, not only corrupted 
his morals, but made him a perfect Hobbist in principle* 
In the mean time, he became one of the gentlemen of the 
bed-chamber to the king, and comptroller of Woodstock-* 
park. In 1665 be went to sea with the earl of Sandwich, 
who was sent to lie in wait for the Dutch East-India fleet ; 
and was in the Revenge, commanded by sir Thomas Tid- 
diman, when the attack was made en the port of Bergen iu 
Norway, the Dutch ships having got into that port It 
was a desperate attempt; and, during the whole action, 
the earl of Rochester shewed the greatest resolution, and 
gained a high reputation for courage. He supported his 
character for bravery in a second expedition, but after- 
wards lost it in an adventure with lord Mulgrave ; of whifch 
that noble author, in the memoirs of himself, gives a par-. 

; * Cole's MS Collections in Brit. tyus. to!. XVI.— Harwood'* Alumni Etonen- 
W.^Nicbofc's Bowver. 

W I L M O T. i *| 

tlcular account It exhibits some traits of the earl of Ro- 
chester's character; and therefore, though somewhat te- 
dious and wordy, may not be unacceptable* " I was in- 
formed," says lord Mul grave, " that the earl of Rochester ' 
bad said something of me, which, according to his custom; ' 
was very malicious. I therefore sent colonel Aston, a very 
mettled friend of mine, to call him to account for it. He- 
denied the words, and indeed I was soon convinced be had 
never said them ; but the mere report, though I found it- 
to be false, obliged me, as I then foolishly thought, to go 
on with the quarrel; and the next day was appointed for 
us to fight on horseback, a way in England a little unusual, 
but it was his part to chuse. Accordingly, 1 and my se~' 
cond lay the night before at Knightsbridge privately, to 
avoid the being secured at London upon any suspicion ; 
atid in the morning we met the lord Rochester at the place 
appointed, who, instead of James Porter, whom he assured 
Aston be would make bis second, brought an errant life- 
guard man, whom hobody knew. To this Mr. Aston took 
exception, upon the account of his being no suitable adver- 
sary; especially considering how extremely well he was 
mounted, whereas we had only a couple of pads : upon' 
which, we all agreed to fight on foot. But, as my lord 
Rochester and I were ridio-g into the next field in order to 
it, he told me, that he had at first chosen to fight on 
horseback, because he was so much indisposed, that he 
found himself unfit at all any way, much less on foot. I 
was extremely surprised, because at that time nq man had 
a better reputation for courage ; and I took the liberty of 
representing what a ridiculous story it would make, if we 
returned without righting, and therefore advised him for 
both our sakes, especially for his own, to consider better 
of it, since I must be obliged in my own defence to lay 
the fault on him, by telling the truth of the matter. H« 
answer was, that be submitted to it; and hoped, that I 
would not desire the advantage of having to do with afly 
man in so weak a condition. I replied, that by such -art 
argument he bad sufficiently tied my hands, upon condi- 
tion that I might call our seconds to be witnessed of the 
whole business ; which he consented to, and so we {totted. 
When we returned to London, we found it full of fetp$ 
quarrel, upon our being absent so long; and therefore 
Mr. Aston thought himself obliged to write down every 
word and circumstance of this whole matter, in ordef ' tq 

U* ' WILMOT.' 

spread €Vf ry where the true reason of oar returning with- 
out having fought. This, heing never in the least contra- 
dicted or resented by the lord Rochester, entirely ruined 
Ms reputation, as to courage, of which I was really sorry to 
bp fhe occasion, though nobody bad still a greater as to 
wit; which supported him pretty well in the world, not- 
withstanding some more accidents of the same fcind, that 
never fail to succeed one another, when once people know 
a man's weakness." . 

t The earl of. Rochester, before he travelled, had given 
somewhat into that disorderly and intemperate way of liv- 
ing which the joy of the whole nation, upon the restoring 
of Charles II. had introduced ; yet during his travels he 
had at least acquired a habit of sobriety. But, falling into 
court-company,. where excesses were continually practised* 
he soon became intemperate, and the natural beat of his 
fancy, being mflamed wjth wine, made him so extrava- 
gantly pleasant, that many, to be more diverted by that 
humour, strove to engage him deeper and deeper in intoxi- 
cation. This at length so entirely subdued bitp, that, as 
he told Dr. Burnet, he was for five years together conti- 
nually drunk : not all the while under the visible effect of 
liquor, but so inflamed in his blood, tbat he- was never 
cool enough to be master of himself. There were two 
principles in the natural temper of this lively. and witty 
earl, which carried him to great excesses ; a violent love 
of pleaspre, and a disposition to extravagant mirth. The 
one involved him in the lowest sensuality, the other led 
him to many odd adventures and frolics. Once be had 
disguised himself so, that bis nearest friends could not 
have known him, and set up in Tower-street for an Italian 
mountebank, where he practised physic for some weeks. 
He disguised himself often as a porter, or as a beggar ; 
sometimes to follow some mean anpours, which, for the 
variety of them, be affected. At other times, merely for 
diversion, he would go about in odd shapes ; in which he 
acted his part so naturally, that even those who were in 
the secret, and saw him in. these shapes, could perceive 
nothing by which be might be discovered.. He is said to 
have been a generous and good-natured man in cold blood, 
jpt would go. far in his heats after any thing that might 
turn to a j£st or matter of diversion ; and be laid out him- 
self very * freely in libels and satires, in which be bad so 
peculiar a talent of mixing wit with malice, that all his 

WILMOT, 15$ 

compositions were easily known. Andrew Marvell, who 
was himself a great wit, used to say, " that Rochester was 
the only rami in England who bad the true vein of satire*" 

4< Thus/' says Dr. Johnson, " in a course of drunken 
gaiety, and gross sensuality, with intervals of study per- 
haps yet more criminal, with an avowed contempt of ail 
decency and order, a total disregard to every moral, and a 
resolute denial of every religions obligation, he lived worth- 
less and useless, and blazed out his youth and bis health in 
lavish voluptuousness ; till, at the age of one and thirty, 
he had exhausted the fund of life, and reduced himself to 
a. state of weakness and decay/ 9 

In Oct. 1679, when he was slowly recovering from a 
severe disease, he was visited by Dr. Burnet, upon an inti- 
mation that sufch a visit would be very agreeable to him* 
With great freedom he laid open to that divine all bis 
thoughts both of religion and morality, -and gave him a full 
view of his past lite: on which the doctor visited him 
often, till he went from London in April following, and- 
once or twice after. They canvassed at various times the 
principles of morality, natural and revealed religion, and 
Christianity in particular 5 the result of all which, as it is 
faithfully related by Dr. Burnet in a book, which, Dr. 
Johnson observes, " the critic ought to read for its ele- 
gance, the philosopher for its arguments, and the saint for 
its piety," was, that this noble earl, though he had lived 
the life of an atheist. and a libertine, yet died the death of 
a sincere penitent* The philosophers of the present age 
will naturally suppose, that his contrition and conviction 
were purely the effects of weakness and low spirits, which 
scarcely suffer a man to continue ii\ his senses, and cer- 
tainly not to be master of himself; but Dr. Burnet affirms 
him to have been " under no such decay as either darkened 
or weakened bis understanding, nor troubled with the spleen 
or vapours, or under the power of melancholy." The 
reader may judge for himself from the following, which 
is part of a letter from the earl to Dr. Burnet, dated 
"Woodstock-park, June 25, 1680, Oxfordshire." There 
is nothing left out, but some personal compliments to the 

" My most honoured Dr. Burnet, 

" My spirits and body decay so equally together, that I 
shall write you a letter as weak as I am in person. I begiu 

154 W I L M O T. 

to ralne churchmen above all men in the world, &c. If God • 
be yet pleased to spare me longer in this world, I hope in 
your conversation to be exalted to that degree of piety, 
that the world may see how much I abhor what I so long 
loved, and how much I glory in repentance, and in God's 
service. Bestow your prayers upon me, that God would 
spare me, be his good will, to shew a true repentance 
and amendment of life for the time to come ; or else, if the 
Lord pleaseth to put an end to my worldly being now, that 
he would mercifully accept of my death-bed repentance, 
and perform that promise he hath been pleased to make, 
that 'at what time soever a sinner doth repeat, he would 
receive him.* Put up these prayers, most dear doctor, to 
Almighty God, for your most obedient and languishing 
servant, Rochester:." 

He died July 26 follbwing, without any convulsion, or 
so much as a groan : for, though he had not completed his 
thirty-third year, he was worn so entirely down, that all the 
powers of nature were exhausted. He left behind him a' 
son* named Charles, who died Nov. 12, 1681 ; and three 
daughters*. The male line ceasing, Charles II. conferred 
the title of Rochester on Laurence viscount Killingworth, a 
younger son of Edward earl of Clarendon. 

The earl of Rochester was a graceful and well-shaped 
person, tall, and well-made, if not a little too slender, as 
Burnet observes. " He was," says Johnson, "eminent for the 
vigour of his colloquial wit, and remarkable for many wild 
pranks and sallies of extravagance. The glare of his ge- 
neral character diffused itself upon his writings ; the com- 
positions of a man whose name was heard so often were 
certain of attention, and from many readers certain of ap- 
plause. This blaze of reputation is not yet quite extin- 
guished ; and his poetry still retains some splendour be- 
yond that which genius has bestowed. 

'« Wood and Burnet give us reason to believe, that much 
was imputed to him which he did not write. It is not 
known by whom the original collection was made, or by 
what authority its genuineness was ascertained. The first 
edition was published in the year of his death, with an air 
of concealment, professing in the title-page to be printed 

* In the London Chronicle for Feb. at her lodgings in Fleet-street, Mrs. 

11,1*765, and probably in other pa- Arabella Wiltnot, a natural daughter 

pers, we read the following : " Yester- of the famous eail of Rochester, the ce- 

day morning died, in an advanced age, lebrated wit in the reign of Charles II." 

W I L.M-Q TV 155 

at Antwerp. Of some of the pieces, however, there is tip' 
doubt. The Imitation of Horace's Satire, tbe Verses to 
lord Mulgrave, tbe Satire against Man, tbe verses upon* 
Nothing, and perhaps some others, are I believe genuine, 
and perhaps most of those which ihe collection exhibits. 
As he cannot be supposed to have found leisure for any 
course of continued study, his pieces are commonly short, 
such as one fit of resolution would produce. His songs' 
have no particular character ; they tell, like other songs, 
in smooth and easy language, of scorn and kindness, dis*-' 
mission and desertion, absence, and inconstancy, with the' 
common-places of artificial courtship. They are commonly 
smooth and easy ; but have little nature, and little senti*-* 
ment. His imitation of Horace on Lucilius is not inele- 
gant or unhappy. In the reign of Charles the Second be- 
gan tbat adaptation, which has since been very frequent, 
of ancient poetry to present times ; and perhaps few will- 
be found where the parallelism is better preserved than in 
this* The versification is indeed sometimes careless, but 
it is sometimes vigorous and weighty. The strongest effort 
of his muse is his poem upon " Nothing/' Another of his 
most vigorous pieces is his lampoon upon sir Carr Scrope. 
Of the satire against Man, Rochester can only claim what 
remains when all Bbileau's part is taken away. In all his 
works there is sprightliness and vigour, and everywhere- 
may be found tokens of a mind which study might have' 
carried to excellence. What more can be expected from' 
a life spent in ostentatious contempt of regularity, and' 
ended before tbe abilities of many other men began to be 
displayed ?" The late George Steevens; esq. made the se- 
lection of Rochester's poems which appears in Dr. John-- 
son's edition ;- but Mr. Malone observes, that the same task* 
had been performed in the early part of the last century 
by Jacob Tonson. * 

WILMOT (John Eardley), a learned lawyer, and lord- 
chief justice of the court of common pleas, was the second' 
son of Robert Wilmot, of Osmaston in the county of Derby, 
esq. and of Ursula, one of the daughters and coheiresses of 
sir Samuel Marow, of Berks well, in tbe county of Warwick,, 
bart. He was born Aug. 16, 1709, at Derby, where his fa- 
ther then lived, and after having acquired the rudiments 

■ Life by Bp. Burnet.— Johnson's Poets.— Biog. B lit— Park's Edition of tbe. 
Royal and Noble Authors. 

156 WILMOT. 

of learning at the free-school in that town, tinder the Ber, 
Mr. Bfockwell, was placed with the Rev. Mr. Hunter at 
Lichfield, where he waa contemporary with Johnson ami 
Garrick. At an after period of his life it could be remarked 
that there were then five judges upon the bench who had 
been educated at Lichfield school, viz. Willes, Parker; 
Noel, Lloyd, and Wilmot. In Jan. 1724, he was removed 
to Westminster-school, and placed under Dr. Freind ; and 
here, and at Trinity-ball, Cambridge, where he resided 
until Jan. 1728, be laid the' foundation of many friendships* 
which he preserved through a long life. At the university 
he contracted a passion for study and retirement that never 
quitted him, and be was often beard to say, that at tbisv 
time the height of his ambition was to become a fellow of; 
Trinity- ball, and to pass bis life in that learned society* 
His natural disposition had induced him to give the pre- 
ference to the church; but his father* wbo was a man of 
sagacity as well as of reading, had destined him to the 
study of the law, which be accordingly prosecuted with 
much diligence at the Inner Temple, and was called to the 
bar in June 1731. In 174:5 be married Sarah, daughter of 
Thomas Rivett, of Derby, esq. 

We. are not acquainted with any interesting particulars? 
of Mr. Wilmot's life between the period of his leaving the 
university and his being in a considerable degree of prac- 
tice as a barrister : but as duty and • filial piety, more than 
inclination, bad induced him to embrace the profession of 
the law, his pursuit after its emoluments was not eager, 
though his study of it was unremitted. He was regular in 
bis attendance on the terms, but his practice was at this 
time chiefly confined to the county of Derby, where he 
was much respected. In town his business was not great ; 
yet in those causes in which be was engaged, his merit, 
learning, and eloquence, were universally acknowledged, 
and gained him the' esteem and approbation of some of 
the greatest ornaments of the profession, among whom 
were sir Dudley Ryder, then attorney-general, and the 
lord chancellor Hardwicke. In 1753, the chancellor pro- 
posed to make him one of his majesty's counsel, und after- 
wards king's serjeant : but both these be decliued, chiefly 
from a disinclination to London business, and a wish, that 
never left bim, of retiring altogether into the country. On 
this he was so determined that in 1754, he actually made 
what he called bis farewell speech in the court of exchequer, 

WILMOT. 1$7. 


which he bad of late yean attended more than any ether* 
Perhaps his disposition was not calculated for forensic dis- 
putation, though bis profound .knowledge and indefatigable 
labour, as well as ability and penetration, had made him 9 ip 
the opinion of those who knew him, one of the best law** 
yers* of his time. He had more than one offer of a seat in 
the House of Commons about this period, but he uuiformly 
declined every temptation of this kind. He had not hew* 
ever long. enjoyed his retirement in Derbyshire before he 
received a summons to town to succeed sir Martin Wright, 
as judge of the court of King 9 s Bench. With much per-» 
suasion, aided perhaps by the increase of his family, con* 
sistiog now of five children, be was induced to accept this 
preferment in February 1733, which was accompanied, as 
usual, with the honour of knighthood. It is not known to 
what interest he owed this promotion, and it seems most 
fair to conclude that a sense of bis merit only must have 
induced bis patrons to send to the country for one so reso- 
lute on retirement, when so many, at hand, would hav? 
been glad to accept the office. 

. In the autumn of. 1736, lord Hard wi eke resigned the 
great seal, wbichxontinued for about a year in the bauds 
<>f three lords commissioners, chief justice Willes, sir S* S. 
Smytbe, and sir John Eardley Wilmot. In March 1757, 
sir Eardley bad a most providential escape from being 
destroyed at Worcester by the fall of a stack of chimneys 
through the roof into court His first, clerk was killed at 
his feet, also the attorney in the cause then trying, two of 
the jurymen, and some others. Sir Eardley was beginning 
to sum up the evidence when the catastrophe happened. 
Sir Eardley continued about nine years longer, as one of 
the puisne judges of the court of Ring's Bench. The 
King's Bench was at this time filled with men of distin- 
guished talents, and it is do small, honour to sir, Eardley 
Wilmot that he sat for a long period as the worthy coUe^ue 
of Mansfield, Dennison, and Foster, ■. Though tjie part £e 
took was no* a very cpnspicuous one, from bis situational. 
the bench, and from bis native modesty, yet; hi* l^^thr^uV 
and those who were acquainted. with Westminster-ball at' 
that period* bore testimony that his active mind was ft(ways 
engaged, either in or out of. court, ip elucidating some.pb. 
soure point, ip nicely weighing questions of the greatest 
digtculty, aiftdiio contributing; hi* ahare.towards esppditiag 
Md deciding the important suits then under discusjipp ; 

•■i » 

f 48 W IL'MO t; 


nor was he less eminent in that important branch o£hs&ju* 
dicial office, the administration of the criminal justice of 
the kingdom ; and while his pervading mind suffered few 
crimes to escape detection and punishment, his humanity 
and compassion were often put to the severest trials. 

Among many other parts of this laborious profession, to 
which sir Eardley bad given unremitting attention, is that 
ef taking notes, to which he bad invariably accustomed 
himself both before and after he was called to the ban 
These notes were transcribed by his 1 clerk, and be thus by 
degrees became possessed of many volumes of MS. notes, 
both in law and equity. The same practice be continued 
after he was raised to the bench, till he beard that Mr* 
(afterwards sir James) Burrow intended to publish bis notes 
from the time of lord Mansfields being appointed chief 
justice ; but he uniformly lent Mr. Burrow bis papers from 
this period, and with such* short notes as be took himself* 
We may here mention that the " Notes of Opinions deli- 
vered in different courts," by sir John Eardley Wilmoty 
were published in 1802, 4to, by his son, with a memoir of 
his life, from which we have extracted the present account, 

Although sir Eardley persevered unremittingly in the 
discharge of his duty, it was not without a frequent sigh for 
a more quiet and retired station than that of the court of 
King's Bench. In 1765, a serious treaty was set on foot 
by him, to exchange his present tiffice for one, not less 
honourable indeed, but undoubtedly at that time less lu- 
crative and less conspicuous, that of chief justice of Ches- 
ter, which was then held by Mr- Morton \ but the treaty 
was at length Woken off, and when in the summer of 1766, 
lord Camden, who had been chief justice of the common 
pleas about four years, was appointed lord chancellor, sir 
Eardley was promoted to the chief justiceship in bis room. 
Here, however, as in former instances, his friends bad no 
little trouble in overcoming his repugnance to a more ele- 
vated situation. It is believed, that next to bis character 
for learning and integrity, he was indebted for this pre- 
ferment, to the high opinion and esteem of both the old 
and new chancellor, and also to the friendship of lord Shel- 
bo/rne, appointed at that time one of the secretaries of 
state. His lordship, though a much younger man, had 
ever since his first acquaintance with him, several years 
before, .conceived so great an admiration of his talents, 
and esteem for his virtues, that he had long lived with him 

W I L M O T. lit 

in habits of thel greatest intimacy and friendship; In the 
evening of the day that sir Eardley kissed hands on being 
appointed chief justice, one of his sons, a youth of seven- 
teen, attended him at his bed-side. " Now," said he, "aijr 
son, I will tell you a secret worth your knowing and re- 
membering ; the elevation I have met with in life, parti- 
cularly this last instance of it, has not been owing to any 
superior merit or abilities, but to my humility, to my not 
having set up myself, above others, and to an uniform en- 
deavour to pass through life, void of offence towards God 
and man." Sir Eardley was now called to preside in a 
court where he had many seniors on the bench ; but the 
appointment gave general satisfaction, and his acknow- 
ledged abilities, his unaffected modesty and courtesy, soon 
made htm as much esteemed and beloved in his new court* 
as he had been before in his old one. 

In 1768, bishop Warburton, who had the highest opi- 
nion of sir Eardley, requested him to become one of the 
first trustees^ of his lectureship at Lincoln's-inn chapel* 
along with lord Mansfield and Mr. Yorke; and this being 
complied with, in 1769, sir Eardley requested his assist- 
ance and advice on the occasion of one of his sons pre- 
paring himself for the church. The bishop complied, and 
sent him the first part of some " Directions for the study of 
Theology, 9 ' which have since been printed iri Warburton'* 
works, being given to his editor, Dr. Hurd, by the son to whom 
they were addressed, the late John Eardley -Wilofot, esq* 
Circumstances afterwards induced this son to go into the 
profession of the law, on which sir Eardley, in 1771, made 
the following indorsement on the bishop's paper. " These 
directions were given me by Dr. Warburton, bishop of* 
Gloucester, for the use of my son, when he proposed to g* 
into orders; but, in the year 1771, he unfortunately pre* 
ferred the bar to the. pulpit, and, instead of lying upon a 
bed of roses, ambitioned a crown of thorns. Digne puer 
mdiore flarmnal" This shews how uniform sir Eardley 
was, from his earliest youth, in his predilection for the 
church, a predilection which probably influenced, more or 
legs, every act of his life* It was about this time, viz. 1769, 
that sir Eardley presided in the memorable cause of Mr. 
Wilkes against lord Halifax and others, a period pf great 
bent and violence, both in parliament and in the nation ; 
but be was. so entirely free from all political bias, th&t hi* 
conduct gave universal satisfaction. It was an action of 

*60 W I L M O T. 

trespass for false imprisonment, damages laid at SO,6ot>/. ; 
Mr. Wilkes having been taken tip and confined in the 
Tower, and bis papers seized and taken away, by virtue of 
a general warrant from lord Halifax, one of bis majesty's 
secretaries of state. Sir Eardley's speech is published itt 
bis Life, and does great credit to bis impartiality. The 
jury gave 4000/. damages. 

On the resignation of lord Camden, and the subsequent 
death of Mr. Yorke, in January 1770, the great seal, with 
other honours, was offered to sir Eardley by the duke df 
Grafton, and was again pressed upon him in the course of that 
year by lord North, the duke's successor, but in vain. Ha 
was at this time too fixed in his resolution of retiring alto* 
gether from public business, and it seemed to him a good 
opportunity to urge the same reason for resigning the office 
be held, as for declining the one that was offered him, 
namely, ill health, which bad prevented him occasionally 
from attending his court. His intention was to have re* 
signed without receiving any pension from the crown ; but 
when bis resignation was accepted in 1771, be wa» much 
surprised and disconcerted to find, that be vas to receive 
a pension for life. This he withstood' in two several inter* 
views with the first lord of the treasury $ but his majesty 
having desired to see him at Buckingham house, was pleased 
to declare, that he could not suffer so faithful a servant to 
the public to retire, without receiving this mark of appro* 
bation and reward for his exemplary services. After this, 
sir Eardley thought it would be vanity and affectation to 
contend any longer ; and certainly his private fortune 
would not have enabled him to live in the manner to which 
he had been accustomed. But as he was thus liberally 
provided for by his majesty's bounty, be thought the least 
he could do was to make every return in his power ; and 
having the honour of being one of his majesty's privy 
council, he, in conjunction with the venerable sir Thomas 
Parker, who bad been chief baron of the exchequer, uni- 
formly attended the appeals to the king in council till 17S2, 
when his increasing infirmities obliged him to give up this 
last part of what he thought his public duty. Of his infir- 
mities he gives a most affecting proof in a short letter to 
earl Gower, dated Jan. 12 of that year. " My sight and 
bearing are extremely impaired ; but my memory is so 
•hook, that if 1 could read a case over twenty times, I 
could neither understand nor remember it ; and ai my 

W I L M O ? . lei 

Attendance at council would only expose my infirmities 
without being of any service to the public, I caunot think 
Of ever putting myself into such a disagreeable situation." 

He now retired totally from public business, and saw 
very little company during the remainder of his life, except 
a few friends, whom time bad hitherto spared. His retreat 
from business not only procured him ease and health, but 
probably lengthened his life. He died Feb. 5, 1792, aged 
eighty- two. He left his eldest surviving son his sole exe- 
cutor, with express directions, in his own hand-writing, for 
a plain marble tablet to be put up in the church of Berks- 
well, in the county of Warwick, with an inscription, con- 
taining an account of his birth, death, the dates of his ap- 
pointments, and names of his children, "without any other 
addition whatever.' 9 

Sir Eardley's person was of the middle size : his counte- 
nance commanding and dignified ; his eye lively, tempered 
with sweetness and benignity ; his knowledge extensive 
and profound ; and pfcrhaps nothing but invincible modesty 
prevented him from equalling the greatest of his prede- 
cessors, and fettered his abilities and learning. Though 
not fond of the law as a profession, he always declared his 
partiality for tbe study of it, and he was also well versed in 
the civil law ; a general scholar, but particularly conver- 
sant with those branches which had a near connexion with 
his legal pursuits, such as history and antiquities, and be 
was one of the first fellows of the Society of Antiquaries, 
incorporated in \150. In private life be excelled in all 
those qualities which render a man respected and beloved. 
Genuine and uniform humility was one of his most charac- 
teristic virtues. 1 

WILMOT (John EarDleY), second son of the prer 
ceding, was borp in 1748, and received the first rudiments 
of education at Derby and at Westminster schools, at both 
which places he remained but a very short time. From 
thence he was placed at tbe academy at Brunswick ; and 
having remained there till he was seventeen, he went to 
University college, Oxford, where he was contemporary 
with many men who have since distinguished themselves 
in public and private life. He was at first intended for the 
church, as we have seen in our account of his father ; but;, 
upon the death of his elder brother in the East Indies, and 

■ Memoirs At above. 

Vol, XXXII. M 

162 WILMO f. » 

upon the elevation of his father to one df the highest judi- 
cial situations, his intended pursuits were changed, and the 
profession of the law was ultimately fixed upon. From All 
Souls college, of which he had been elected a fellow, he 
Removed to the Temple, and studied the law under the 
superintendance of sir Eardley. He was at the usual time 
called to the bar, and went the Midland circuit. He soon 
after married the only daughter of S. Sainthill, esq. by 
whom he had four daughters and one son, all of whom sur- 
vived him. 

In 1783, he was made a master in chancery, having been, 
chosen for Tiverton, in Devonshire, in the two preceding 
parliaments. Though seldom taking an active part in the 
debates of those times, he was always attentive to the im- 
portant duties of a member of parliament, and constant m 
his attendance in the House. He uniformly opposed the 
American war, and though at the termination of that con- 
test, when the claims of the American loyalists were to be 
inquired into, and satisfied, it was most natural to suppose 
that some gentleman on the other side of the House would 
have been appointed commissioner for that purpose, yet 
Mr. Wil mot's known abilities, integrity, and benevolence, 
were so universally acknowledged, that his nomination to 
that arduous office gave perfect satisfaction. How far the 
labours of himself and colleagues were crowned with suc- 
cess, the universal approbation of this country, and of 
America, sufficiently testify. 

In 1784 he was elected, with lord Eardley, his brother- 
in-law, member for Coventry, in opposition to lord Shef- 
field and Mr. Conway, now marquis of Hertford, whither 
they had gone to add to the triumphant majority which 
ultimately secured Mr. Pitt in his situation as prime minister. 

It was in the summer of 1790, that the revolutionary 
storm, so long collecting in France, suddenly discharged 
itself; and an immense number of French clergy and laity 
took refuge in this country. The subject of these memoirs 
was then in town ; and the continual scenes of distress he 
was daily witnessing in the streets, added to particular in- 
stances of misery which came under his own immediate ob- 
servation, induced him alone, without previous communi- 
cation with any one, to advertize for a meeting of the gen- 
tlemen then in town, at the Freemason's Tavern, to take 
into consideration some means of affording relief to their 
Christian brethren. The meeting was most numerous and 

W I L M 6 f . 16& 

rfespectablfe ; the archbishop of Canterbury, many bishops* 
and most of the nobility then in London, attending; and 
Mr. Wilmot being called to the chair, and having stated 
his object in calling them together, subscriptions to a large 
amount were immediately entered into; and a fund created* 
which, with the assistance of parliament, and the contri- 
butions of every parish in the kingdom, relieved, and cori* 
tinued to relieve until the late prosperous events rendered a 
continuance unnecessary, those unhappy exiles from their 
native country. Mr. Wilmot continued, till he retired into 
the country a few years before his death, to dispense under; 
government this national bounty ; a task well suited to that 
universal benevolence and kindness of heart which so 
eminently distinguished him, and in which he had few 
equals, and none superior. 

In 17S3 he married a second wife, Sarah Anne, daughter! 
*of col. Haslatri ; by whom he had a son and a daughter, 
both of whom died in their infancy; 

It was in the spring of 1304, that, finding himself ill 
able* from bodily infirmity, to continue the various em- 
ployments be had so long zealously fulfilled, as also frortl 
an innate and hereditary love of retirement and study, he 
resolved to quit London entirely, and live in the country* 
He accordingly resigned his mastership in chancery, his 
situation as distributor of relief to the French refugees, 
and some of the many important trusts which his own kind- 
ness and the importunity of friends had induced him to 
accept. He bought Bruce castle, formerly the seat of the 
Coleraine family, situated at Tottenham, about five miles 
from London ; near enough to town to. continue what re- 
mained of the duty of commissioner of American claims, 
and to discharge several trusts, which were of a family na- 
ture. Here he passed a, considerable part of his time in 
reading and study, and prepared his father's notes and 
reports for the press, with the Memoirs of his life already 
mentioned. The " Memoirs** were sold separately, with 
a fine engraving of sir Eardley, from a painting by Dawe. 
Soon after, he engaged on the Life and Letters of bishop 
Hough, which appeared in a very splendid 4to volume in 
1812. Besides these, he published in 1779 " A s*hort De- 
fence of the Opposition/' in answer to a pamphlet entitled 
€€ A short History of the Opposition ;" and in 1780 he col- 
lated " A treatise of the Laws and Customs of England/' 
written by Kanylf Glanvil, in the time of Henry II. with 

M 2 

164 W 1 L M O T. 

the MSS. in the Harleian, Cotton ian, Bodleian, and Dr. 
Mills' a libraries, and printed it in Latin, 12mo. His Fast 
laboiir was a " History of the Commission of American 
Claims, 1 * printed in 1815. 

Mr. Wilmot died at Tottenham, June 23, 1315, in the 
sixty-seventh year of his age, lamented by all who knew 
the virtues of his public and private character. * 

WILSON (Arthur), an English historian, was the son 
of Richard Wilson, of Yarmouth, in the county of Nor* 
folk, gentleman ; and was born in that county, 1596. la 
1609 he went to France, where he continued almost two 
years ; and upon his return to England was placed with sir 
Henry Spiller, to be one of his clerks in the exchequer 
office ; in whose family be resided till having written some 
satirical verses upon one of the maid-servants, he was dis- 
missed at lady Spiller' s instigation. In 1613 he took a 
lodging in Holborn, where he applied himself to reading 
and poetry for some time ; and, the year after, was taken 
into the family x>f Robert earl of Essex, whom be attended 
into the Palatinate in 1620; to the siege of Dornick, in 
Holland,, in 1621 ; to that of Rees in 1622 ; to Arnheim, 
in 1623 ; to the siege of Breda in 1624 ; and in the expe- 
dition to Cadiz in 1625. In 1630 he was discharged the 
earl's service, at the importunity of his lady, who hadxocv- 
ceived an aversion to him, because she had supposed him 
to have been against the earl's marrying her. He tells us, 
in his own life, that this lady's name, before she married 
the earl, was Elizabeth Paulet ; that " she appeared to the 
eye a beauty, full of harmless sweetness ; that her conver- 
sation was affable and gentle ; «and, as he was firmly per* 
suaded, that it was not forced, but natural. But the height 
of her marriage and greatness being an accident, altered 
her very nature ; for," he says, " she was the true im^ge 
of Pandora's box,"* nor was he much mistaken, for this 
lady was divorced for adultery two years after her mar- 
riage. In 1631 he retired to Oxford, and became gentle- 
man commoner of Trinity college, where he stayed almost 
two years, and was punctual in his compliance with the 
laws of the university. Then he was sent for to be steward 
to the earl of Warwick, whom he attended in 1637 to the 
siege of Breda. He died in 1652, at Felstead, in Essex, 
and his will was proved in October of that year. The earl 

i Gent Mag. toI. IXXXV. 

WILSON. 165 

and countess of Warwick received from him the whole of 
fais library, and 50/. to be laid out in purchasing a piece of 
gold plate, as a memorial, particularly applying to the 
latter, " in testimony," as he adds, " of my humble duty 
And gratitude for all her noble and undeserved favours to 
me." Gratitude seems to have been a strong principle 
with Wilson, as appears from his life, written by himself, 
and printed in Peck's " Desiderata." Wood's account of 
him is, that " be had little skill in the Latin tongue, less 
in the Greek, a good readiness in the Freucb, and some 
smattering in the Dutch. He was well seen in the ma- 
thematics and poetry, and sometimes in the common law 
of the nation. He had composed some comedies, which 
were acted at the Black Friars, in London, by the king's 
players, and in the act-time at Oxford, with good applause, 
himself being present ; but whether they are printed I can- 
not yet tell ; sure I am, that I have several specimens of 
his poetry printed in divers books. His carriage was very 
courteous and obliging, and such as did become a well- 
bred 'gentleman. He also had a great command of the 
English tongue, as well in writing as speaking ; and, had 
he bestowed his endeavours on any other subject than that 

v of history, they would without doubt have seemed better. 
For, in those things which he hath done, are wanting the 

' principal matters conducing to the completion of that fa- 
culty, viz. matter from record, exact time, name, and 
place, which, by his endeavouring too much to set out his 
bare collections in an affected and bombastic style, are 
much neglected." The history here alluded to by Wood, 
is " The Life and Reign of king James I." printed in Lon- 
don in 1653, folio; that is, the year after his death; and 
reprinted in the 2d volume of " The complete History of 
England," in 1706, folio. This history has been severely 
treated by many writers. Mr. William Sanderson says, that, 
**to give Wilson his due, we may find truth and falsehood 
finely put together in it." Heylin, in the general preface 
to his u Examen," styles Wilson's history " a most famous 
pasquil of the reign of king James ; in which it is not easy to 
judge whether the matter be more false, or the style more 
reproachful to all parts thereof." Mr. Thomas Fuller, in his 
4t Appeal of injured Innocence," observes, how Robert 
earl of Warwick told him at Beddington, that, when Wilson's 
book in manuscript was brought to him, bis lordship ex- 
puuged more than an hundred offensive passages : to which 

166 WILSON, 

Mr. Fuller replied, " My lord, you have done well ; and. 
you had done better if you had put out a hundred tnore. 1 * 
Mr. Wood's sentence is, " that, in our author's history, 
may easily be discerned a partial presbyterian vein, that 
constantly goes through the whole work : and it being the 
genius of those people to pry more than they should into 
the courts and comportments of princes, they do take oc-? 
casion thereupon to traduce and bespatter them. Further 
also, our author, having endeavoured in many things tq 
make the world believe that king James and his son after 
him were inclined to Popery, and to bring that religion 
}nto England, hath made him subject to many errors and 
misrepresentations." On the other band, archdeacon 
Echard tells us, that l( > Wilson's History of the life and 
reign of king James, though written not without some 
prejudices and rancour in respect to some persons, and too 
much with the air of a romance, is thought to be the best 
of that kind extant :'• and the writer of the notes on the 
edition of it in the " Complete History of England" re-? 
marks, that, as to the style of our author's history, " it is 
harsh and broken, the periods often obscure, and sometimes 
without connection ; faults, that were common in most wri- 
ters of that time. Though he finished that history in the 
year 1652, a little before his death, when both the monar- 
chy and hierarchy were overturned, it does pot appear he 
was an enemy to either, but only to the corruptions of 
them; as he intimates irj the picture he draws of himself 
before that book." 

The plays mentioned by Wood were " The Switzer, n 
? c The Corporal," and the " Inconstant Lady," all which 
were entered in Stationers --ball in 1646 and 1653, but it 
does not appear that they were printed. ** The Inconstant 
Lady," however, was lately printed at Oxford in 1814, 
4 to, from a manuscript bequeathed in 1755 to the Bodleian 
library by Dr. Rawlinson, with curious notes by the editor, 
and many circumstances of Wilson's life apd character. J 

WILSON (Bernard), an English divine and writer, was 
born in 1689, and became a member of Trinity-college, 
Oxford, where he took bis degree of B. A. in 1712, and 
that of A. M. in 1719. In the following year he Was pre- 
bendary of Lowtbi, and afterwards of Scamblesbey in the 
church of Lincoln in 1727, about which time be was {Uso 

* Life by himself ip Peck.— Ath. Ox. vol. IL 

WILSON. 167 

vicar of Newark in Nottinghamshire, master of the hospital 
there, and an alderman. He is thought to have owed his 
preferments chiefly to bishop Reynolds of Lincoln. From 
the crown he had a prebend of Worcester, and another of 
Carborough in Lichfield, where he had a house given him 
by bishop Chandler. * In July 1735, he was presented to 
Bottesford in Leicestershire, but never took possession of it. 
In 1737 be took his degree of D. D. He died April 30, 
1772, aged eighty-three, and was interred in the church 
of Newark with an inscription, extolling his extensive be- 
nevolence, by bis nephew Robert Wilson Cracroft, esq. 

Although a man of learning and address, of a very 1 
charitable disposition, and enjoying distinguished patron- 
age, he seems frequently to have been involved in disputes 
which cast some shade on his character. At one time he 
received a great accession of property, by the will of sir 
George Markbam, but was obliged to publish a defence of 
himself, in a quarto pamphlet, against the insinuations of 
sir George's relations. In 1747 he was prosecuted for 
breach of promise of marriage by a Miss Davids of Castle- 
yard, Holborn, and the case appeared to the jury in such 
a light, that they gave 7000/. damages, yet we see that he 
was at this time fifty-eight years of age. Some pamphlets 
were also published concerning his disputes with the parish 
of Newark, to which he left ample benefactions, but these 
were lost to the poor by the Mortmain act. He translated 
some parts of Fleury, but his greatest undertaking was a 
translation of Thuanus, of which he published vol. I. in 
1729, and vol. II. in 1730. It is perhaps to be regretted 
that want of encouragement obliged him to desist, for 
these are two elegantly printed folios, and the completion 
would have done credit to the age. 1 

WILSON (Florence), known in his own time, among 
scholars, by the name of Florentius Volusenvs, was. bom 
at Elgin, in Scotland, about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, and was educated in his native place, whence be 
removed for academical studies to the university of Aber- 
deen. On quitting college, he went to England, where 
his talents recommended him to the notice of cardinal 
Wolsey, who made him preceptor to his nephew, whom he 
afterwards accompanied to Paris for education, and re- 
mained with him till the death of Wolsey, which for 4 

1 Nichols's Bowyer. 


time eclipsed bis prospects. < He was soon afterwards taken 
under the protection of the learned cardinal du Bellai 9 
archbishop of Paris, but here again the disgrace at court 
of this second patron proved a severe disappointment. 
Wilson, however, adhered to the cardinal, and would have 
accompanied him to Rome, but he fell sick at Avignon, 
aqd the cardinal being obliged to leave him, his finances 
were too much exhausted to allow any thoughts of bis ac- 
complishing the journey alone, and his patron's change, of 
fortune having probably put the offer of sufficient assist* 
ance out of his power, Mr. Wilson found himself com*, 
pelled to abandon a project, in which both affection and 
curiosity had so warmly interested his heart 

At this time the cardinal Sadolet was in residence upon 
bis bishopric of Carpentras. His name in the republic of 
letters was inferior to very few. in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries ; nor was he less celebrated for his libe*- 
rality towards learned men in circumstances of want and 
distress. Mr. Wilson, as soon as the re-establishment of. 
his health permitted, took the resolution of paying him a 
visit. Although it was night at Mr. Wilson's arrival, the, 
courtesy of the cardinal,, .then engaged in study } gave bim 
immediate access. He first learned from the stranger, that 
bis visit was occasioned, partly by bis desire of seeing a 
person not less illpstrious by his learned writings than the 
eminence of his station, and partly by his wish to recom-r 
mend himself, through the cardinal's interest, to the em* 
ployment of teaching the Creek and Latin languages to 
tbe youth of the city. Mr. Wilson's eloquent command of 
the Latin tongue, and tbe proof which he soqn gave of 
superior understanding and knowledge, inspired the car-, 
dinal with such prepossession in his favour, that he was 
unwilling to part with him, till he had learnt tbe particu- 
lars of the stranger's country, his parentage, his education, 
and the different scenes of life through which he bad 
passed. Greatly interested by the narrative, he rose early 
the next morning, and, demanding a conference with the 
magistrates, consulted them on Mr. Wilson's proposition; 
but not* wishing their decision to be solely the result of his 
recommendation, he invited them on a certain day to . an 
entertainment, a kind of symposium at bis palace ; during 
which he contrived to engage Mr. Wilson, in disputation 
with a learned physician on certain points of Natural Phi- 

WILSON. 169 

It does not appear, that his learning and accomplish- 
ments ever procured him any thing better from this period 
than bis laborious though honourable employment of teach- 
ing the ancient languages at Carpentras. It was perhaps 
to reconcile himself to the mediocrity of his lot, that 
during his residence in that city he composed his excellent 
book " De Tranquillitate Animi." If he possessed that 
contentment and peace of mind which made the subject of 
these contemplations, the first blessing of life was bis, and 
which wealth and station only have never bestowed on 

This work is written in dialogue. The speakers are, 
Franciscus Michaelis, a patrician of Lucca, Demetrius, 
Caracal la, and the author himself. The first part of the 
work, and about one third of the whole, is taken up with 
proving, partly from the sentiments of the author, but 
chiefly from those of the ancient philosophers, moralists, 
and poets, that tranquillity of mind is a practicable acqui- 
sition, in answer to the doubts and objections of the other 
interlocutors. In this part, and indeed throughout the 
whole work, Mr. Wilson displays a vast compass of learn- 
ing, and an intimate acquaintance with all the Greek and 
Latin classics; many apt and beautiful quotations from 
them adorn bis treatise; not to. mention several little poems 
of his own composition interspersed, which at once en- 
liven the piece, and give the reader a very advantageous 
idea of the author's poetic genius and talent for Latin ver- 
sification. This work was first printed by Gryphius, at 
Leyden, 1543, and reprinted at Edinburgh in 1571, 8v*. 
A third edition was printed at Edinburgh in 1707, cor- 
rected by Rudditnan; and there is a fourth, 1751, with a 
preface by Dr. John Warct. 

About 1546, the tenth year of Mr. Wilson's residence 'at 
Carpentras, after having taught the belles lettres with great 
reputation, and established the character of a very learned, 
ingenious, and worthy man, he felt a strong desire to re- 
visit his native country. But the doctrines of the Refor- 
mation having now got some footing in Scotland, Mr. Wil- 
son was aware of the difficulties which he should have to 
contend with on his return. He had therefore recourse to 
.his friend and patron the cardinal Sadolet, at that time at 
Rome. He wrote to request his advice, in what manner 
he 'should conduct himself betwixt religious parties in his 
own country. We find the answer in the sixteenth book 

170 WILSON. 

of Sadolet's Epistles, dated 1546, and the substance of it 
is to recommend an adherence to the religion of his fore* 
fathers. From a Romish cardinal no other could be ex- 
pected, Wilson now determined upon his journey to 
Scotland, but falling sick at Vienne in Dauphiny, his pro- 
gress was suddenly stopped. His disorder increased beyond 
the power of medical relief; and he expired on the banks 
of the Rhone 1547. 

Besides the work mentioned in the course of Mr. Wil- 
son's life, be wrote a book of Latin poems, printed in 
London 1619, 4to; also " Commentatio Theologica, in 
Aphorismos dissecta, per Sebast. Gryphseum," 1539, 8vo ; 
and " Philosophise Aristotelicce Synopsis," Lib. IV. 
Whether this last article ever appeared in print is 
doubtful. ' 

WILSON (Richard), a very distinguished artist of the 
last century, was born in 1714, and was the son of the 
rector of Pineges, in Montgomeryshire, who was after- 
wards collated to the living of Mould in Flintshire. Ed- 
wards says, that " his connections were highly respectable, 
being maternally related to the late lord chancellor Cam- 
den, who was pleased to acknowledge him as his cousin." 
Jlis father gave him a good education, and as he early dis- 
covered a taste for painting,, sent him to London, and 
placed him under the tuition of one Thomas Wright, a 
portrait-painter of very slender abilities. Wilson, there- 
fore, began his career as a portrait-painter but with a me- 
diocrity that afforded no luminous hopes of excellence ; 
yet he must have acquired some rank in his profession, for 
we find, that in 1749, he painted a large picture of his 
present majesty, and of his brother the late duke of York, 
After having practised some years at London, be went to 
Italy, and continued the study of portrait-painting, until 
a small landscape of his, executed with a considerable 
share of freedom and spirit, casually meeting the eye of 
Zuccarelli, so pleased the Italian, that he strenuously ad- 
vised him to follow that mode of painting, as most conge- 
nial to his powers, and therefore most likely to obtain for 
him fame as well as profit. 

This flattering encomium from an artist of Zuccarelli's 
knowledge and established reputation, produced such an 

1 Life by Dr. Lctttqe.— Earop. Mag. 1195. — Mackenzie's Scotch Writers, 
Vol. 111.— QhalmeiVs Life of Ruddimao* 

WILSON. 171 

influence on Wilson, as to determine him at once to torn 
from portrait to landscape, which be pursued with vigour 
and success. To this fortunate accident is owing the splen- 
dour diffused by bis genius over this country, and even over 
Italy itself, whose scenes have been the frequent subjects 
of his pencil. His studies, indeed, in this branch of the 
art, must have been attended with rapid success, for he 
had some pupils in landscape while at Rome, and his works 
were so much esteemed that Mengs paintefl his portrait, for 
which Wilson, in return, painted a landscape. 

It is not known at what tijne he returned to England, but 
he was ia London in 1758, and resided over the north 
arcade of the piazza, Covent-garden, at which time he had 
gained great celebrity as a landscape-painter. To the first 
exhibition of 1760, he sent his picture of Niobe, which is 
now ip the possession of his royal highness the duke of 
Gloucester. , Sir Joshua Reynolds, in his last lecture but 
one, has offered some strictures on the figures intro- 
duced in this celebrated picture, in which Mr. Fuseli 
$eema to agree, but which Edwards labours to oppose ; and 
even to trace sir Joshua's opinion to private pique. In 
1765, Wilson exhibited, with other pictures, a view of 
Rome, from the villa Madama, a capital performance, 
which was purchased by the late marquis of Tavistock, 
and is probably in the collection of the duke of Bedford. 
When the Royal Academy was instituted, he was chosen one 
pf the founders, and, after the death of Hayman, was 
made librarian ; an office which his necessities rendered 
desirable, and which he retained until his decayed health 
compelled him to retire to his brother's in Wales, where 
he died in May 1782. Mr. Opie says, in his " Lectures," 
that Wilson, though second to no name of any school or 
country in classical and heroic landscape, succeeded with 
difficulty, by pawning some of his works at the age of 
seventy (sixty-seven or sixty-eight), in procuring ten gui-* 
neas to carry him to die in unhonoured and unnoticed ob- 
scurity in Wales.' * Edwards informs us, that " though he 
had acquired great fame, yet he did not find that constant 
employment which his abilities deserved. This neglect 

' might ptt&ably result from his own conduct ; for it must 
be coriWbli that Mr. Wilson was not very prudendaUy 
attentive toHiis interest ; and though a man of strong sense, 

% and superior education to most of the artists of his time, 
he certainly did not possess that suavity of manners whicfy 

172 W I L S O N. 


distinguished many of bis contemporaries. On this ac- 
count, his connexions and employment insensibly 4imij> 
nished, and left him, in the latter part of bis life, in com- 
fortless infirmity." This appears to us but a sorry excuse 
for the neglect Wilson met with ; for what has patronage 
to do with the temper of an artist ? Wilson's taste was s# 
exquisite, says Fuseli, and his eye so chaste, that what- 
ever came from his easel bore the stamp of elegance and 
truth. The subjects he chose were such as did credit to 
his judgment. They were the selections of taste ; and whe- 
ther of the simple, the elegant, or the sublime, they were 
treated with an equal felicity. Indeed, he possessed that 
versatility of power, as to be one minute an eagle sweeping 
the heavens, and the next, a wren twittering a simple note 
on the humble thorn. His colouring was in general vivid 
and natural ; his touch, spirited and free ; his composi- 
tion, simple and elegant; his lights and shadows, broad 
and well distributed ; his middle tints in perfect harmony, 
while his forms in general produced a pleasing impression. 
Wilson has been called the English Claude; a comparison 
which Mr. Fuseli cannot admit, from the total dissimilarity 
of their style. " Claude," he adds, " little above medi- 
ocrity in all other branches of landscape-painting, had 
one great prerogative, sublimity ; but his powers rose and 
set with the sun, be could only be serenely sublime or roman- 
tic. Wilson, without so great a feature, had a more varied and 
more proportionate power : he observed nature in all her 
appearances, and had a characteristic touch for all her 
forms. But though in effects of dewy freshness and silent 
evening lights few equalled, and fewer excelled him, his 
grandeur is oftener allied to terror, bustle, and convulsion, 
than to calmness ancl tranquillity. Figures, it is difficult 
to say, which of the two introduced or handled with greater 
infelicity : treated by Claude or Wilson, St. Ursula with 
her Virgins, and iEneas Landing, Niobe with her family, 
or Ceyx drawn on the shore, have an equal claim to our in- 
difference or mirth." ' 

WILSON (Thomas), a. statesman and divine in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth, celebrated for the politeness of 
bis style and the extent of his knowledge, was the son of 
Thomas Wilson of Stroby in Lincolnshire, by Anne daugh- 
ter and beir of Roger Comberwortb, of Comberworth in 

) Edwardt's Anecdotes of Painters.— Pilkington by Foscli. 

WILSON. 173 

the srfme county. He was educated at Eton, and at King'^» 
tfollege, Cambridge ; and went thence into the family 6f 
Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, who intrusted him with the 
eduoation of his two sons. During the reign of Mary, to 
whose persecution many fugitives owed their qualifications 
for future honours, he lived abroad, received the degree of 
doctor of laws at Ferrara, and was for some time imprisoned 
by the inquisition at Rome, on account of his two treatises 
on rhetoric and logic, which he had published in England, 
and in the English language, several years before. He is 
said to have suffered the torture, and \yould have been put 
to death, on refusing to deny his faith, had not a fire hap- 
pened, which induced the populace to force open the pri- 
son, that those confined there might not perish, by which 
means be escaped ; and, returning to England, after queen 
Mary's death, was appointed one of the masters of requests, 
and master of St. Katherine's hospital near the Tower. 
This was in the third year of queen Elizabeth, at which 
time he was her majesty's secretary ; but finding his patent 
for the mastership of St. Katherine's void, because he was 
not a priest, according to queen Philippa's charter, be 
surrendered the office, and bad a new patent, with a nan 
obstante, Dec. 7, 1563. According to Dr. Ducarel, his 
conduct in this office was somewhat objectionable, as he 
sold to the city of London the fair of St. Katherine's, for 
the sum of 700 marks, surrendered the charter of Henry 
VI. and took a new one 8. Elizabeth, leaving out the li- 
berty of the aforesaid fair; and did many other things very 
prejudicial to his successors. In 1561 he bad been admit* 
ted a civilian; and in 1576 he was sent on an embassy to 
the Low Countries, where he acquitted himself so well, that 
in the following year be was named to succeed sir Thomas 
Smith as secretary of state; and in 1579 obtained a 
deanery of Durham. He died in 1581, and was buried in 
St, Katherine's church. He was endowed with an uncom- 
mon strength of memory, which enabled him to act with 
remarkable dispatch in bis negociatious. Yet he was more 
distinguished as a scholar than as a minister, and was per- 
haps unfortunate in having served jointly with the illus- 
trious Walsingham, whose admirable conduct in his office 
admitted of no competition. Sir Thomas Wilson married 
Anne, daughter of sir William Winter, of Lidney in Glou- 
cestershire, and left three children : Nicholas, who settled 
at Sheep wash in Lincolnshire ; M^ry, married, first, to Ro- 

174 W 1 L $ O Ni 

bert Burdett, of Bramcote in Warwickshire, secondly td 
sir Christopher Lowther, of Lowther in Westmoreland 5 
and Lucretia, wife of George Belgrave, of Belgrave in 

Sir Thomas Wilson wrote, 1." Epistola de vita et obiiti 
duorum fratrum Suffolciensium, HenricietCafoli Brandon," 
Lend. 1552, 4to, prefixed" to a collection of verses written 
on their deaths by several scholars of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. Of this rare book there are only three copies 
known, one in the Bodleian, another in the British nra* 
seum, and a third in the magnificent library of earl Spencer. 
2. " The rule of Reason, containing the art of Logic," 1 55 f ^ 
1552, 1553, 1567, 4to. 3. " The art of Rhetoric," 1553, 
4to, often reprinted. 4. ** Discourse upon Usury," Lorid. 
1572, a work much praised by Dr. Lawrence Humphrey* 
the queen's professor of divinity at Oxford, in his life of 
Jewell. Wilson also translated from Greek into English, 
" The three Orations of Demosthenes, chief orator among 
the Grecians," Lond. 1570. Of his "Art of Logic," Mr. 
Warton says that such a " display of the venerable mys* 
teries of this art in a vernacular language, which had 
hitherto been confined within the sacred pale of the learned 
tongues, was esteemed an innovation almost equally da* 
ring with that of permitting the service of the church to be 
^celebrated in English ; and accordingly the author, soon 
afterwards happening to visit Rome, was incarcerated by 
the inquisitors of the holy see, as a presumptuous and 
dangerous heretic." Of his "Art of Rhetoric," Mr. War- 
ton says, it is liberal and discursive, illustrating the arts of 
eloquencg-'by example, and examining and ascertaining 
the beauties of composition with the speculative skill ana 
sagacity of a critic. It may therefore be justly considered 
as the first book or system of criticism in our language* 
This opinion Mr. Warton confirms by very copious ex* 
tracts. * 

WILSON (Thomas) a puritan divine, of the sixteenth 
century, was minister of St. George's church, in Canter- 
bury, one of the six preachers hi that city, chaplain to lord 
\ Wotton, and a man of high reputation. We have, how- 
ever, no particulars of his early life. He preached at Can- 
terbury thirty-six years, and was assiduous and indefatU 

1 Tanner. — Ath. Ox. vol. II. new edit — Strype's Annals. — Lodge's III titra- 
tions, vol. II. — WartonVHist. of Poetry.— 'Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham, vol. 
II. p. 152.<r"Dttearel , 8 Hist of St. Katherine's, 

WILSON. 175 

gable in all the duties of his sacred office. He died in 
Jaa. 1621, on the 25th of which raopth his funeral ser- 
mon, wbjch has been printed, was preached by William 
Swift, minister of St. Andrew's, at Canterbury, and great 
grandfather of dean Swift. His works are, 1, " A Com- 
mentary on the Romans, 9 ' 1614, a work much approved* 
2. " Christ's farewell to Jerusalem," 1614. 3. " Theolo- 
gical Rules," 1615. 4. " A complete Christian Dictionary," 
fol. of which the sixfh edition, with a continuation by Bag- 
well and Symson, was published in 1655. This was one 
of the first attempts, in English, towards a concordance of 
the Bible. Mr. Wilson wrote some other pieces of less 
note. * 

> WILSON (Thomas), the pious and venerable bishop 
of Sodojr and Man, was born atJBurton, a village in the 
hundred of Wirrel, in the county Palatine of Chester, ia 
1663. He was educated in the city of Chester until quali- 
fied for the university, when he was entered of Trinity 
college, Dublin. During his residence there he made 
great proficiency in academical studies, and had at first an 
intention of devoting himself to that of physic as a profes- 
sion, but he was soon persuaded by a dignitary of the 
church to turn his thoughts to divinity. He continued at 
college till 1686, when he was ordained a deacon by the 
bishop of Kildare, soon after which he left Ireland, partly 
owing to the confusions which prevailed .under the un- 
happy reign of king Japnes II. ; and in the latter end of the 
same year, became curate of New Church, in the parish 
of Winwick, in Lancashire, of which his maternal uncle, 
Dr. Sherlock, was then rector, and here he first displayed 
his affectionate and conscientious regard for the poor, by 
setting apart a tenth of his income (which was only 30/, a 
year) to charitable purposes. 

In 1689 he entered into priest's orders, and it was not 
long before his excellent character recommended him to 
the notice of the. earl of Derby, who, in 1692, appointed 
him his domestic chaplain, and preceptor to his son, lord 
Strange, with a salary of 30/. and he being appointed about 
the same time master of the alms-house at Latham, worth 
20/. a year more, he set apart a fifth part of the whole for 
pious uses. In this situation he remained till 1697, when, 
to use his own words, " he was forced into the bishopric of 

1 Brook's Lives of the Puritans.— Granger. 

176 W 1 L 8 K. 

* * 

the Isle of Man/' a promotion for which he was in all re~~ 
spects eminently qualified. fteing first created doctor erf 
laws by the archbishop of Canterbury, he was confirmed 
bishop of Man at Bow church, Jan. 15, 1697-8, and next 
, day was consecrated at the Savoy church, by Dr. Sharp, 
archbishop of York. 

In the beginning of April following he landed in thelshb 
of Man, and was enthroned in the cathedral of St. Ger- 
main's in Peel Castle. His palace be found almost a ruin. 
It had not been inhabited for eight years, and nothing but 
an ancient tower and chapel remained entire. He was, 
therefore, obliged to rebuild it, and the expence, which 
amounted to 1400/. interrupted, in some measure, his cha- 
rity to the poor, but this he soon resumed, and his bene- 
ficence ever afterwards increased with his income. About 
this time the earl of Derby offered him the valuable living 
of Baddesworth, in Yorkshire, to hold in commendum, pro- 
bably as a compensation for the expences he had been at ; 
bat he declined the offer, as being incompatible with his 
resolution never to take two ecclesiastical preferments with 
cure of souls, especially when he must necessarily be ab- 
sent from one.of them. 

In l€99 bishop Wilson published a small tract in Manks 
and English, the first work ever printed in the former 
language, entitled " The Principles and Duties of Chris- 
tianity, for the use of the island/' where a great degree of 
ignorance prevailed, and wjbere it was necessary to diffuse 
elementary treatises written in the plainest manner, which 
is the characteristic of most of our prelate's writings, and 
predominated also in his sermons. By the advice, and 
with the assistance of Dr. Bray, be likewise began to 
found parochial libraries throughout his diocese, giving to 
each a proper book-case, and furnishing them with Bibles 
and such other books as were calculated to instruct the 
people in the great truths and duties of religion. In the 
beginning of 1707 the degree of D. D. was conferred upon 
him by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Aboot 
this time also he was admitted a member of the society for 
promoting Christian knowledge, and in the same year he 
had the church catechism printed in Manks and English, 
for the use of the schools which he had established itr va- 
rious parts of his diocese, and which he superintended with 
the greatest care. Indeed he applied himself with singular 
diligence to all the duties of his sacred function, and also 

WILSON. 177 

endeavoured, both by bis exhortations and example, to 
animate the clergy of the island to a regular and faithful 
discharge of their pastoral office. With this view they 
were occasionally assembled in convocation at Bishop's 
court (the name of t(ie episcopal palace), where our prelate 
delivered such charges as circumstances required, earnestly 
pressing them at all times to attend to the care of their 
flocks, and to endeavour, by all possible methods, to plant 
the fear of God in the hearts of the people. One of his 
leading objects was to maintain and preserve, in their full 
force, those ecclesiastical constitutions which he had 
established in 1703, and by which he hoped to revive in 
60 me measure the primitive discipline of the church. The 
lord chancellor King was so much pleased with these con* 
stitutions as to declare, that " if the ancient discipline of 
the church were lost, it might be found in all its purity in 
the Isle of Man." 

From this time our prelate continued to perform all the 
offices of a good bishop and a. good man ; and we hear 
little mope of him till 1721 and 1722, when the orthodoxy 
of his spirit, and zeal for church-discipline, seem to have 
involved him in. altercations and difficulties. When the 
famous work called" The Independent Whig," came into 
tfce diocese of Man, the bishop immediately issued an act 
against it, dated Jan. 27, 1721, declaring its purpose to be 
subversive of the doctrine, discipline, and government, of 
the church, as well as undermining the Christian religion. 
But bis zeal against it did not atop here, for he took it 
upon, him to seize it wherever, he found it : and accord- 
ingly, when Mr. Worth ington sent it as a present to the 
public library of the island, the bishop commanded one 
Stevenson to take and keep it ; so that it should neither be 
deposited in the library, nor yet restored to, the right 
owner. Complaint was made to the governor of the island, 
who committed Stevenson to prison till he should make 
reparation. The bishop remonstrated', and the governor 
replied, in which reply he charged the bishop, who had 
pleaded obedience to the king's commands in his attempts 
to. suppress irreljgioh, with having neglected to use the 
prayers composed in the. time of the rebellion in 1715^ 
which was also an equal object of obedience. The issue 
of this affair was, that the book was restored, and Steven* 
ipn set at liberty. 
, But there happened another dispute between the bishop 

Vol. XXXII. N 

17S v W I L S O N. 

and the governor, which, so far as the bishop was personally 
concerned, was much more serious ; and it is related thus : 
Mrs. Home, the governor's wife, had defamed Mrs. Puller 
and sir Jam^s Pool with a false charge of criminal conver- 
sation ; and, in consequence of being contumacious, and 
refusing to ask pardon of the persons injured, was by the 
bishop interdicted from the holy communion. But Mr. 
Horribin, his archdeacon, who was chaplain to captain 
Home, received Mrs. Home to the communion, and was 
suspended by the bishop. Upon this, the governor, con- 
ceiving that the bishop had acted illegally, fined him 50/. 
and his two vicars-general 20/. each ; and, on their refusing 
to pay this fine, committed them all, June 29, 1722, to 
Castle Rushin, a damp and. gloomy prison, where they 
were closely confined, and no persons were admitted within 
the walls to see or converse with them, and where Dr. 
Wilson was treated with a rigour which no protestant bishop 
had experienced since the reformation. 

The concern of the people was so great when they heard 
of this tyrannical treatment of their beloved pastor and 
friend, that they assembled in crowds, and it was with 
difficulty they were restrained from proceeding to violence 
and outrage against the governor, by the bishop himself* 
who, being permitted to speak to them through a grated 
window, exhorted them to peace, and told them that he 
intended to appeal to the king, and did not doubt bat hit 
majesty would vindicate his cause. He also sent a circular 
letter to his clergy, drawn up in such terms as seemed 
most proper for appeasing the people, and desired it might 
be generally communicated throughout the island. After 
some delays, owing to the technical formalities of law, the 
bishop's appeal was heard before the lords justices in coun- 
cil, July 18, 1723, and the proceedings of the governor 
were reversed, as extrajudicial and irregular, and the fines 
were ordered to be restored to the bishop and his vicars* 
general. This was accordingly done, and upon the bishop's 
application for costs, the king, by the president of the 
council, and sir Robert Walpole, promised that be would 
see him satisfied. Iri consequence of this engagement, 
the king, some time after, offered him the bishopric of 
Exeter, then vacant, to reimburse him, but our unambi- 
tious prelate could not be prevailed upon to quit his own 
diocese ; upon which his majesty promised to defray his 
sxpences out of the privy puree, and gave it in charge to 

WILSON. 179 

lord T«>wnsend, lord Carleton, and sir Robert Walpole, to 
remind him of it ; but the king going soon afterwards to 
Hanover, and' dying before his return, this promise was 
never fulfilled. The only recompense he had was by a 
subscription set on foot by the archbishop of York, amount- 
ing to 300/. not a sixth part of the expences of his appli- 
cation. to the crown. To add to the indignation which we 
are confident every reader will feel, it may be mentioned, 
that from the dampness of the prison in which the bishop 
was confined by the brutal governor, he contracted a dis- 
order in his right hand, which disabled ,him from the free 
use ot his ringers, and he ever after wrote with his whole 
hand grasping the pen. He wa"s advised to prosecute the 
governor, &c. in the English courts of law, to recover 
damages ; but to this he could not be persuaded, and ex- 
tended his forgiveness to tbose who had ill-used him, in 
the most sincere and liberal manner. 

After this absence from his' diocese of eighteen mouths, 
which he had spent mostly in London, where he was .be- 
loved and admired to a degree of enthusiasm by all clashes 
of f>eople, he returned to the island, and resumed his ex- 
enfplary course. In 1735 he came to England for the last 
time, to visit his son, the subject of the following article; 
and being introduced at the court of George II. he was 
much noticed by their majesties, and particularly by queen 
Caroline, who was very desirous of keeping him in Eng- 
land, but he could not be prevailed upon to quit his poor 
diocese, the value of which did not exceed 300/. a year. 
On his return he visited the province of York at the request 
of archbishop Blackburn, and confirmed upwards of fifteen 
thousand persons. 

, In 1739 the clergy of the Isle of Man were much alarmed 
by the death of the earl of Derby, who dying without issue, 
the lordship of Man, as a barony^in Fee, became the pro* 
perty of the duke of Athol, who had married the heiress of 
a late earf of Derby. This threatened to deprive the 
clergy of their subsistence, for the livings df'the Isle of 
Man consist of a third of the impropriations, which had 
been originally purchased of a former earl of Derby by 
bishop Barrow, in the reign of Charles II. ; but now the 
duke of Athol claimed the impropriations as an inseparable 
appendage of his estate and royalty. The clergy were 
now in danger of losing all their property, for the deeds 
of conveyance from the earl of Derby to bishop Barrow 

N 2 


were lost from the records of the island, and the : affair 
became every year more difficult, until at length, by the 
care and diligence of the bishop and his son, the deeds 
were discovered in the Rolls chapel, where they had been 
deposited for safe custody. This discovery put an end to 
the dispute, and in 1745 the deeds were exemplified under 
the great seal of England, and every precaution taken for 
the future payment of the money. 

In his latter days bishop Wilson formed a plan for trans- 
lating the New Testament into the Manks language, but 
did not live to make a further progress tban to translate 
the four gospels, and print that of St. Matthew. This im- 
portant work was completed by his successor (See Hildjes- 
X£Y). This seems to have been the last concern of a pub- 
lic nature in which he was engaged, beyond the immediate 
duties of his bishopric, which he continued to execute to 
the latest period of his life, notwithstanding the infirmities 
naturally attending bis great age. He had attained his 
ninety-third year, when, in consequence of a cold caught 
by walking in his garden in very cold weather, after read- 
ing evening prayers in his own chapel, he was confined 
for a short time to his bed, and expired March 7, 1755. 
He was interred in the. church-yard of Kirk-Michael, 
almost the wbole population of the island attending the 
funeral, and lamenting their loss. 

Bishop Wilson's life was an uniform display of the most- 
genuine and active benevolence. Considering himself as 
the steward, not the proprietor, of the revenues of the 
bishopric, he devoted his income to what he esteemed its. 
proper use. The annual receipts of the bishopric, as we 
have just mentioned, did not exceed 300/. in money; some 
necessaries in his house were of course to be paid for in 
money; distressed or shipwrecked mariners, and some other 
poor objects, it was also requisite to relieve with money ; 
bpt the poor of the. island were fed and clothed, and this 
bouse in general supplied from his demesnes by exchange, 
without money. The poor who could spin or weave, found 
the best market at Bishop's-cou'rt, where they bartered the 
produce of their labour for corn; Taylors and shoemakers 
were kept in the house constantly employed, to make into 
garments or shoes that cloth or leather which his corn had 
purchased; and the aged and the infirm were supplied 
according, to their several wants. At the same time he 
fcept aa open hospitable table, covered with the produce of 


WILSON. 181 

his own demesnes, at which he presided with equal affabi- 
lity and decorum. His manners, though always consistently 
adorned with Christian gravity, were ever gentle and po- 
lite ; and in his conversation he was one of the most enter* 
taining and agreeable, as well as instructive of men. With 
these qualities of the gentleman, the bishop united the ac- 
complishments and virtues of the scholar and the divine. 
He was well skilled in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin 
languages ; and there was hardly any part of science that 
could be serviceable in his diocese which he did not un- 
derstand. In his younger days he had a poetical turn, but 
afterwards laid aside such amusements, as thinking them 
inconsistent with his episcopal character. During the fifty- 
eight years that he held the bishopric, he never failed, 
unless on occasions of sickness, to expound the scripture, 
to preach, or to administer the sacrament, every Sunday, 
at one or other of the churches in his diocese, and, if 
absent from the island, he always preached at the church 
where he resided for the day. He alternately visited the 
different parishes of his diocese on Sundays (which the 
dimensions of the island will permit in a, carriage) without 
giving them notice, and, after doing the duty of the day, 
returned home to dinner. His family prayers were as re- 
gular as his public duties. Every summer morning at six, 
and every winter morning at seven o'clock, his. whole 
household attended him in his chapel, where he himself, 
or one of those divinity-students whom he maintained in 
his house, performed the service of the day ; and in the 
evening they did the same. Thus it was that he formed 
his young clergy for -the pulpit, and for a graceful delivery. 
He was so great a friend to toleration, that the papists who 
resided in the island, loved and esteemed him, and not 
unfrequently attended his ministrations. Dissenters like* 
wise even attended the communion-service, as he admitted 
them to receive the sacrament, either standing or sitting, 
at their own option, so that there was neither schism nor 
separate congregation in his diocese. The few quakers 
.also, who were resident on the island, visited and respected 
him. Many other amiable, and some singular traits of the 
character of this excellent prelate may be seen in the 
work from which the above particulars are taken. 

His works, consisting of religious tracts, most of which 
have been repeatedly printed separately, and extensively 
circulated, and of serm6ns, were collected by his son amj 

182 WILSON. 


published in 1780, 2 vols. 4to, and reprinted in 2 handsome 
volumes, folio, by the editor, the late Rev. Clement Crutt- 
well, who also edited, a few years after, a splendid edition 
of the Bible in 3 vols. 4to, with notes by bishop Wilson. 1 

WILSON (Thomas), D. D. only surviving son of the 
preceding, was born Aug. 24, 1703, in the parish of Kirk- 
Michael, in the Isle of Man, and after such an institution 
there as he must have received under the eve of so ex- 
cellent a father, was entered of Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he took the degree of M. A. Dec. 16, 1727. On 
the 10th of May, 1739, having previously become pos- 
sessed of bis mother's jointure, which devolved to hijn on 
ber decease, he accumulated the degrees of B. and D. D. 
May 10, 1739, when he went out grand compounder. He 
was many years senior prebendary of Westminster, and 
minister of St. Margaret's there; and rector of St. Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook, forty-six years ; in which last he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Watson, on the presentation of lord-chancel- 
lor Hardwicke. In 1761 was published a pamphlet en- 
titled " The Ornaments of Churches considered ;. with a 
particular view to the late decoration of the parish church 
of St. Margaret, Westminster. To which is subjoined an 
appendix, containing the history of the said church, an 
account of the altar-piece and stained glass window erected 
over it, a state of the has occasioned, and 
other papers," 4to. To the second edition of this pamph- 
let was prefixed a view of the inside of St Margaret's 
ehurch, with the late excellent speaker, Arthur Onslow, 
in bis seat. This pamphlet has been by some ascribed to 
a son of Dr. Shebbeare, as published under Dr. Wilson's 
inspection. The reason for such conjecture is not given, 
and the fact is therefore doubtful. We know of no son of 
Dr. Shebbeare's, and at this time Dr. Shebbeare himself 
was a well-known writer, and sufficiently practised in de- 
ceptions, had any been necessary. Another report is that 
the work was chiefly the composition of the late archdea- 
con Hole ; Dr. Wilson having borrowed a MS treatise on 
the subject written by the archdeacon, and then printed 
almost the whole of it, inserting here and there a few 
notes, &c. of his own. This assertion is made by an 
anonymous writer in the Gent. Mag. for 1786, but who the 
late archdeacon Hole was, we have not been able to dia- 

' ^Life prefixed to his work* 


jcover ; Mr. William Hole, archdeacon of Sarum, *as then 
alive, and died in 1791. Another pamphlet ascribed to 
Dr. Wilson was, " A review of the project for building a 
new square at Westminster, said to be for the use of West- 
minster-school. By a Sufferer. Part I. M 1757, 8vo. The 
injury here complained of was the supposed undervaluation 
■of the doctor's prebendal house, which was to have made 
way for the project alluded to. He was also the supposed 
author of a pamphlet entitled u Distilled Liquors the bane 
of the nation ;" which recommended him to sir Joseph 
Jekyll, 'then master of the rolls, who interested himself in 
procuring him his rectory. Even concerning this a doubt 
has been suggested, as Dr. Hales printed a pamphlet with 
exactly the same title. That elaborate and excellent work 
of Dr. Leland's, entitled " A view of the principal Deisti- 
cal Writers," was originally addressed in a series of letters, 
in the form they now appear, to Dr. Wilson, who finding 
that the booksellers would not give the author any adequate 
remuneration (50/. only were offered) printed the first 
edition at his own risk. 

Dr. Wilson died at Alfred House, Bath, April 15, 1784, 
in the eighty-first year of his age, and on the 27th was in- 
terred, with great funeral pomp, in Walbrook * church ; 
where he had in his life-time put up a tablet undated. His 
tenacity in the cause he espoused was no less conspicuous 
in his opposition to the building of the intended square in 
Westminster, than in. his attachment to the noted Mrs. 
Macaulay, to whom,' when living, he erected a statue in 
bis church, which, with his other marks of high regard for 
this lady, created much ridicule. By her second marriage, 
however, he was completely cured, and diverted his testa* 
mentary remembrances into more proper channels. Dr. 
Wilson adopted the modest motto of " Sequitur patrem, 
aon passibus sequis," and in his adherence to the turbulent 
politics of Wilkes and his party, certainly departed from 
his father's example, but in acts of benevolence was by no 
means behind him. He often employed the Rev. Clement 
Cruttwell, whom we have mentioned as the editor of bishop 
Wilson's works, as his almoner, who, among many other 
instances of his liberality and prompt attention to the wants 
of the distressed, used to relate the following. One day 
Dr. Wilson discovered a clergyman at Bath, who he was 
told was sick, poor, and bad a numerous fatnily. In the 
evening of the same day he gave Mr. Cruttwell a* consi* 

184 WILSON. 

derable sum, (50/. if we have not forgot) requesting be 
woilld deliver it to the clergyman in the most delicate . 
manner, and as from an unknown person. Mr. Cruttwetl 
said, " I will call upon him early in the morning." — " Yon 
will oblige me by calling directly. Think, sir, of what 
importance a good night's rest may be to that poor man." 
Dr. Wilson had accumulated a very copious historical li- 
brary for the use of Mrs. Macaulay, which he bequeathed 
to Mr. Cruttwell, along with the copy-right of his father's 
works. This curious library, after Mr. Cruttwell's death, 
came into the possession of one of his nephews at Bath. ' 


WINCHESTER (Thomas), a learned English divine, 
was the son of a reputable surgeon at Farringdon, in the 
county of Berks, where he was born. He was educated at 
Magdalen-college, Oxford, as a chorister and demy ; pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1736, B. D. in 1747, and D. D. in 1743. 
In July 1747 he was elected fellow, having been for some 
years before, as he was afterwards, a considerable tutor in 
the cbllege. In 1761 he resigned his fellowship, oh being 
presented by the society to the rectory of Appleton, Berk- 
shire, at a small distance from his native place ; and in the 
same year, June 10, he married Lucretia Townson, sister 
of Thomas Townson, rector of Malpas, Cheshire, who had 
also been fellow of Magdalen-college. She died at Apple- 
ton, greatly esteemed and lamented, Jan. 26, 1772. Five' 
years afterwards he married Jennett, widow of his fellow- 
collegian, Richard Lluellyn, B. D. and sister of the late 
Thomas Lewis, esq. of FrederickVplace, London, one of 
the directors of the Bank of England. To the sincere and 
lasting regret of all who knew him, he was seized with a 
paralytic stroke, which proved fatal May 17, 1780, and 
was buried in the chancel of his own church, near the re* 
mains, of his wife. His only preferment, besides the rec- 
tory of Appleton, was the curacy of Astley-chapel, near 
Arbury, Warwickshire, a donative given him by his 
esteemed friend sir Roger Newdigate, bart. 

" His talents," says his biographer, " if not splendid, 
were sound and good, bis attainments various and useful ; 
and he was a true son of the Church of England. • He re- 
sided constantly on his living ; where by his preaching and 
example, he brought to conformity some of the very few 

i Butler's life of Hildesley.— Private information.-- Gent. Mag. vol. LVK 



I ■ 

dissenters in his parish. He took a most cordial interest in 
the temporal and spiritual concerns of his parishioners ; and 
having studied anatomy, and being well skilled in medicine, 
he was, according to the pattern of the excellent Mr. 
Herbert's ' Country Parson, 9 physician of the body as well 
as the soul, to his flock.'* 

Dr. Winchester paid great attention to such controver- 
sies in his time as concerned the doctrine and discipline of 
the church, and contributed some valuable remarks to con- 
temporary writers who were more particularly involved in 
these disputes. He also wrote some letters in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine on the Confessional controversy, and to- 
pics arising from it. The only separate publication from 
his pen was published, but without his name, in 1773, 
under the title of "A Dissertation on the XVIIth article 
of the Church of England ; wherein the sentiments of the 
compilers, and other contemporary reformers, on the sub- 
ject of the divine decrees, are fully deduced from their 
own writings, to which is subjoined a short tract, ascer- 
taining the reign and time in which the royal declaration 
before the XXXIX articles was first published," This 
work was reprinted in 1 803, on occasion of the controversy 
being revived by Mr. Overton, " with emendations from 
the author' 8 corrected copy, and the addition of a biogra- 
phical preface." The latter is written by the rev. arch- . 
deacon Churton, and to it we are indebted for the pre- 
ceding particulars. 1 

WINDER (Henry), a learned dissenting divine, was born 
May 15, 1693, at Hutton-John, in the parish of Graystock, 
in Cumberland, where his father was a farmer. He was edu- 
cated in grammatical learning at Penruddock, and in his 
fifteenth year began his divinity and philosophy studies at 
a dissenting academy at Whitehaven, where he had for his 
contemporaries Dr. Rotheram of Kendal, and Mr. John y 
Taylor of Norwich, author of the Hebrew- English Concor- 
dance. From Whitehaven, Mr. Winder removed to Dub- 
lin, where for two years he applied very closely to the 
study of divinity under the rev. Mr. Boyse. After passing 
the usual examinations, he became a preacher, but re- 
turned to England, and in 17 14, when only twenty-two years 
of age, succeeded Mr. Edward Rothwell, as pastor of a 
congregation at Tunley in Lancashire, and in 1716 was 

1 Biog. Preface, aivbove. 



ordained. In 1718 be was chosen pastor of the meeting at 
Castle-hey in Liverpool, where it appears that he had 
jome trouble with his congregation, during certain disputes 
on liberty, charity, and the rights of conscience, which he 
endeavoured to compose by referring them to the Bible as 
the only standard of orthodoxy, not sufficiently adverting 
to the fact that this is what all sects profess to do, without 
any approach towards harmony of sentiment. In 1740, 
when he was on a visit at Glasgow, the degree of D. D. 
Was conferred upon him by that university. He continued 
to preside over his congregation at Liverpool, with great 
approbation, until his death, Aug. 9, 1752. As a testimony 
*>f his esteem for his people, he bequeathed his well- 
chosen library for the use of his successors. Dr. Winder 
is known in the literary world by an ingenious and elaborate 
work,. published a second time in 1756, 2 vols. 4to, en- 
titled " A critical and chronological History of the Rise, 
Progress, Declension, and Revival of Knowledge, chiefly 
religious; in two period}, the period of tradition from 
Adam to Moses, and the period of Letters from Moses to 
Christ.'' To this are prefixed memoirs of his life by the 
rev. Dr. George Benson. ! 

WINDHAM (Joseph), an artist and antiquary of great 
taste and talents, was born August 21, 1739, at Twicken- 
ham, in the house afterwards the residence of Richard 
Owen Cambridge, esq: He was educated at Eton school, 
from which he went to Christ's* college, Cambridge, but 
took no degree. He returned from an extensive tour 
through France, Italy, Istria, and Switzerland, in 1769; 
and soon after married the honourable Charlotte De Grey, 
sister to the lord Walsingham ; by whom he has left no 
issue. In all which is usually comprehended under the 
denomination of Belles Lettres, Mr. Windham may claim a 
place among the most learned men of his time. To an in- 
defatigable -diligence in the pursuit of knowledge, he joined 
a judgment clear, penetrating, and unbiassed, and a me- 
mory uncommonly retentive and accurate. An ardent love 
for truth, a perfect freedom from prejudice, jealousy, and 
affectation, an entire readiness to' impart his various and 
copious information, united with a singular modesty and 
simplicity, marked his conversation and manners. Few 
men had a snore critical knowledge of the Greek and Latin 

-** Memoirs as above. 


languages, or a deeper feeling for the beauties of style 
and sentiment in the classic writers ; but in his minute and 
comprehensive acquaintance with every thing in them illus- 
trative of human life and manners, especially all that re- 
lates to the fine arts, he scarcely had an equal. The his- 
tory of art in the middle ages, and every circumstance re- 
lative to the revival of literature and the arts, from the 
fourteenth century to the present time, were equally fa- 
miliar to him ; and his acquaintance with the language of 
modern Italy was surpassed by few. He had very particu- 
larly studied the antiquities of his own country, and was 
eminently skilled in the history of English architecture. 
His pencil, as a draftsman from nature, was exquisite. His 
portraits of mere natural scenery were peculiarly spirited 
and free, and bis drawings of architecture and antiquities 
most faithful and elegant. During his residence at Rome^ 
he studied and measured the remains of ancient architec- 
ture there, particularly the baths, with a precision which 
would have done honour to the most able professional ar- 
chitect. His numerous plans and sections erf them he gave 
to Mr. Cameron, and they are engraved in his great work 
on the Roman baths. To this work he also furnished a 
very considerable and valuable part of the letter-press. 
He also drew up the greater portion of the letter-press of 
the second volume of the " Ionian Antiquities," published 
by the society of Dilettanti ; and Mr. Stuart received ma- 
terial assistance from him in the second volume of his 
Athens. In his own name he published very little*. His 
accuracy of mind rendered it difficult to him to please 
himself; and, careless of the' fame of an author, he was 
better content that his friends should profit by his labours, 
than that the public should know the superiority of his own 
acquirements. He had been long a fellow of the Royal 
and Antiquarian Societies ; and in the latter, was for many 
years of the council, and one of the committee for the 
publication of the Cathedrals of England. He more than 
• once declined the honourable office of vice-president. Of 
the society of Dilettanti he was one of the oldest members; 
and to his zeal it was principally owing that the publica- 
tions of that society were -continued, after a suspension of 
many years. 

* We know only of his " Observa- of Diana at Ephesus," printed in the 
tions upon a passage in Pliny's Na- Archaeologia, vol. VI. with two plates, 
tural History, relative to the Temple 

18S , W I N D ff AM. 

Mr. Windham died at Earsham-house, Norfolk, Sept. 21,' 
1810. In private life, he was the most amiable of rajsn. 
Benevolent, generous, cheerful, without caprice, above 
envy, his temper was the unclouded sun-shine of virtue 
and sense. If his extreme modesty and simplicity of cha- 
racter prevented his striking at (he first acquaintance, 
every hour endeared him to those who had the happiness of 
his intimacy. In every relation of life he was exemplary. 
A kind husband, a firm friend, a generous landlord, an 
indulgent master. ! 

WINDHAM (William), a late distinguished statesman, 
was descended of an ancient family in Norfolk, and was 
born in Golden-square, London, May 3, 1750. His father 
was colonel William Windham, of Felbrigg in Norfolk, a 
man of versatile talents and an ardent mind. He was the 
associate of the wits of his time, the friend and admirer of 
Garrick, and the distinguished patron of all manly exer- 
cises. In his father's (Ash Windham's) life-time, he had 
lived much on the continent, particularly in Spain, and of 
bis proficiency in the language of that country, he gave 
proof in some printed observations on Smollett's translation 
of Don Quixote. At home he had devoted his attention 
to the improvement of the militia, of which he became lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and was the author of a " Plan of Disci- 
pline composed for the use of the militia of the county of 
Norfolk," 1760, 4to, which was much esteemed, and ge- 
nerally adopted by other corps of the establishment. He 
died of a consumptive disorder in the following year, leav- 
ing one son, the subject of the present article. 

At seven years of age young Mr. Windham was placed at 
Eton, where he remained until he was about sixteen, dis- 
tinguishing himself by the vivacity and brilliancy of fris 
talents. On leaving Eton in 1766, he went to the univer- 
sity of Glasgow, where he resided for about a year in the 
.house of Dr. Anderson, professor of natural philosophy, 
and diligently attended his lectures and those of Dr. Robert 
Simson, professor of mathematics. For this study Mr. 
Windham had an early predilection, and left behind him 
three treatises on mathematical subjects. In Sept. 1767 
he was entered a gentleman commoner of University-col- 
lege, Oxford, Mr. (afterwards sir Robert) Chambers being 
bis tutor. While here he took so little interest in public 

V tic*. Ma*. ™l. LXXX. 

^INDHA M. 1*5 

affairs, that it became the standing joke of one of his con~ 
temporaries, that " Windham would never know who was 
prime minister. 9 ' This disinclination to a political life, 
added to a modest diffidence in his own talents, led him 
about this period, to reject an offer which, by a youth not 
more than twenty years of age, might have been considered 
as a splendid one, that of being named secretary to his 
father's friend, lord Townshend, who had been appointed 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 

After four years residence, he left Oxford in 1771 ; he 
always retained feelings of gratitude towards bis alma 
mater y and preserved to the last an intimate acquaintance 
and correspondence with some of the most distinguished 
T^sident members. He probably took his degree of B. A. 
while at college, but did not obtain that of A. M. until 
1782, and then by creation, as he did that of LL. D. in 
1793 at the installation of the duke of Portland. It is re- 
lated that on this occasion, almost the whole assembly rose 
from their seats, when he entered the theatre, and received 
him with acclamations of applause. Nor was his memory 
forgotten at the late installation of lord Grenville ; for in 
the recitations made on that occasion, due honours were 
paid to the genius, taste, and acquirements of which the 
public had recently been deprived. 

In 1773, when he was but twenty-three years old, his 
love of adventure and his thirst of knowledge, induced 
him to accompany his friend, Constantino lord Mulgrave, 
in bis voyage towards the North Pole; but he was so ha- 
rassed with sea-sickness, that he was under the necessity 
of being landed in Norway, and of wholly abandoning his 
purpose. His earliest essay as a public speaker was occa- 
sioned by a call which was made on the country, for a sub- 
scription *in aid of government, to be applied towards car- 
rying on the war with our American colonies. A meeting 
for this purpose was held at Norwich, and his speech, 
which has been preserved by his biographer, though it 
must not be compared with later specimens of his elo- 
quence, may be allowed to exhibit some proofs of acute- 
ness, dexterity, and vigour. He opposed the subscription, 
as well as the war itself. Sometime before this he had 
entered himself as ai> officer in the western battalion erf 
Norfolk militia, and when quartered at Bury in Suffolk, 
by his intrepidity and personal exertion, he quelled a dan- 
gerous mutiny which had broke out, notwithstanding he 


W I N D fl A IT. 

"was highly beloved by the regiment. Soo\i afterwards, in 
consequence of remaining several hours in wet cloaths, he 
was seized with a dangerous bilious fever, which nearly 
deprived him of his life. In the autumn of that year, 
partly with a view of restoring his health, he went abroad, 
and spent the two following years in Switzerland and Italy. 
Previously to bis leaving England, he was chosen a 
member of the Literary club founded by sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds and Dr. Johnson,' who had the greatest esteem for 
Mr, Windham ; and, notwithstanding his engagements in 
consequence of his parliamentary business, and the impor- 
tant office* which he filled, he was a very frequent attend* 
ant at the meetings of that society, for which he always 
expressed the highest value, from 1781 to near the time of 
his death/ In 1782 he came into parliament, where he 
sat for twenty-eight years, at first for Norwich, and after- 
wards for various boroughs ; and he so early distinguished 
himself in the House of Commons, that he was selected by 
Mr. Burke in 1784 to second his motion for a representa- 
tion to his majesty on the state of the nation. He was at 
this time in the ranks of the opposition, created by the 
appointment of Mr. Pitt to be prime-minister, and may 
have been said to be particularly of the school of Burke, 
with whom he afterwards thought and acted on many 
important occasions. In the preceding year, he had been 
appointed principal secretary to the earl of Northing- 
ton, then constituted lord-lieutenant of Ireland ; and in 
that capacity he visited Dublin in the spring of 1783, and 
intended to have accompanied his excellency, when he 
afterwards opened the session of parliament there in Oc- 
tober*, but being prevented by illness, he relinquished 
the office. 

* When about to visit that country in 
bis official capacity, he called on Dr. 
Johnson ; and in the course of con- 
versation lamented that be should be 
under the necessity of sanctioning 
practices of which he could not ap- 
prote. «* Don't be afraid, sir," said 
the doctor, with a' pleasant smile, 
•* you will soon make a very pretty 
rascal." — Dr. Johnson m a letter to 
Dr. BrockJesby, written at Ashbourne 
in 1784, says: " Mr. Wiudbam has 
been here to see me — he came, I 
think, forty miles out of his way, 
and staid about a day aod a half; 

perhaps I make the time shorter than 
it was. Such conversation I shall not 
have again till I come back to the re- 
gions of Literature, and there Wind- 
ham is inter stellas tuna minor w." Al- 
though we have said that illness was 
the cause of Mr. Windham's resigna- 
tion, his biographer affords some rea- 
son to think that it really arose from 
the conscientious scruples which Dr. 
Johnson thought might soon vanish, 
and that it was owing to bis being 
dissatisfied with some part of the lord 
lieutenant's conduct. 


Although from the time of his coming into parliament, 
he usually voted with the opposition of that day, he never 
was what is called a thorough party- man, frequently de- 
viating from those to whom he wa3 in general attached, 
when, in matters of importance, his conscience directed 
him to take a different course from them ; on which ac- 
count his virtues and talents were never rightly appreciated 
by persons of that description, who 'frequently on this 
ground vainly attempted to undervalue him. After the 
rupture between Mr. Fox and Mr. Burke, in consequence 
of the French revolution, Mr. Windham attached himself 
wholly to the latter, with whom he bad for many years 
lived in the closest intimacy; and of whose genius and 
virtues he had always the highest admiration. Being with 
him thoroughly convinced of the danger then impending 
over his country from the measures adopted by certain 
classes of Englishmen, in consequence of that tremendous 
convulsion, he did not hesitate to unite with the duke of 
Portland, lord Spencer, and others, in accepting offices 
under the administration in which Mr. Pitt then presided. 
On this arrangement Mr. Windham was appointed secre- 
tary at war, with a seat in the cabinet, an honourable dis- 
tinction which had never before been annexed to that 
office. This station he continued to fill with the highest 
reputation from that time (1794) till 1801, when he, lord 
Spencer, lord Grenville, and Mr. Pitt, resigned their offi- 
ces ; and shortly afterwards Mr. Addington (now lord- vis- 
count Sid mouth) was appointed chancellor of the exchequer 
and first lord of the treasury. On the preliminaries of 
peaoe with France being acceded to by that statesman and 
his coadjutors, in 1 80 \ f[ Mr. Windham made his celebrated 
speech in parliament, which was afterwards (April 1802) 
published, with an Appendix, containing a character of 
the Usurper of the French throne, which will transmit to 
posterity the principal passages of his life up to that period, 
in the most lively colours. On Mr. Addington being driven 
from the helm, in )H0S, principally by the battery of Mr. 
Windham's eloquence, a new administration was again 
formed by Mr. Pitt, which was dissolved by his death, in 
1806; and shortly afterwards, on lord Grenville's accept* 
ing the office of first lord of the Treasury, Mr. Windham 
was appointed secretary of state for the war department^ 
which he held till his majesty in the following year thought 
it to constitute a new administration. During this period- 


be carried into a law his bill for the limited service of those 
who enlist in our regular army ; a measure which will ever 
epdear his name to the English soldiery. But it is not our 
purpose to detail the particular measures which either 
originated from him, or in which he. took a part. This in- 
deed would be impossible within any prescribed limits; 
and would involve the history of perhaps the whole of the 
war. It may suffice to notice that his genius and talents 
were universally acknowledged. He was unquestionably 
not inferior, in many respects, to the most admired cha- 
racters of the age that is just gone by. He bad been in 
his earlier years a very diligent student, and was an excel- 
lent Greek and Latin scholar. In his latter years, like 
Burke and Johnson, he was an excursive reader, but ga- 
thered a great variety of knowledge from different books, 
arid from occasionally mixing, like them, with very various 
classes and descriptions of men. His memory was most 
tenacious. In his parliamentary speeches his principal 
object always was to convince the understanding by irre- 
fragable argument, which he at the same time enlivened 
by a profusion of imagery, drawn sometimes from the most 
abstruse parts of science, but oftener from the most familiar 
objects of common life. But what gave a peculiar lustre 
to whatever he urged, was his known and uniform integrity, 
and a firm conviction in the breasts of his hearers, that he 
always uttered the genuine and disinterested sentiments of 
his heart. His language, both in writing and speaking, 
was always simple, and he was extremely fond of idiomatic 
phrases, which he thought greatly contributed to preserve 
the purity of our language. He surveyed every subject of 
importance with a philosophic eye, and was thence enabled 
to discover and detect latent mischief, concealed under the 
plausible appearance of public advantage. Hence all the 
clamourers for undefined and imaginary liberty, and all 
those who meditate the subversion of the constitution under 
the pretext of Reform^ shrunk from his grasp; and persons 

!>f this description were his only enemies. But his daunt* 
ess intrepidity, and his noble disdain of vulgar popularity, 
held up a shield against their «malice ; and no fear of con- 
sequences ever drove him from that manly and honourable 
course, which the. rectitude and purity of his mind induced 
him to pursue. As an orator, he . was simple, elegant, 
prompt, and graceful. His. genius was so fertile, and his 
reading so extensive, that there were few subjects on which 


fife could not instruct, amuse, and persuade. He was fre- 
quently (as has justly been observed) " at once entertain* 
itig and abstruse, drawing illustrations promiscuously fronrf 
famitiar life, and the recondite parts of science ; nor wa4 
it unusual to bear him through three adjoining sentences, 
in the first witty, in the second metaphysical, and in the 
last scholastic." But bis eloquence derived Its principal 
power from the quickness of his apprehension, and the 
philosophical profundity of his mind, fn private life nd 
man perhaps of any age had a greater nuftiber of zealous 
friends and admirers. In addition to his extraordinary ta- 
lents and accomplishments, the grace and happiness of his 
address and manner gave an irresistible charm to his cori^ 
versation ; and few, it is believed, of either sex (for his* 
address to ladies was inimitably elegant and graceful) evcfr 
partook of his society without pleasure atfd admiration, or 
quitted it without regret. His brilliant imagination 1 , his 
Various knowledge, his acuteness, his good taste, bis wit; 
bis dignity of sentiment, and his gentleness of manner (for 7 
he never was loud or intemperate) made him Universally 
admired and respected. To crown all these virtues and 
accomplishments, it may be added, that he fulfilled all the 
duties of life, the lesser as Well as the greatest, with the 
most scrupulous attention ; and was always particularly ar- 
dent in vindicating the cause of oppressed merit. But hitf 
best eulogy is the general sentiment of sorrow which agi- 
tated every btosom on the sudden and unexpected stroke 
which terminated in his death. During the nineteen days 
of his sickness, his haH was daily visited by several hundred 
successive inquirers concerning the state of his health ; and 
that part of Pall Mall in which his house was situated, was 
thronged with carriages filled with ladles, whom a similar 
anxiety brought to his door. Every morning, and also at a 
late hour every evening, when his physicians and surgeons 
attended, several apartments in his house were filled with 
friends, Who anxiously waited to receive the latest and 
most accurate accounts of the progress or abatement of 
his disorder. This sympathetic feeling extended almost 
through every class, and even reached the throne^ for his 
majesty frequently inquired concerning the state of his 
health, pronouncing on htm this} high eulogy, that €t hd 
was a genuine patriot, and a truly honest man." Of the 
fatal malady which put an end to his invaluable life, erro- 
neous accounts have been published, but the fact was, that 
Vol. XXXII. O 


on the 8th of July. 1809, Mr. Windham, returning on foot 
at twelve o'clock at night from the house of a friend, as he 
passed by the end of Conduit-street, saw a bouse on fire, 
and instantly hastened to the spot, with a view to assist the 
sufferers j and soon observed that the house of the Hon* 
Mr. Frederic North was not far distant from that which was 
then on fire. He therefore immediately undertook to 
save his friend's library, which he knew to be very valu- 
able. With the most strenuous activity he exerted him- 
self for four hours, in the midst of rain and the playing of 
the fire-engines, with such effect that, with the assistance 
of two or three persons whom he bad selected from the 
crowd assembled on this occasion, he saved four parts out 
of five of the library ; and before they could empty the 
fifth book room, the house took fire. The books were, im- 
mediately removed, not to Mr. Windham's house, but to 
the houses of the opposite neighbours, who took great car$ 
of them. In removing some heavy volumes he accidentally 
fell, and suffered a slight contusion on his hip, of which, 
however, he unfortunately took no notice for some months, 
when an indolent encysted tumour was formed, which, 
after due consultation, it was judged proper to cut out* 
The operation was accordingly performed apparently with 
success on May 17, 1810, but soon after unfavourable 
symptoms came on, and terminated fatally June 4, to the 
unspeakable regret of all who knew him. 1 



WIN GATE (Edmund), whom Dr. Hutton pronounces 
one of the clearest writers on arithmetic, &c. in the Eng- 
lish language, was the son of Roger Wingate, esq. of Bor- 
nend and Sbarpenhoe, in Bedfordshire, but was born in 
Yorkshire in 1593. In 1610 he became a commoner of 
Queen's-college, Oxford, and after taking a degree in arts* 
removed to Gray's -Inn, London, where he studied the 
law. His chief inclination, however, was to the mathe- 
matics) which he had studied with much success at college. 
In. 1624 he was in France, where he published the scale, 
or rule of proportion, which had been invented by Gunter, 
and while in that country gave instructions in the English 
language to the princess Henrietta Maria, afterwards wife 

1 Gent. Mag. vol. LXXX.— Speeches in Parliament; with an excellent account 
of Mr. Windham's Life by Thomaa Amyot, esq. 1812, 3 vols. 8vo. 

W I N G A T E. 195 

of Charles L and to her ladies. After his return to Eng- 
land, he became a bencher of Gray's-Inn; and on the 
breaking out of the great rebellion, he joined the popular 
party, took the covenant, was made justice of the peace 
for the county of Bedford, where he resided at Woodend 
in the parish of Harlington. His name occurs in the re- 
gister of Atnpthill church, as a justice, in 1654, at which 
period, according to the republican custom* marriages 
were celebrated by the civil magistrate. In 1650 he took 
the oath, commonly called the engagement* became inti- 
mate with Cromwell, and was chosen into his parliament 
for Bedford. He was also appointed one of the commis- 
sioners, for that county, to eject from their situations 
those loyal clergymen and schoolmasters who were accused 
as being scandalous and ignorant He died in Gray's-Inn* 
in 1656, and was buried in the parish church of St. An- 
drew Holborn. 

His works are, 1 . " The use of the proportional Rules 
in Arithmetic and Geometry ; also the use of Logarithms 
of numbers^ with those of sines and tangents ;" printed in 
French, at Paris, 1624, 8vo, and at London, in English, 
1626, 1645, and 1658. In this book, Mr. Wingate speaks, 
of having been the first who carried the logarithms to 
France ; but an edition of Napier's " Description and con- 
struction of Logarithms*' was printed at Lyons in 1620, four 
years earlier than Wingate' s publication. 2; " Of Natural 
and Artificial Arithmetic, or Arithmetic made easy," Lond. 
I63CL &vo, which has gone through numerous editions; 
the west is that by Mr. Dodson. 3. " Tables of Logarithms 
of the signs and tangents of all the degrees and minute^of 
the Quadrant; with the use and application of the same, 91 
ibid. 1633, 8vo, 4. " The Construction and use of Loga- 
rithms, with- the resolution of Triangles, &c." 5* " Ludus 
Mathetnaticus i or an Explanation of the description, con- 
struction, and use of the numerical table of proportion," 
ibid. 1*654, 8vo. 6i " Tacto-meuria, seu Tetagne-nome- 
tria, or the' Geometry of regulars* &c."* 8vo. 1. "The 
exact Surveyor of Land, &c." 8vo. 8. " An exact abridg- 
ment of all the statutes in force and use from the Magna 
Chartato 1641," 1655, 8vo, reprinted and continued to 
1663, 1680, 1631, and 1684, 0. " The body of the common 

* This was probably a republication of John Wy herd's, which appeared un- 
der the sasM title in 1650. Wyberd was a physician, and is slightly noticed by 
Wood is Atn. Ox. vol. lit 


196 , W I N G A T E. 

law pf England," 1655, &c. S*o, 10. "Maxims of rea- 
son, of the Reason of the Common Law of England," 1658, 
fol. 1 1. " Statu ta Pacis; or, the Table of all. the Statutes 
which any way concern the office of a justice of peace, 
&c." 12mo. 12. Ad edition of Britton, 1640, 12mo. He 
was supposed to be the editor of some other law books, 
which show equal judgment and industry, but he is now 
remembered only as a mathematician. 1 

WINKELMAN (Abb6 John), an eminent antiquary, 
was born at Stendall, in the old Marche of Brandenbourg, 
in the beginning of 1718. He was the son of a shoemaker, 
but although to all appearance destined by his birth to su- 
perintend a little school in an obscure town in Germany, 
he raised himself to the office of president of antiquities in 
the Vatican. After having been seven years professor in 
the cfollege of Seehausen near Salswedel, he went into 
Saxony, where he resided seven years more, and was li- 
brarian to count Bunau at Nothenitz. The count was au- 
thor of an " History of the Empire," and died 1762, Hia 
fine library, valued in 1749 at 15,000 English crowns, baa 
been since added to the public library of Dresden. Mr. 
Winkelman, in 1748, made a most methodical and inform- 
ing catalogue of it, in 4 vols. When he left this place in 
1754, he went to Dresden, where he formed an acquaint- 
ance with the ablest artists, and particularly with M. Oeser, 
an excellent painter, and one of the best draughtsmen of 
the age. In that year he abjured Lutberanism, and em- 
braced the .Roman catholic religion* In Sept. 1755, he 
set out for Italy, and arrived at Rome in December follow- 
ing. His principal object was to see the Vatican library, 
and to examine the ruins of Herculaneum. While en- 
gaged, as he tells us, in teaching some dirty boys their 
ABC, he aspired to a knowledge of the beautiful, and 
silently meditated on the comparisons of Homer's Greek, 
with the Latin literature, and a critical acquaintance with 
the respective languages, which were more familiar to him 
than they had ever been to any former lover of antiquity, 
both by his application in studying them, and bis public 
lectures as professor of them. His extensive reading was 
improved in the noble and large library which he afterwards 
superintended. The solitude and the beauty of the spot 
where he lived, and the Platonic reveries which he iiv- 

* Ath. Os. voU II.'-*Hutton'f Dictioniry, new edit. 


ditlged, aH served to prepare the mind for the enthusiasm 
whjch he felt at the sight of the master-pieces of art. His 
first steps in this career bespoke a man of genius ; but 
what a concurrence of circumstances were necessary to 
develope bis talents ! The magnificent gallery of paintings 
and the cabinet of antiquities at Dresden, the conversation 
of artists and amateurs, his journey to Rome, his residence 
there, the friendship of Mengs the painter, his residence 
in the palace and villa of cardinal Albani, his place of 
writer in the Vatican, and that of president of antiquities, 
were so many advantages and helps to procure him mate- 
rials, and to facilitate to him the use of them for the exe- 
cution of the design which be had solely 911 view. Abso- 
lute master of his time, be lived in a state of perfect inde- 
pendence, which is the true source of genius, contenting 
himself with a frugal and regular life, and knowing no 
other passions than those which tended to inflame his ardent 
pursuit. An active ambition urged him on, though he 
affected to conceal it by a stoical indifference. A lively 
imagination, joined to an excellent memory, enabled him 
to derive great advantages from his study of the works of 
the ancients, and a steady indefatigable zeal led him natu- 
rally to new discoveries. He kindled in Rome the torch 
of sound study of the works of the ancients. His intimate 
acquaintance with them enabled him to throw greater cer- 
tainty upon his explanations, and even upon his conjec- 
tures, and to overthrow many arbitrary principles and an- 
cient prejudices. His greatest merit is, to have pointed 
out the true source of the study of antiquity, which is the 
knowledge of art, to which no writer had before attended. 
Mr. Winkelman carried with him into Italy a sense of 
beauty and art, which led him instantly to admire the 
master- pieces* of the Vatican, and with which he began to 
study them. He soon increased his knowledge, and it was 
not till after he had thus purified his taste, and entertained 
conceptions of ideal beauty, which transported bim to in* 
spiration, and led him into the greatest secrets of art, that 
he began to think of the explanation of other monuments, 
in which his great learning could not fail to distinguish 
him. At the same time another immortal scholar treated 
the science of antiquity in the same manner on this side 
the Alps. Count Caylus had a profound and extensive 
knowledge of the arts, was master of the mechanical part, 
and drew and engraved in a capital style. Winkelman was 



not endowed with these advantages, but in point of classic 
cat erudition surpassed the count; and while the latter 
employed himself in excellent explications of little objects, 
(he former bad continually before him at Rome the greatest 
monuments of ancient art. This erudition enabled him to 
fill up his principal plan of writing the " History of Art. 
In 1756 be planned bis "Restoration of Ancient Statues, 
and a larger work on the " Taste of the Greek Artists ;" 
find designed an account of the galleries of Rome and Italy, 
beginning witb a volume on the Belvedere statues, in the 
manner of Richardson, wbo, he says, only ran over Rome. 
In the preface he intended to mention the fate of these 
statues at the sacking of Rome in 1527, when the soldiers 
made a fire in Raphael's lodge, which spoiled many things. 
He also intended a history of the corruption of taste in art, 
the restoration of statues, and an illustration of the obscure 
points of mythology. All these different essays led bim to 
bis " History of Art/ 9 and bis " Monument! luediti." It 
must, however, be confessed, that the first of these works 
has not all the clearness and precision that might be ex- 
pected in its general plan, and division of its parts and ob- 
jects ; but it has enlarged and extended the ideas both of 
antiquaries and collectors. The description of the gems 
and sulphurs of the Stosch cabinet contributed not a little 
to extend Mr. Winkelman's knowledge. Few persons have 
bad opportunities of contemplating such vast collections. 
The engravings of Lippet and count Caylus are all that 
inany can arrive at. Mr. Winkelman's " Monumenti Ine- 
diti," of which he had begun the third vol. 1767, seem to 
have secured bim the esteem of antiquaries. He there ex T 

}>lained a number of monuments, and particularly bas re- 
iefs till then accounted inexplicable, witb a parade of 
learning more in compliance with the Italian fashion than 
was necessary. Had he lived, we should have had a work 
long wished for, a complete collection of the bas reliefs 
discovered from the time of Bartoli to the present, the 
greater part of which are in the possession of cardinal AU 
banL But however we may regret his tragical end, the 
intenseness of his application, and the eagerness of his 
pursuit after ancient monuments, had at last so bewildered 
him io conjectures, that, from a commentator on the works 
of the ancients, he became a kind of seer or prophet. 
His warm imagination outran his judgment. As he pro* 
ceeded in his knowledge of the characters of art in monu- 

W I N K E L M A N. 199 

ments, be exhausted his fund of observations drawn from 
the ancients, and particularly from the Greeks. He cited 
early editions, which are frequently not divided into chap* 
ters ; and he was entirely unacquainted with the publica- 
tions in the rest of Europe on the arts and antiquity. 
Hence his " History of Art" is full of anachronisms. 

In one of his letters, dated 1754, he gives an account 
of bis change of religion, which too plainly appears to have 
been guided by motives of interest, in order to make his 
way to Rome, and gain a better livelihood. At Dresden 
be published, 1755, " Reflections on the Imitation of the 
Works of the Greeks," 4to, translated into French the same 
year, and republished 1756, 4to. At Rome he made an 
acquaintance with Mengs, first painter to the king of Po- 
land, afterwards, in 1761, appointed first painter to the 
house of Spain, with an appointment of 80,000 crowns, a 
house, and a coach; and he soon got access to the library 
of cardinal Passiooei, who is represented as a most catho- 
lic and respectable character, who only wanted ambition 
to be pope. His catalogue was making by an Italian, and 
the work was intended for Winkelman. Giacomelli, canon 
of St. Peter, &c. bad published two tragedies of iEschylus 
and Sophocles, with an Italian translation and notes, and 
was about a new edition of " Chrysostom de Sacerdotio;" 
and Winkelman had joined with him in an edition of an 
unprinted Greek oration of Libanius, from two MSS. in 
the Vatican and Barberini libraries. In 175? he laments 
the calamities of his native country, Saxony, which was 
then involved in the war between the emperor and the king 
of Prussia. In 1758 he meditated a journey over the 
kingdom of Naples, which he says could only be done on 
foot, and in the habit of a pilgrim, on account of the many 
difficulties and dangers, and the total want of horses and 
carriages from Viterbo to Pisciota, the ancient Velia. In 
1768 we find him inraptured with the idea of a voyage to 
Sicily, where he wished to make drawings of the many 
beautiful earthen vases collected by the Benedictines at 
Catana. At the end of the first volume of his letters, 178 J, . 
were first published his remarks on the ancient architec- 
ture of the temple of Girgenti. He was going to Naples, 
with 100 crowns, part of a pension from the king of Po- 
land, for his travelling charges, and thence to Florence, 
at the invitation of baron Stosch. * Cardinal. Archinto, se- 
cretary of state, employed him to take care of his library. 

gOO W. I N K E L M A N> 

His " Remarks an Ancient Architecture'' were ready for a 
second edition. He was preparing a worjf in Italian, to 
fclear up some obscure poiuu in mythology and antiquities* 
With above fifty plates ; another in Latin, explanatory of 
the Greek medals that are least known ; and be intended 
to send to be printed in England " An Essay on the Style 
pf Sculpture before Phidias. 19 A work in 4to appeared at 
£urich, addressed to Mr. Winkeiman, by Mr. Meogs, but 
without his name, entitled, •' Thoughts on Beauty and 
Taste in Painting/ 9 and. was published by J, C. Fuesli* 
When Cardinal Albani succeeded to the place of librarian 
of the Vatican, he endeavoured to get a place for the He* 
brew language for Winkeiman, who refused a canonry 
because he would not take the tonsure. The elector of 
Saxony gave him, 1761, unsolicited, the place of coun- 
sellor Richter, the direction of the royal cabinet of medals 
and antiquities at Dresden. Upon the death of the abb6 
Venuti, 1762, he was appointed president of the anti- 
quities of the apostolic chamber, with power over all dip-r 
coveries and exportation* of antiquities and pictures. This 
is a post of honour, with an income of 160 scudi per an* 
hum. He had a prospect of the place of president of an- 
tiquities in the Vatican, going to be created at 1 6 scud} 
per month, and was named corresponding member of the 
academy of inscriptions. He had thoughts of publishing 
an f f Essay on the Depravation of Taste in the Arts and 
Scienpes." The king of Prussia offered him by Col. Quia- 
tus Icilius the place of librarian and director of his cabinet 
pf medals and antiquities, void by the death of M. Gautier 
de la Croze, with a handsome appointment. He made no 
scruple of accepting the offer ; but, when it came to the 
pope's ears, he added an appointment out of his own purse, 
and kept him at Romp. In April 1768 he left Borne to go 
with M. Cavaceppi over Germany and Switzerland. When 
he came to Vienna he was so pleased* with the reception he 
met with that he made a longer stay there than he had 
intended. But, being suddenly seized with a secret unea- 
siness, and extraordinary desire to return to Rome, he set 
out for Italy, putting off his.visits to his friends in Get* 
many to a future opportunity. It was the will of Provi- 
dence, however, that this opportunity should never come, 
he being assassinated in June of that year, by one Arcan- 
geli, of whom, and of his crime, the following narrative 
was published : 


" Francis Arcangeli was born of mean parents* near the 
city of Pistoia, and bred a cook, in which capacity he served 
in a respectable family at Vienna, where, having been 
guilty of a considerable robbery, he was condemned to 
work in fetters for four years, and then to be banished 
from all the Austrian dominions, after being sworn never to 
return. When three years of his slavery were expired, he 
found friends to intercede in his favour, and he was released 
from serving the fourth, but strictly enjoined to observe 
the order of banishment ; in consequence of which he left 
Vienna, and retired to Venice with bis pretended wife, 
Eva Rachel. In August 1767, notwithstanding his oath, 
be came to Trieste with a view to settle ; but afterwards 
phanged his mind, and returned to Venice, where, being 
disappointed of the encouragement be probably expected, 
be came again to Trieste in May 1768. Being almost de- 
stitute of money, and but shabbily dressed, he took up his 
lodging at a noted inn (probably with a view of robbing 
some traveller). In a few days the abb£ Winkelman ar- 
rived at the same inn in his way from Vienna to Rome, and 
lyas lodged in the next apartment to that of Arcangeli. 
This circumstance, and their dining together at the or- 
dinary, first brought them acquainted. .The abb6 ex- 
pressed a desire of prosecuting bis journey with all possible 
expedition, and Arcangeli was seemingly very assiduofis 
in procuring him a passage, which the abb£ took very 
kindly 9 and very liberally rewarded him for his services. 
0is departure, however, being delayed by the master of 
the vessel which was to carry him, Arcangeli was more 
than ordinarily diligent in improving every opportunity of 
making himself acceptable to the abb£, and their frequent 
walks, long and familiar conversations, and the excessive 
civility and attention of Arcangeli upon all occasions that 
offered, so improved the regard which the abb£ bad begun 
to conceive for him, that he not only acquainted him in 
the general run of their discourse with the motives and the 
event of bis journey to Vienna, the graces he had there 
received, and the offers of that ministry ; but informed 
hitn also of the letters of credit be had with him, the me- 
dals of gold and silver which he bad received from their 
imperial majesties, anti, in short, with all the things of 
value of which he was possessed. 

" Arcangeli expressed an earnest desire to see the me- 
dals, and the abh6 an e^uat eagerness to gratify his cu* 


riosity ; but the villain no sooner bebeld the fatal coins, 
than- yielding to the motions of his depraved heart, he d£» 
termioed treacherously to murder and rob the possessor. 
Several days, however, elapsed before he put bis cruel 
design into execution, in which time he so officiously and 
courteously conformed himself to the temper and situation 
of his new friend, that he totally disarmed the abb£ of all 
mistrust, and had actually inspired him with a sincere 

" In the morning of the 7th of June, being determined 
no longer to delay his bloody purpose, he bought a sharp 
pointed knife, the instrument he intended to use in the 
execution, and then going to the coffee-house, be there 
found the abbe*, who paid for him as usual, and continued 
with him in conversation till they both went home to din* 
ner. After dinner they went again abroad together: but 
the villain having meditated a new scheme, he parted from 
the abbe* and went and purchased some yards of cord, with 
which he returned home and retired to his chamber. Till 
the abbe came home, he t mployed himself in twisting the 
cord and forming a noose ; and having prepared it to his 
mind, he placed that and the knife in a chair, ready. Soon 
after this the abb£ came in, and, as bis custom was, invited 
Arcangeli to supper. The cheerfulness of the abb£, and 
the frankness and cordiality with which he received and 
treated him, staggered him at first ; and the sentiments of 
humanity so far took place, that his blood ran cold with 
the thoughts of his cruel intention, nor had be at this time 
courage to execute it. But the next morning, June, the 
8th, both going out of the inn together, and drinking cof- 
fee at the usual house, after Arcangeli had pretended in 
vain to hire a vessel to carry the abbe* to Bagni, they re- 
tnrned to the inn, and each going into his own room, Ar- 
cangeli pulled off his coat (probably to prevent its being 
stained with blood) and putting the knife unsheathed, and 
the cord into his waistcoat pocket, about nine he went into 
Winkelman's chamber, who received him with bis accus- 
tomed frankness, and entered into chat about his journey 
and about his medals ; and, as he was upon the point of 
his departure, be invited the man, who was that instant to 
be his murderer, in the most affectionate manner, to Rome, 
where he promised him his best assistance. Full of those' 
friendly sentiments, the abbe" sat himself down in his chair, 
when instantly the assassin, who stood behind him, threw 


Ac cord over his head and drew it close. The abbe* with 
both his hands endeavoured to loosen the cord, but the 
murderer with his knife already unsheathed stabbed him in 
several places. This increased the struggle, and the last 
efforts of the unhappy victim brought both of them to the 
ground ; the murderer, however, was uppermost, and hav- 
ing his knife still reeking with blood in his hand, plunged 
it five times into the bowels of his wounded friend. The 
noise of the fall, and the groans of the abbe*, alarmed the 
chamberlain of the house, who hastily opening the door, 
was witness to the bloody conflict. The assassin, surprised 
in the fact, dropped the bloody knife, and in bis waist- 
coat only, without a hat, his breast open, and his shirt 
covered with blood, he escaped out of the inn. 

" With the cord about bis neck, and his wounds stream- 
ing, the abbe* had still strength to. rise, and descending 
from the second floor to the first, he placed himself against 
the balustrade, and called for assistance. Moved with 
compassion, those who heard his cries hastened to his 
relief, and helping him to his room, laid him upon his 
bed, where, having no hope of recovery, he received the 
sacraments, and made his will. After suffering a great 
deal with heroic constancy, and truly Christian piety, not 
complaining of his murderer, but most sincerely pardon* 
ing him, he calmly breathed his last about four in the 

, " In the mean time the assassin had escaped into the 
Venetian territories, where, not thinking himself safe, he 

' pursued his way to Pirano, with a design, to embark in 
whatever ship was ready to sail, to whatever place; but ex- 
presses being every where dispatched with an account of 
the murder, and a description of the murderer, he found 
himself surrounded with dangers ou all sides. Having 
found means, however, to change his cloaths, he quitted 
the high road, and passing through forests, and over moun- 
tains unknown to him, he at length came to a road that led 
to Labiana, and had already reached Planina, when a 
drummer, mistaking him for a deserter, caused him to be 
apprehended. , Upon bis examination, not being able to 
give a satisfactory account of himself, and being threatened 
by the magistrates of Aidesperg, he voluntarily confessed 

' the murder, apd eight days after committing, the fact, was 
brought back to Trieste, heavily ironed, and under a strong 
guard. Here he was tried, and being found guilty, as: 


well on bis own confession as on the clearest evidence, he 
was sentenced by the emperor's judges to be broken on the 
wheel opposite to the inn where he had perpetrated the 
murder, and his body to be exposed in the usual place of 
executions On the 18th of June be was informed of his 
sentence, and on the 20th of the same month it was exe- 
cuted in ail its points, in the presence of an innumerable 
multitude, who flocked from all parts to see the execution." 

Some of Winkelman's MSS. got to Vienna, where the 
new edition of his u History of Art" was presently adver- 
tised. He intended to have got this work translated into 
French at Berlin, by M. Toussaint, that it might be printed 
under his own inspection at Rome. It was translated by 
M. Hubert, so well known in the republic of letters, who 
has since published it in 3 vols. 4to, with head and tail- 
pieces from designs of M. Ogser. An Italian translation 
of it by a literary society has been published at Milan. 

Abb£ Wiukelman was a middle-sized man ; he had a 
very low fort- head, sharp nose, and little black hollow eyes, 
which gave him an aspect rather gloomy than otherwise. 
If he had any thing graceful in his physiognomy, it was 
his mouth, yet his lips were too prominent ; but, when be 
was animated, and in good humour, his features formed an 
ensemble that Was pleasing. £ fiery and impetuous dis- 
position often threw him into extremes. Naturally enthu- 
siastic, he often indulged an extravagant imagination ; 
but, as he possessed a strong and solid judgment, he 
knew how to give things a just and intrinsic value. In 
consequence of this turn of mind, as well as a neglected 
education, a cautious reserve was a quality he little knew. 
If he was bold in his decisions as an author, he was still 
more so in his conversation, and has often made his friends 
tremble for his temerity. If ever man knew what friend- 
ship was, that man was Mr. Winkelman, who regularly 
practised all its duties, and for this reason he could boast 
of having friends among persons of every rank and condi- 
tion. People of his turn of thinking and acting seldom or 
ever indulged suspicions : the abbess fault was a contrary 
extreme. The frankness of bis temper led him to speak 
bis sentiments on all occasions ; but, being too much ad- 
dicted to that species of study which he so assiduously cul- 
tivated, he was not always on his guard to repress the sal- 
lies of self-love. His picture was drawn half length, sit- 
ting, by a German lady born at Kostnitz, but carried when 



young inlo Itaij by her father, who was a painter. She - 
etched it in a 4to size, and another artist executed it in 
mezzotinto. This lady was Angelica Kauffman. The por- 
trait is preBxed to the collection of his letters published at 
Amsterdam, 1781, 2 vols. 12 mo. Among his correspond- 
ents were Mr. Heyne, Munchausen, baron Reidesel (whose 
travels into Sicily, translated into English by Dr. Forster, 
1773, 8vo, are addressed to him, and inspired him with an 
ardent longing to go over that ground), count Bunau, C. 
Fuesli, Gesner, P. Usteri, Van Mechlen, the duke de 
Rochfoucauh, lord (alias Mr. Wortley) Montague, Mr. 
Wiell; and there are added extracts from letters to M. * 
Clerisseaux, while be was searching after antiquities in the 
South of France ; a list of the principal objects in Rome, 
1766, &c; and an abstract of a letter of Fuesli to the 
German translators of Webb on the " Beauties of Paint- 
tng." ' 

W1NSLOW (James Benignus), a skilful anatomist who 
settled in France, was born in 1669, atOdensee, in Den- 
mark, where his father was minister of the place, and in- 
tended him for his own profession, but he preferred that of 
medicine, which he studied in various universities in Eu- 
rope. In 1698 he was at Paris, studying under the cele- 
brated Duverney, and here be was induced by the writings 
of Bossuet to renounce the protestant religion, a change 
which, it is rather singular, happened to his grand- 
uncle Stenonius (See Stenonius) by the same influence. 
He now settled at Paris, was elected one of the college 
of physicians, lecturer at the royal garden, expounder of 
the Teutonic language at the royal library, and member 
of the academy of sciences. According to Haller, who 
bad been his pupil, bis genius was not so remarkable as 
his industry, but by dint of assiduity he became an excel- 
lent anatomist ; and bis system t>f anatomy, or " Exposi- 
tion Anatomique," has long been considered as a work of 
the first reputation and utility, and has been translated into 
almost ail the European languages, and into English by 
Douglas, 1734, 2 vols. 4to. He was also the author of a 
great number of anatomical dissertations, some of which 
were published separately, but they mostly appeared in 
the Memoirs of the French academy. He died in 1760, 
at the advanced age of ninety-one.* 

1 Prof. Heyoe>s Elage, and Letter*.— Gent. Mag. rots. XXXVIII. and LIV. 
drawn ttp by Mr. Gougb. * Eloy, Diet Hist, de Medecioe.— Haller. 


WINSTANLEY (William), originally a barber, was 
author of the " Lives of the Poets ;" of " Select Lives of 
England's Worthies ;" " Historical Rarities ;" " The Loyal 
Marty rology ;" and some single lives ; all in 8vo. Granger 
says he is a fantastical writer, and of the lowest class of 
biographers : but we are obliged to him for many notices 
of persons and things, which are mentioned by no other 
writer, which must account for his "England's Worthies'* 
being a book still in request ; and, as some of the vampers 
think, even worthy of being illustrated by prints. It is 
not, however, generally known, that it is necessary to have 
both editions of this work; those of 1660 and 1684, in 
order to possess the whole of his biographical labours; 
Winstanley, who could trim in politics as well as trade, 
omitted from the latter all the republican lives, and sub* 
stituted others in their room. He flourished in the reigns 
of Charles I. II. and James II. and was probably alive at 
the publication of his second edition, in which he changed 
his dedication, adopting new patrons. In the " Censura 
Literaria," voh V, is an account of "The Muses Cabinet,'* 
1655, 12mo, containing his original poetry, which is 
called in the title-page " both pleasant and profitable;" 
but now we are afraid will not be thought either. He was 
a great plagiary, and took his character of the English 
poets from Phillips's " Theatrum," and much from Fuller 
and others, without any acknowledgment. l 

WINSTON (Thomas) an eminent physician, was born 
in 1575, and educated in Clare-hall, Cambridge, of which 
he became fellow. He took the degree of M. A. in 1602, 
and then visited the continent for improvement in the 
study of physic. He attended the lectures of Fabricius ab 
Aquapendente and Prosper Alpinus at Padua, and of Cas- 
par Bauhine at Basil, and took the degree of doctor at 
Padua. He returned to England, graduated again at Cam" 
bridge in 1607, and settled in London; and in 1613 was 
admitted a candidate of the college of physicians, and the 
next year was made fellow. On the death of Dr. Moun- 
sel, professor of physic in Gresham-college, he was chosen 
October 25, 1615, to succeed him, and held his professor- 
ship till 1642 ; when, by permission of t,he House of Lords, 
he went over to France, where he staid about ten years, 
' and returned when the troubles were over. He did not 

1 Granger.—Ath. Ox~ vol, II. &c. 

WINSTON.. 201 

live long to enjoy a well acquired fortune ; for be died Oc- 
tober 24, 1655, aged eighty. He published nothing in 
his life-time ; but after his death, his " Anatomical Lec- 
tures 9 ' were printed in 1659, 1664, 8vo, and were sup- 
posed the most complete then in the English language. l 

WINTERTON (Ralph), an eminent Greek scholar, 
was the son of Francis Winterton of Lutterworth in Leices- 
tershire, A. M. where he was born. That he was an ex- 
cellent Greek scholar appears from many of bis produc- 
tions in that language, which entitled him to be a com- 
petitor, though an unsuccessful one, in 1627, for the 
Greek professorship at Cambridge, on the death of Andrew 
Downes, with four other candidates, who alt read solemn 
lectures in the schools on a subject appointed them by the 
ejectors. He was educated at Kiug's-college, Cambridge, 
where he had the misfortune, during the early part of his 
residence, to be somewhat disordered in his intellects; 
but, recovering, he took to the study of physic, and was 
allowed to excel all of that profession in bis time. In 1631 
he published the first book of Hippocrates' s Aphorisms in 
a Greek metrical version at Cambridge, in quarto, and the 
year following the whole 'seven books together, in the same 
manner. In 1633, by the advice of Dr. John Collins, re- 
gius professor of physic, he published an edition of the 
Aphorisms in octavo at Cambridge, with Frere's Latin poe- 
tical translation, and his own Greek version, with a Latin 
prose translation by John Heurnus of Utrecht. At the 
end is annexed a small book of epigrams and poems, com- 
posed by the cbiefest wits of both universities, but chiefly 
of Cambridge, and of King's-college in particular. In 
1631 he printed, in octavo, at Cambridge, a translation of 
" Gerard's Meditations, 9 ' which went through six editions 
in about nine years. In 4632 he published likewise at 
Cambridge, in octavo, Gerard's " Golden Chain of Di- 
vine Aphorisms." He published also, for the use of Eton- 
school, an edition of " Dionysius de situ Orbis," with 
some Greek verses at tbe end of it, addressed to the scho- 
lars, and exhorting them to tbe study of geography. This 
was reprinted at London in 1668, l2mo. In the above 
year (1632), he translated " Drexelius on Eternity," which 
was printed at Cambridge. In the preface to this, he has 
some sentiments which, shew that he was of a pious but 

1 Ward** Lire* of {lie Greiham Profeuor*. 


somewhat singular turn of mind. In 1634, being M. D. 
be was nominated by the king his professor of physic for 
forty years, if he should live so long. The year following 
he published at Cambridge in octavo an edition of the 
" Minor Greek Poets/ 9 with observations upon Hesiod. 
This has passed through many editions. His advancement 
to the professorship appears to have interrupted his em* 
ployment as an author ; but he did not survive that honour 
long, dying in the prime of life Sept. 13, 1636. He was 
buried at the east end of King's- college chapel, but with- 
out any memorial. After bis death was published a trans- 
lation by him of Jerome Zanchius's " Whole Duty of the 
Christian Religion/ 9 Lond. 1659, 12 mo. He appears to 
have contributed his assistance in the publication of many 
Jearned works, which have escaped our research. His 
character was that of an industrious and judicious scholar, 
an able physician, and a just and upright man. l 

WINTLE (Thomas), a learned divine, of whom our 
memorial is but scanty, was born at Gloucester 28th April 
1737. He was educated chiefly in his native city, and 
distinguished by his thirst after knowledge, and his diligent 
application to school-exercises. Obtaining an exhibition 
at Pembroke-college, Oxford, he there became scholar, 
-fellow, and tutor, taking his degree of M. A. in 1759. In 
1767, archbishop Seeker made him rector of Wittrisham 
in Kent, and called him to be one of his domestic chap- 
lains ; and the following year he went to Oxford, and took 
his degree of bachelor of divinity. After the death of his 
grace, in the following year, he resided at Wittrisham, or 
on the small living of St. Peter, in Wallingford ; until, in 
1774, relinquishing these preferments, he was presented, 
by the late bishop of Winchester, to the rectory of Bright- 
well, Berks. At Brightwell he lived constantly forty years, 
and at Brightwell he died, July 29, 1814, leaving a wi- 
dow, two sons, and one grand -daughter. In early life 
Mr. Wintle was unremitting in the attainment of useful 
learning, and in the practice of religion and virtue ; and 
in his more mature and later years he ceased not, by pre- * 
cept and example, to set forth the expediency and advan- 
tages of religion, while his fame in the literary world was 
not inconsiderable. He published, 1st, "An improved 
Version of Daniel attempted, with a Preliminary Disserta- 

> Cole's MS Collectanea, in Brit. Mirs. vol. XV. 

- > W t N T L E. - ■-* 200 

i|oD, and Notes critical, historical, and explanatory/* 2 t 
c f A Dissertation on the Vision contained in the second, 
chapter of Zechariah." 3. " Eight Sermons on the Ex~, 
pediency, Prediction, and Accomplishment, of the Chris-; 
tjan Redemption, preached at the Bampton Lecture.* 9 4. 
" Christian Ethics, or Discourses on the Beatitudes, with 
some preliminary and subsequent Discourses ; the whole 
designed to explain, recommend, or enforce, the Duties 
of the Christian Life." 5. " A Letter to the Lord Bishop 
of Worcester, occasioned by his Strictures on Archbishop, 
Seeker and Bishop Loivth, in his Life of Bishop Warbur- 
tpn." The two first of these publications will class Mr. 
\Vintle with the most distinguished Biblical scholars, and 
tfce Bampton Lectures and Christian Ethics are not less 
valuable, as illustrations of the Christian system. ' 

WINTRINGHAM (Clifton), an eminent physician, 
Was the son of Dr. Clifton Wintringham, also a physician, 
who died at York, March 12, 1748, and yvas an author of 
reputation, but rather of the mechanical school, as appears 
\ff his first publication, "Tractatus de Podagra, in quo de 
ultimis vasis et liquidis et succo nutritio tractatur," York, 
1714, 8vo. In this he assigns, as the causes of the gout, a 
certain acrimonious viscosity in the nervous fluid, the rigi- 
dity of the fibres, and a straitness in the diameter of the 
vessels that are near the joints. His second publication 
was entitled *? A Treatise of endemic diseases," ibid. 1718, 
8vo, which was followed by his most important publication, 
"Commentarium nosolftgicum morbos epidemicos et aeris 
yariationes in urbe Eboracensi, locisque vicinis, ab anno 
1715 ad anni 1725 fin em grassantes complectens," Lond. 
1727, 1733, 8vo. This last edition was edited by his son. 
He published also "An experimental inquiry on some parts 
of the animal structure," ibid. 1^40, 8vo, and "An inquiry 
jnto the exility of the vessels of a human body," ibid. 
J 743, 8vo. 

His son, the more immediate subject of this brief notice, 
was born in 1710, and educated at Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, where be took his degree of bachelor of medicine 
Vi U34, and that of doctor in 1749. During the interval 
it is not improbable that he studied the art at Leyden, as 
jyas usual at that time. He settled however at Londoi), 

i Gent, Mag. vol. LXXXIV.. 

Vol. XXXII. P 



• r 

where he became a fellow of the college of physicians, atrd 
in 1742 of the Royal Society, in 1759 physician extraor- 
dinary, and afterwards physiciau general to the army. In 
1749 he had been appointed chief physician to the duke 
of Cumberland, and in 1762 was nominated physician to 
his present majesty, and received the honour of knight- 
hood. He attained considerable practice during a very 
long life, and was much respected both for his private and 
public character. He diedf at Hammersmith, after a linger- 
ing illness, Jan. 9, 1794, at the age of eighty-four. In 1774 
he had been created a baronet, with remainder to Jarvis 
Clifton, esq. second son of sir Jarvis Clifton, bait, of Clif- 
ton, Nottinghamshire, who however died before him, and 
the title became extinct. By his will, sir Clifton left to 
Trinity college, where he had been educated, a small mar- 
ble image of Esculapius found near Rome, which was ac- 
cordingly deposited there by his widow. 

Sir Clifton published an edition, with annotations, of 
Mead's " Mouita et precepta medica," and an edition of 
his father's works, 1752, 2 vols. 8vo. The only production 
from his own pen was entitled u De morbis qtiibusdam 
commentarii," 1782 and 1790, 2 vols. * 

WINWOOD (Sir Ralph), secretary. of state in the 
reign of Jambs I. was son of Mr. Lewis Winwood, some 
time secretary to Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk ; and 
wa§ born about 1 565, at Aynho, in Northamptonshire. He 
was at first sent to St. John's college, Oxford, whence he 
was elected a probationer-fellow of Magdalen college in 
1582. He took both the degrees in arts, ami that of ba- 
chelor of law; and in 1692, was proctor of the university* 
Afterwards he travelled on the continent, and returned a 
very accomplished gentleman. In 1599, he attended sir 
Henry Neville, ambassador to France, as his secretary; 
and, in the absence of sir Henry, was appointed resident 
at Paris : whence he was recalled in 1602*3, and sent that 
year to the States, of Hollaud by James I. In 1607, he was 
knighted ; and the same year appointed ambassador jointly 
with sir Richard Spencer to Holland. He was sent there 
again in 1609, when he delivered the remonstrance of 
James I. against Vorstius (See Vorstius) the Arminian, 
to the assembly of the States, to which they seemed to pay 
very little attention. Upon this the king proceeded to> 

* Eloy, Die*. Hist, dc Medccin*.~-Ni«hoU'» Bowjer. 

W I N W O O D. til 

threaten them with his pen ; and plainly told them, that 
if they had the hardiness to " fetch again from hell anqient 
heresies long since dead, &c. he should be constrained to 
proceed publicly against them." It is certain that his ma- 
jesty wrote a pamphlet against Conr. Vorstius, which was 
printed in 1611. 

In 1614, Win wood was made secretary of state; in which 
toffice he continued till bis death, which happened Oct. 27> 
1617. He was interred in the parish church of St Bartho- 
lomew the Less, London. Lloyd tells us, that "be was a 
gentleman well seen in most affairs! but most expert in 
matters of trade and war." But although others acknow- 
ledge his abilities and integrity, they add that he was not 
sufficiently polished as a courtier, as there was something 
harsh and supercilious in his demeanour* He left a son 
named Richard, afterwards of Ditton Park in Bucks, who 
dying without issue in 1688, his estate went to a son of 
Edward earl of Montague, who had married his sister. In 
1725, were published at London, in 3 vols, folio, "Me- 
morials of Affairs of -State in the Reigns of queen Eliza- 
beth and king James I. collected chiefly from the original 
papers of the right honourable sir Ralph Winwood, knight, 
some time one of the principal secretaries of state. Com- 
prehending likewise the negotiations of sir Henry Neville, 
sir Charles Cornwallis, sir Dudley Carlton, sir Thomas Ed- 
monds, Mr. Trumble, Mr. Cottington, and others, at the 
courts of France and Spain, and in Holland, Venice, &c. 
wherein the principal transactions of those times are faith- 
fully related, and the policies and the intrigues of those 
courts at large discovered. The whole digested in an ex- 
act series of time. To which are added two tables, one of 
the letters, the other of the principal matters. By Ed- 
mund Sawyer, esq/' then one of the masters in chancery. \ 


WIRZ (John), an artist, whom, Fuseli says, situation, 
temper, and perhaps circumstances, have deprived of the 
celebrity he deserved, was a native of Zuric, born in 1640, 
the son of a canon, and professor of divinity in its college, 
and appears to have bad a liberal education. Though, 
when a youth, he lost one eye, he was bound to Conrad 
Meyer, of whom, with the elements of painting, he ac- 

* Gen. Diet.— Biog. Brit. Supplement— Lloyd'* State Worthies .*—Ath. 0* 
vol. I. — Granger. 



Quired the mystery of etching. As a painter he devoted 
himself to- portraiture, which he exercised with success, 
•and in a style little inferior and sometimes equal to that of 
S. Hofmann ; but the imitation of dormant or insipid counv 
tenances, unable ta fill a mind so active and open to im- 
pression, in time gave way to composition in art and writ? 
ing, both indeed devoted to the most bigoted superstition, 
and theologic rancour, for in his Dialogues on the Apoca^ 
lypsis of S. John, blind zeal, legendary falsehood, and bar-* 
•bar ism of style, go hand in hand with shrewdness of obser- 
vation, controversial acuteness, and blunt naiveti : a hete- 
rogeneous mass, embellished by an etched series of poetic 
and historic subjects, in compositions dictated by the most 
'.picturesque fancy, original, magnificent, varioas, romantic, 
terrible, and fantastic ; though in small, on a scale of ar* 
Tangement and combinations to fill the pompous scenery of 
Paolo, or challenge the wildest caprice of Salvator; and in 
the conception of the Last Judgment, for sublimity far su- 
perior to Michael Agnolo. With these prerogatives, and 
♦neither insensible to beauty nor form, the artist is often 
guilty of ludicrous, nay, even premeditated incorrectness* 
and contortions which defy possibility. His style of etch- 
ing, free, spirited, and yet regular, resembles that of Wil- 
<helm Baur; and though no vestiges remain of his having; 
seen Italy, it is difficult to conceive by what other mean* 
•he could acquire that air of Italian scenery, and that mi- 
nute acquaintance with the architecture, the costume, and 
ceremonies, of that country, without baviog visited k him- 
self. His dialogues, above mentioned, were published irr 
1677, 8vo, entitled U J. Wirzii Romae animate exemplum r 
&c." with 42 plates. Wirz resided and died in 1709, at 
a small villa which he possessed near Zuric. ! 

WISE (Francis), a learned antiquary, and Radcliffe li- 
brarian at Oxford, was born in the house of his father 
•Francis Wise, a mercer at Oxford, June 3, 1695. He re- 
ceived the first part of his education in New college school, 
.under the care of Mr. James Badger, a man very eminent 
-as a schoolmaster. In January 1710-11 he was admitted 
♦a member of Trinity college, and in the summer following 
•was elected scholar of that house. He took the degree of 
*M. A. in 1717, and about this period was employed by 
Mr. Hudson, as an underkeeper or assistant in the Bodleian 

l PiJkingtoo by Puieli. 

Wi s e. ®n 

library, ari admirable school for Mr. Wise, whb bad a tura 
for literary history and antiquities. In 1718 he became 
probationer, and in the following year actual fellow of his 
college. In 1722 he published " Asser Menevensis de re~ 
bus gestis Alfredi magni," 8vo, very elegantly printed, and 
with suitable engravings, &c. The year preceding this, 
(1721) the hon. Francis North, afterwards earl of Guild* 
ford, entered of Trinity college under the tuition of Mr. 
•Wise, for whom be entertained a great esteem through 
life. From this nobleman he received the living of Elles- 
-field near Oxford, a very small piece of preferment, and 
not' worth above 25/. a year at most, but peculiarly agree- 
able to our author, who contrived to make it a place of 
some importance to curious visitors. / He took a small 
estate there, on a long lease, under lord Guildford, and 
converted a cottage upon it into an agreeable retirement, 
by building one or two good rooms, and laying out a gar- 
den with a piece of ground adjoining, scarcely before of 
any use, in a very whimsical but pleasing manner. In this 
little spot of a few acres, his* visitors were surprised to 
meet with ponds, cascades, seats, a triumphal arch, the 
tower of Babel, a Druid temple, and an Egyptian pyramid. 
These buildings, which were designed to resemble the 
structures of antiquity, were erected in exact scale anfl 
measure, to give, as far as miniature would permit, a just 
idea of the edifice they were intended to represent. From 
the time that his illustrious pupil left Oxford, Mr. Wise con- 
stantly resided in his family at intervals, and divided his 
time between the seat of the Muses, and the elegant man- 
sion of his friend and patron. In 1726 he was elected 
custos archivorum; and in 1727 took his degree of ba- 
chelor of divinity. 

In 1738, Mr. Wise published a Letter to Dr. Mead con- 
cerning some antiquities ia Berkshire, particularly showing 
that the White Horse was a Saxon monument, 4to. This, 
pamphlet was answered by an anonymous person (supposed 
to be one Asplin, vicar of Banbury) who in his pamphlet, 
-entitled "The Impertinence and Imposture of Modern 
Antiquaries displayed,' 9 insinuated a suspicion that Mr. 
Wise was no friend to the family on the throne. This. in- 
sinuation gave Mr. Wise great uneasiness, as he then had 
in view some preferment from the officers of state (the 
.place of Radcliffe Librarian). He therefore drew up in 
1742, another ireatise, called "Farther Observations upon) 


the White Horse, &c." and was vindicated also both in his 
. political principles and antiquarian conjectures by a friend 
(the Rev. Mr. North, F.S.A.) who then concealed his name* 
- (See North, George). 

In 1745, he was presented by Trinity college to the rec- 
4ory of Rotherfield Greys, in the county and diocese of Ox-* 
ford; and on May 10, 1748, he was appointed Radcliffe 
librarian. In 1750, he published his " Catalogue of the 
Coins in the Bodleian library," folio, which be hacj de- 
signed, and taken subscriptions for, above twenty years 
before, but through the smallness of bis income he was un- 
able to bear the expense of engravings, &c. This work be 
dedicated to his friend and patron the earl of Guildford, 
and in it has given some views of his house and gardens at 
Ellesfi'eld. After this period he resided chiefly in this 
pleasing retreat, and pursued his researches into antiquity. 
In 1758, he printed in 4to, "Some Enquiries concerning 
the first inhabitants, learning, and letters of Europe, by a 
member of the Society of Antiquaries, London; 99 and in 
1764, another work in 4to, entitled " History and Chrono- 
logy of Fabulous Ages considered" No name is prefixed 
to these performances, but at the end of each we have the 
initials F. W. R. L. (Francis' Wise, Radcliffe librarian). 
These were his last publications. He was after this period 
much afflicted with the gout, and lived quite retired at 
Ellesfield till his death, which happened Oct. 6, 1767. He 
was buried in the churchyard of that place, and by his own 
direction, no stone or monument perpetuates bis memory. 
In his life-time he bad been a benefactor to the Bodleian 
library by supplying from his own collections many de- 
ficiencies in the series of their coins ; and after bis death, 
his surviving sister, who resided At Oxford, and was his 
executrix, generously gave a large and valuable cahinet of 
his medals, &c. to the Radcliffe library. 1 

WISHART (George), one of the first martyrs for the 
protestant religion in Scotland, and a person of great dis- 
tinction in the ecclesiastical history of that country, was 
born in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and appears 
to have very early felt the consequences of imbibing the 
spirit of the reformers. He was descended of the house of 
Pitarrow in the Mearns, an illustrious family in Scotland, 

1 Memoirs drawn up by Mr. Huddesfovd of Trinity college, for Dr. Ducarel, 
and transcribed from the Doctor's MS Collections, vol. K. now in the possession 
•f our obliging friend John Nichols, esq. See also his Literary Anecdote*. 

W I S H A R T. SU 

snd is said to have travelled into Germany, where be be- 
came acquainted with the opinions of Lutber. Other ac- 
counts mention his having been banished from his own 
country by the bishop of Brechin, for teaching the Greek 
Testament in the town of Montrose, and that after this he 
resided for some years in the university of Cambridge. Of 
this latter circumstance there is no reason to doubt, for 
besides an account of him while there by one of his pupils, 
printed by Fox, the historian of Bene't or Corpus, Christi 
college has inserted a short account of him, as one of the 
members of that house. In 1544, be returned to his native 
country, in the company of the commissioners who had 
been sent to negOciate a treaty with Henry VIIL of Eng- 
land. At this time he was allowed to excel all his country- 
men in learning, and to be a man of the most persuasive - 
eloquence, irreproachable in. life, courteous and affable in 
manners. His fervent piety, zeal, and courage, in the 
cause of truth, were tempered with uncommon meekness, 
modesty, patience, prudence, and charity. With these 
qualifications he began to preach in a very bold manner, 
against the corruptions of the Romish church, and the vices 
of the clergy. He met with a most favourable reception 
wherever he appeared, and was much followed and eagerly 
listened to, which 90 excited the indignation of cardinal 
Beaton, and the popish clergy in general, that a resolution 
was formed to take away his life by some means or other* 

Two attempts were made to cut him off by assassination ; 
but be defeated the first by his courage, and the second, 
by his caution. On the first of these attempts he behaved 
with. great generosity. A friar named Weighton, who had 
undertaken to kill him when he was in Dundee {where he 
principally preached), knowing that it was his custom to 
remain in the pulpit after sermon, till the church was 
empty, skulked at the bottom of the stairs with a dagger in 
his right hand under his gown. Wishart (who was remark- 
ably quick-sighted), as he came down from the pulpit, ob- 
serving the friar's countenance, and his hand with some- 
thing in it under his gown, suspected his design, sprung 
forward, seized his hand, and wrenched the dagger from 
him. At the noise which this scuffle occasioned, a crowd 
of people rushed into the church, and would have torn the 
friar in pieces ; but Mr. Wishart clasped him in his arms, and 
declared that none should touch him but through his body. 
"He hath done me no hurt," said he 9 "my friends; be 

fcath doae me much good ; he hath taught me what I have 
to fear, and put me upon my guard." And it appeared 
that he defeated the second attempt on his life by the sus- 

• piciorr which the first bad inspired. When he was at Morj- 

• trose* a messenger came to him with a letter From a country 
'•gentleman, acquainting him that he had been suddenly 
'' taken ill, and earnestly intreating him to come to him with- 

♦ out delay. He immediately set out, accompanied by two 
* or three friends, but \vhen they were about half a mile from 
' the town, he stopped, saying, " I suspect there is treason 
' in this matter. Go you (said he to one of his friends) up 

yonder, and tell me what you observe.'* He came back 
arid told "him, that he had seen u company of spearmen 
lying in ambush near the road. They then returned to the 

'town, mrid on the way he said to bis friends; "I know I 
shall one day fail by the hands of that blood-thirsty man 

' (meaning cardinal Beaton), but I trust it shall not be in 
this manner.** 

These two plots having miscarried, and Wishart still con- 
tinuing to preach with his usual boldness and success, the 
cardinal summoned a synod of the clergy to meet Jan. 1 1, 
1546, in the Blackfrtars church, Edinburgh, and to con- 
sider of means for putting a stop to the progress of heresy, 
and while thus employed, he heard that Wishart was in the 

J house of Ormiston, only about eight miles from Edinburgh, 
where he was seized by treachery, and conducted to the 
castle of Edinburgh, and soon after to the castle of St. An- 
drew's. Here, being completely in the hands of the car- 
dinal, he was put upon his trial March 1, before a convo- 
cation of the prelates and clergy assembled for that purpose 

' in the cathedral, and treated with the utmost barbarity, 

'tevery form of law, justice, or decency, being dispensed 
with. He endeavoured to answer' the accusations brought 

'against him, and to shew the conformity between the doc- 

* trines he had preached and the word of God ; but this was 
denied him, and he was condemned to be burnt as an ob- 
stinate heretic, which sentence was executed next day on 
the castle green. The cardinal seems to have been sensi- 

- ble that the minds of men would be much agitated by the 

; fate of this amiable sufferer, and even to have apprehended 

that some attempt might be made to rescue him from the 

• flames. He commanded all the artillery of the castle to be 

* pointed towards the scene of execution ; and, either to 
; fratch the ebullitions of popular indignation, to display bl& 

'W "* * tt 'A R -*. 2*7 

Contempt of the reformers, or to satiate himself by contetri- 
p luting the destruction of a man, in whose grave he hoped 
that their principles would be baried, he openly, with the 
prelates who accompanied him, witnessed the melancholy 
spectacle. In many accounts which we hare of Wishart f s 
* death,- it k mentioned that, looking towards the cardinal, 
- he predicted, " that he who, from yonder place (pointing 
to the tower where he sat), beholdeth us with such pride, 
shall, within a few days, lie in the same as ignominiously 
as now he is seen proudly to rest.' 9 In our account of Bea- 
ton we have noticed the evidence for this fact, and the 
opinion of historians upon it, to which may now be added 
the opinions of some able writers (noticed in our references) 
■ who have appeared since that article was drawn up. Con- 
cerning Wishart, Hve may conclude, with Dr. Henry, that 
' his death was a loss to his persecutors as well as to his 
' friends. If he had lived a few years longer, the reforma- 
tion, it is probable, would have been carried on with more 
regularity and less devastation. He had acquired an asto- 
nishing power over the minds of the people; and he ai- 
rways employed it in restraining them from acts of violence,' 
inspiring them with love to one another, and with gentle- 
ness and humanity to their enemies. 1 

WISHART, or WISCHEART (George), bishop of 
Edinburgh, was born in East Lothian in 1609, and edu- 
cated iti the university of Edinburgh; where he took his 
degrees, and entered into holy orders. He became minis- 
ter of Nortb Leith, but was deposed in 1638, for refusing 
to take the covenant, and was also imprisoned for his 
loyally. On his release he accompanied the marquis of 
Montrose as his chaplain. When the marquis was defeated 
by general Lesley in 1645, Wishart was taken prisoner, 
and would have suffered death along with several noblemen 
end gentlemen whom the covenanters condemned, had not 
bis amiable character endeared him to some of the leading 
men of the party. He then went abroad, and became 
chaplahi to Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, sister to Charles 
I. with whom he came over into England in 1660, to visit 
her royal nephew Charles II. Soon after, Mr. Wishart had 
the rectory of Newcastle upon Tyhe conferred upon hini; 
and upon the restoration of episcopacy in Scotland, was 

1 Mackenzie's Scotch Writers. — Buchanan's History. — Spotswood's apd 
Koox's Histories. — Henry's Hist. — Cook's Hist, of the Reformation. ~M'Cri^'s 
Life of Knox.— Master's Hist, of C.C.UC. 


SIS W I S H A It T. 

consecrated bishop of Edinburgh, June 1, 1662. In that 
station he gave a most striking proof of that benevolence 
which should ever characterise a real Christian ; for, when 
some of the presbyterians who had persecuted him were 
committed to prison for rebellion, he assisted them with 
every necessary, and procured them a pardon. He died 
in .1671, and was buried in the abbey of Holyrqod-bouse, 
under a magnificent tomb, with a long Latin inscription. 
Keith says, " be was a person of great religion ; and hav- 
ing been a prisoner himself, it is reported of him that he 
was always careful at each dinner, to send off the first mess 
to the prisoners." He wrote the history of the war in 
Scotland under the conduct of the marquis ^f Montrose, in 
elegant Latin, under the title of " J. G. de rebus auspiciis 
aereqissimi et potentissimi Caroli, Dei gratia Mag* Brit, 
regis, &c. sub imperio illiistrissimi Montisrosarum mar- 
chionis, &c. anno 1644, et duobus sequentibus, praeclare 
gestis, commentarius, interprete A. S." This was first 
published in 1646, and there have been several English 
translations of it from that time to 1720, when it was 
printed with a second part, which Keith says the author left 
in manuscript. 1 

WISSING (William), an excellent portrait painter, 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1656, and bred up under Do- 
daens, an historical painter at the Hague. On coming to 
England, he worked some time for sir Peter Lely, whose 
manner he successfully imitated, and after whose death he 
came into fashion. He painted Charles II. and his queen, 
James II. and his queen, and the prince and princess of 
Denmark ; and was sent over to Holland, by king James, 
to draw the prince and princess of Orange. What recom- 
mended him to the esteem of Charles II. was his picture of 
the duke of Monmouth, whom he drew several times and 
in several attitudes. He drew most of the then court, and 
became competitor with sir Godfrey Kneller, whose fame 
was at that time increasing every day. It is said that, in 
drawing portraits of the fair sex, when any lady came to 
sit, whose complexion was rather pale, he would commonly 
take her by the hand, and dance about the room till she 
became warmer and her colour increased. This painter 
died much lamented at Burleigh-house, in Northampton* 

1 Keith's Catalogue of the Scotch bishops.— Wood's Fasti, vol. II.— Cens. 
lit voL II. 

W I S 5 I N G. 219 

•hire, Sept. 10, 1687, aged only thirty-one ; And was bu- 
ried in St. Martin's church, Stamford, where a marble ta- 
blet, with a Latin inscription, was placed by John earl of 
Exeter. There is a mezzotinto print of him, under which 
are these words, " Gulielmus Wissingus, inter pictorfcs sui 
saeculi celeberrimus, nulli secundus, artis suae non exiguum - 
decus & ornamentum. — ImmodicU brevis est rotas." ' 

WITCHELL (George), a good astronomer and ma- 
thematician, was born in 1728. He was maternally de- 
scended from the celebrated clock and watchmaker, Daniel 
Qoare, in which business he was himself brought up, and 
was educated in the principles of the Quakers, all his pro- 
genitors for many generations having been o&that commu- 
nity, whose simplicity of manners he practised through 
life. It appears that he cultivated the study of astronomy 
at a very early age, as he had a communication on that 
subject in the " Gentleman's Diary" for 1741, which must 
have been written when he was thirteen years of age. Sooftr 
after this bfc became a frequent writer both in the Diaries 
and in the Gentleman's Magazine, sometimes under his 
own name, but oftener with the initials G. W.^only. la 
1764 he published a map, exhibiting the passage of the 
moon's shadow over England in the great solar eclipse of 
April 1, that year; the exact correspondence of which to 
the observations gained him great reputation. In the fol- 
lowing year he presented to the commissioners of longi- 
tude a plan for calculating the effects of refraction and pa- 
rallax, on the moon's distance from the sun or a star, to 
facilitate the discovery of the longitude at sea. Having 
taught mathematics in London for many years with much 
reputation, he was in 1767 elected F. R. S. and appointed 
head master of the royal naval academy at Portsmouth, 
where he died of a paralytic stroke in 1785, aged fifty- - 
seven. * 

WITHER (George), a name well known among the 
readers of old English poetry, and revived, of late, by the 
taste and judgment of some eminent poetical antiquaries 
was born at Bentworth, near Alton in Hampshire, June 1 1, 
1588. He was the only son of George Wither of Bent- 
worth (by Anne Serle), who was the second son of John 
Wither of Manydowne near Wottoti St. Lawrence in that 

• First edit, of this Diet— Walpole's Anecdotes.— Pilkington. 
f tf Alton's Diet, new edit 

*20 wither; 

county, at which seat Mr. Bigg Wither^ the heir {not the 
heir male, but the heir female, who hag taken the name), 
still resides. The poet was educated under John Greaves 
of Colemore, a celebrated schoolmaster, whom be after- 
awards commemorated with gratitude in a poem published 
4n 1613. About 1604 he was sent to Magdalen college, 
Oxford, under the tuition of John Warner, afterwards 
bishop of- Rochester. Here he informs us, in the proe- 
raium to his " Abuses stript and whipt," that he found the 
4rt of logic, 'to which his studies were directed, first dull 
♦and unintelligible ; but at the moment it began all at once 
to unfold its mysteries to him, he was called home " to 
|*old the plough." He laments that he was thus obliged 
to forsake " the Paradise of England" to go " in quest of 
care, despair, and discontent." 

After he had remained some time in his own country, 
certain malicious advisers, under the mask of friendship, 
"pretending that nothing was to be got by learning, endea- 
voured to persuade his father to put him to some mechanic 
trade ; but our poet, finding that country occupations were 

v not fitted to his genius, determined, on some slight gleam 
of hope, to try his fortune at court, and therefore entered 
himself as a member of Lincoln's-inn. The world now 
opened upon him in characters so different from his expec- 
tations, that, haying been probably educated in puritanical 
principles, he felt that disgust which perhaps made him a 
satirist for life. The first thing which appeared to fill him 
with dislike and anger, was the gross flattery and servility 
which seemed necessary to his advancement. If, however, 
his manners did not procure him favour with the courtiers, 
his talents obtained him the acquaintance and friendship of 
many men of genius. William Browne, the pastoral poet, 
who was of the Inner Temple, was an early familiar of 
his. And some of his verses having got abroad, began to 
procure the name of a poet for himself. His " Philarete's 
Complaint, &c." formed a part of his " Juvenilia," which 
are said to have been his earliest compositions. He also 
wrote elegies in 1612 on that general subject of lamenta- 
tion, the death of prince Henry. 

In 1613 first appeared his celebrated satires, entitled 

-*' Abuses stript and whipt," for which so much food was 
furnished by the motley and vicious manners of the nation. 
Wither, therefore, bursting with indignation at the view of 
society which presented itself to his young mind, took this 

WITHER. ?f t 

Opportunity to indulge in a sort of publication to which 
the prosaic taste of the times was well adapted ; but he 
disdained, and perhaps felt himself unqualified, to use that 
glitter of false ornament, which was now substituted for the 
true decorations of the muse. " I have strived," says he, 
"to be as plain as a pack-saddle," and in these satires he 
is indeed excessively plain, and excessively severe, and 
they gave so much offence that he was committed to the 
Marshalsea, where he continued several months. In 1615 
he published " The Shepherd's Hunting : being certain 
eglogues written' during the time of the author's imprison- 
ment in the Marshalsea ;" which book, Wood observes, is 
said to contain more of poetical fancy than any other of 
his writings. Of this interesting poem, sir Egerton Brydges 
has lately published a beautiful edition in 12 mo, and in the 
preface observes, with a decision which every man of taste 
will respect, that " The Shepherd's Hunting has so much 
merit, and is so abundant in a natural vein of simple, 
effecting, and just sentiment, as well as imagery, that he 
who can read it, and doubt the author's genius, is insensible 
to all the features which bespeak the gifts of the muse. 1 * 
When in prison, Wither not only also wrote but published bis 
u Satire to the King," 1614. He terms this an apology for 
former errors, proceeding from the beat of youth, but part 
of it is a vindictive appeal to the king from the restraint 
put upon his person, and part of it is a ~ monologue con* 
ducted by the author between the impulses of supplication 
find disdain. It is thought, however, to have procured his 

After this time he continued to write and publish both 
poetry and prose without intermission to the day of hi§ 
tteath, which yet was at a great distance. Wood remarks, 
with more correctness of judgment and expression than 
fee usually attains, that our poet was now cried up, " es- 
pecially by the puritan party, for his profuse pouring forth 
of English rhyme, 9 ' which abundant facility has certainly 
tempted him into an excess that has totally buried the effu- 
aions of his happier moments. Such a superfluity of easy 
Arat flat and insipid narrative, and trite prosaic remarks, 
scarce any writer has been guilty of. On, his pen appears 
in general, to have run, wittfout the smallest effort at ex* 
cellence ; and therefore subjected him too justly to Wood's 
•stigma of being a scribbler. But let it ' be observed, this 
eras the fault of his will, ^nd not of his genius; When the 

123 W I T H E E. 

examples of real poetry, which be has given, are selected 
from his multitudiuous rhymes, they are in point both of 
quality and quantity sufficient to stamp his fame. 

Another cause of the depression of Withers reputation 
was the violent party spirit, by which a large portion of his 
works was dictated and degraded, as well as the active part 
which he took on the side of the parliament. In 1639, he 
had been a captain of horse in the expedition against the 
Scots, and quarter- roaster-general of his regiment, under 
the earl of Arundel. But as soon as the civil wars broke 
out in 1642, he sold his estate to raise a troop of horse for 
the parliament ; and soon afterwards rose to the rank of 
major ; but being taken prisoner by the* royalists, " Sir 
John Denham the poet," s^ys Wood, " some of whose es- 
tate at Egham, in Surrey, Wither bad got into his clutches, 
desired his majesty not to hang him, beeause so long as 
Wither lived, Denham would not be accounted the worst 
poet in England. About that time, 9 ' continues Wood, "he 
was constituted by the Long Parliament a justice of peace 
in quorum for Hampshire, Surrey, and Essex, which office 
he kept six years, and afterwards was made jby Oliver, ma- 
jor-general of all the horse add foot in tbe county of Sur- 
rey, in which employment he licked his fingers sufficiently, 
gaining thereby a great odium from the generous loyalists/* 

At the restoration in 1660, the spoils which he had 
amassed from the adherents of the king, and from the 
church, were taken from him. His principles, and espe- 
cially a libel entitled " Vox vulgi," which be had dispersed, 
and which was deemed seditious, rendered bfm obnoxious 
to the new government, and he was now committed to 
Newgate ; and afterwards, by order of the House of Com* 
mons, was sent close prisoner to tbe Tower, to be debarred 
of pen, ink, and paper; and about the same time (March 
1661-2), an impeachment was ordered to be drawn up. 
against him* In this confinement he continued more than 
three years, and here he wrote several things by connivance 
of the keeper, of which some were afterwards published^ 
4 f yet never," adds Wood, " could refrain from shewing him* 
self a presby terian satirist." When he was released is not 

Sientioned, but he reached the age of seventy- nine, and 
ied May 2, 1667, and was Interred in the Savoy church 
in the Strand. 

That Wither was a poet, and a poet deserving to be bet- 
ter known, has been sufficiently proved by the selection 


from his "Juvenilis," printed by the late Alexander Dal- 
jymple, esq. in 17,85, and particularly by the more recent 
republications of bis " Shepherd's Hunting/ 9 1814, his 
"Fidelia," 1815, and his "Hymns and Songs of the 
Church/' 1815, by sir Egerton Brydges, whose prefaces 
and remarks add no small value to these beautiful volumes, 
and whose judgment and taste in the revival of works, of 
neglected merit cannot be too highly appreciated. It is to 
tfais'learned baronet also that the reader is indebted for all 
that is valuable in the present sketch of Wither, taken from 
a more copious life of the poet in the " Bibliographer." In 
the same work, the reader may be referred to a very accu- 
rate list, and history, by Mr. Park, of all Wither' s writings, 
amounting to 112 articles in prose and verse, from which 
very pleasing selections may yet be made. They are almost 
all of rare occurrence, and expensive in proportion, since 
the attention of the public has been drawn to them by the 
various critics mentioned in our references. 1 

WITHERING (William), an able physician and bota- 
nist, was born in 1741, at Willi ngton in Shropshire, where 
his father was an apothecary. After being initiated in phar- 
macy and medicine under his father, he was sent to the 
university of Edinburgh, where be studied the usual time, 
and took the degree of doctor of physic in 1766. Not long 
after he left the university, he settled at Stafford, where 
meeting with little encouragement, he removed in 1774 to 
Birmingham ; and here his abilities were soon called into 
action ; and in a few years his practice became very extensive, 
and having a studious turn, he devoted those hours which 
remained after the business of the day, to philosophical 
and scientific pursuits. In 1776 he published, in 2 vols. 
8vo, the first edition of his " Botanical Arrangement ;" a 
work which, at that tiipe, could be considered as little more 
than a mere translation from Linnaeus of such genera and 
species of plants as are indigenous ia Great Britain ; and in 
which Ray's " Synopsis Methodica Stirptum Britannica* 
rum," and Hudson's " Flora Anglica," could not fail to 
aflbrd him great assistance ; but, in the course of the two 
other editions of it (the last of which, in 4 .vols. 8vo, was 
published in 1796), this "Arrangement" has been so much 
improved and enlarged, as to have become, in a great mea- 

1 Ajtb. Ox. vol. IF.— Bibliographer, vol. I. .and II. — Censura Literaria. — Res- 
tituU, vol. I.— Life of Wither, Gent. Mag. vol LXX. by Mr. Gilchrist, one of 
the first who discerned the merits of Wither. 

2*4 W 1 T H t R i N G. 

sure, an original work; and certainly, as a national Flord^ 
it must be allowed to be & very elaborate and complete* 
performance. Botany, however, did not engross all our. 
author's attention : many of bis. leisure hours he devoted* 
to* chemistry and .mineralogy. In 1783, )pe translated 
Bergman's " Sckagraphia Regni Mineralis," under thei 
title of " Outlines of Mineralogy ;" and, before and since 
that time, he addressed to the Royal Society several com-* 
uiqnications relative to those branches of knowledge. Thqs* 
in 1773, we 6nd inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, 
his experiments on different kinds of marie found in Staf- 
fordshire. In the same Transactions for 1782, his analysis, 
qf the toad-stone, a fossil met with in Derbyshire. In the 
$ame work for 1784, bis experiment on the Urra ponderosa. 
And lastly, in 1798* his analysis of a hot mineral spring in> 
Portugal. Amidst these diverged pursuits he did not re? 
lax in his professional studies, In 1779, be published an 
" Account of the Scarlet Fever and Sore Throat ;" and, ir* 
1785, appeared his account of the fox-glove; wherein he 
laid before the public a very satisfactory body of evidence; 
in favour of the diuretic virtues of » this vegetable in various 
kinds of dropsies. From early life Dr. Withering was of a 
slender and delicate habit of body ; and, not long, after trig 
first establishment in practice, he became subject to attacks 
of peripneumony. By these repeated attacks bis lungs 
were at length so much injured, and his whole frame so 
much debilitated, that he found it necessary to repair to 3 
warmer climate. Accordingly, in the autumn of 1793, he 
made a voyage to Lisbon., where he passed the winter, re- 
turning to England the following spring. Thinking be 
had received benefit from the climate of Portugal, he made 
a second voyage to Lisbon the following winter, and re- 
turned home again 1795. While be was in Portugal, he 
analyzed the hot mineral waters, called the Caldas. This 
analysis was published in the Memoirs of the royal academy 
of sciences at Lisbon ; and since in the Philosophical Tran- 
sactions of the Royal Society in London. After his return 
from bis last voyage to Lisbon, his health remained in a 
very fluctuating state, sometimes so tolerable as to allow 
going out in a carriage; at other times, so bad as to con? 
fine him to his room* In this manner his existence was 
protracted until Sept. 1799, when be removed from Edg* 
baston-hall, where he had resided (under a lease granted 
by the late lord Calthorpe) for several years, to a house^ 


which he had recently purchased, and bad Darned tb* 
Larches, and where be died Oct. 6, 1799, To the distin- 
guished rank which he held in the medical profession, Dr. 
Withering was raised wholly by personal merit. He pos* 
sessed great clearness of discernment, joined with a most 
persevering application. He was of a humane and mild 
disposition. With his family and among bis friends he was 
cheerful and communicative; but with the world at large v 
and even in his professional character, he was shy and re* 
served. 1 

WITHERSPOON (John), an eminent divine in Scot- 
land and America, and a lineal descendant from Knox the 
celebrated Scotch reformer, was born Feb. 5, 1722, at 
Yester near Edinburgh, of which parish bis father was 
minister. After some previous education at the public 
school at Haddington, he was, at the age of fourteen, sent 
to the university of Edinburgh, and having gone through 
the usual course of academical studies, was licensed to 
preach, and soon after was ordained minister of the parish 
of Beith, in the west of Scotland, whence, in a few years* 
he was removed to be minister at the large and flourish* 
ing town of Paisley. During his residence here he was 
much admired for his general learning, his abilities in the 
pulpit, and for his writings, one of which, bis " Ecclesias* 
tical Characteristics," is perhaps one of the most humorous 
satires ever written on a subject which apparently did not 
admit of that mode of treatment. No satire in our time 
was read with more approbation and interest than Wither- 
spoon's <( Characteristics" for many years in Scotland. It 
is levelled at the party iu the general assembly of Scotland, 
who were called the moderate men, in contradistinction to 
those called the orthodox, or who adhered strictly to the 
doctrines contained in their national " Confession of Faith. 9 ' 
From this publication, and from his speeches in the general 
assembly, Witherspoon acquired much influence* but he 
had to contend with almost all the literary force of the as- 
sembly, the Blairs, Gerards, Campbells, and Robertsons, 
who were considered as the leaders of the moderate party. 
One day, after carrying some important questions against 
t)r. Robertson, the latter said in his pleasant manner, " I 
think you have your men better disciplined than formerly." 
** Yes," replied Witherspoon, " by urging your politics too 

1 Gcnfc. Mag* .vol. L3tlX. 

Vol. XXXIL Q* 


fa**, you have compelled us to beat you with your own 
weapons. 1 * 

During Dr. Witherspoon's residence at Paisley, he had 
eligible offers from Dublin, from Dundee, and from Rot- 
terdam, which he rejected, but at length his reputation 
having reached that continent, he was induced to accept an 
offer from America, and on his arrival at Prince-town hi 
1768, was appointed president of the college there, the 
prosperity of which was greatly augmented under hi* ad- 
ministration, not only with respect to its funds and the 
number of students, but from his introducing every im- 
provement in education and science, which had been 
adopted in Europe. When the revolutionary war was ap- 
proaching, he became a decided friend to the cause of 
America, and was for seven years a member of the congress. 
After the peace he paid a visit to England, and returning 
soon after to Prince-town, died there Nov. 15, 1794, in 
his seventy-third year. His printed works, very superior 
in point of style and manner, consist of " Essays" in 3 vols. 
8vo, on theological topics, and two volumes of " Sermons,'* 
besides the " Characteristics," already noticed, and a work 
" On the nature and effects of the Stage," which at one 
time made a great noise. Bishop Warburton mentions 
" The Characteristics' 1 with particular approbation. 1 . 

-"WITSIUS, or WITS (Herman), a very learned and 
eminent divine of North Holland, was born at Enckhuisen, 
Feb. 12, 1636. He was trained to the study of divinity, 
and so distinguished himself by his uncommon abilities and 
learning, that he was chosen theological professor, first at 
Franeker, afterwards at Utrecht, and lastly at Ley den. He 
applied himself successfully to the study of the Oriental 
tongues, and was not ignorant in any branch of learning 
which is necessary to form a good divine. He died Oct. 
22, 1708, in the seventy-third year of his age, after having 
published several important works, which shew great judg- 
ment, learning, and piety. One of the principal of these 
is " Egyptiaca ;" the best edition of which, at Amsterdam, 
1696, in 4to, has this title : "^Egyptiaca, et Decaphylon ; 
sive, de jEgvptiacorum Sacrorum cum Hebraicis collation© 
Libri tres. Et de decern tribubus Israelis Liber singularia. 
Accessit Diatribe de Legione Fulminatrice Christianoriim, 
sub Imperatore Marco Aurello Antorrino," Amst. 1693, and 

/ ' Funeral Sermpn by Dr. Rodgers, in Prot. Diss. Mag. vol. U. 

W I T S I U S. fl«» 

IB96, 4to. Witsius, in this work, not only compares the 
religious rites and ceremonies of the Jews and Egyptian's* 
but he maintains particularly, against our sirJqhn Marshatn 
and Dr. Spencer, that the former did not borrow theirs* 
or any part of them, from the latter, as these learned and 
eminent writers -had asserted in their respective works* 
" Canon Cbronicus," and " De Legibus Hebraeorunu'* 
" The Oeconomy of the Covenants between God and Man'* 
is another work of Witsius, and the best known in this coun- 
try, having been often printed in English, 3 vols. 5vo. Of 
this and its author, Hervey, in his " Theron and Aspasia,'* 
has taken occasion to speak in the following terms : "Toe 
Oeconomy of the Covenants," says be, " is a body of di+ 
finity, in its method so well digested, in its doctrine so 
truly evangelical, and, what is not very usual with our 
systematic writers, in its language so refined and elegant* 
in its manner so affectionate and animating, that I would 
recommend it to every student in divinity. I would not 
scrapie to risk all my reputation upon the merits of this 
performance ; and I cannot but lament it, as one of my 
greatest losses, that I was no sooner acquainted with this 
fnost excellent author, all whose works have such a deli- 
cacy of composition, and such a sweet savour of holiness* 
that I know not any comparison more proper to represent 
their true character than the golden pot which had manna,* 
and was outwardly bright with burnished gold, inwardly 
rich with heavenly food." ' 



WITTE, or WITTEN (H&nningUs), a German bio- 
grapher, was born in 1634. We find very few particulars 
*f him, although he has contributed so much to our know*- 
ledge of other eminent men. He was a divine and pro- 
fessor of divinity at Riga* where he died Jan. 22, 1696. 
Morhoff bestows considerable praise on his biographical la- 
bours, which were principally five volumes of memoirs of 
the celebrated men of the seventeenth century, as a sequel 
to those of M elchior Adam. They were octavo volumes, 
and published under the titles of " Memoria Theologorum 
nostri seculi," Franc. 1674, reprinted in 1685, 2 vols. ; 
" Memoria Medicorum ;" " Memoria Jurisconsultorum ;" 

1 Life prefixed to the " Oeconomy of the Covenants," edit. *?62«— Burman 
Traject. Enidit.—Saxii OnomMticon. 

Q 2 

228 W I T T E. 

u Memoria Philosophorum," &c. which last includes poet* 
and polite scholars. The whole consist of original lives, or 
eloges collected from the best authorities. The greater 
part ave Germans, but there are a few French and English. 
In 1688 he published, what we have often found very use- 
ful, his *' Diarium Biographicum Sc pip to rum seculi xvii." 
vol. I. 4to, 1688, vol, II. 1691. It appears that Wittepaid 
a visit to England in 1666, and became acquainted with 
the celebrated Dr. Pocock, to whom he sent a letter ten 
years afterwards, informing the doctor that he had for some 
time been engaged in a design of writing the lives of (he 
most famous writers of that age in each branch of litei a* 
ture, and had already published some decades, containing 
memoirs of divines, civilians, and physicians; "that he 
, was now collecting eloges on the most illustrious philolo* 
gers, historians,, orators, and philosophers ; but wanted me- 
moirs of the chief Englishmen who, in the present (seven* 
teeuth) century, have cultivated these sciences* having no 
relation of this sort in his possession, except of Mr. Cam- 
den ; he begs, therefore, that Dr. Pocock, would, by the 
bearer, transmit to him whatever he had to communicate 
in this way." * ' 

WODHULL (Michael), the first translator into English 
verse of all the tragedies and fragments qf Euripides which 
are extant, was born Aug. 15, 1740, at Then ford, in Nor* 
tbamptoushire, and was sent first to Twyford, in Bucking.* 
hamshire, to the school of the rev. William Cleaver. This 
preceptor bad three sons, William, bishop of St. Asaph, 
Eusebius, archbishop of Dublin, and John, student of 
Christ Church, Oxford, who were all attached to Mr. Wod- 
hull with the sincerest friendship through life. To John, 
one of his poetical epistles (the ninth) is addressed, in which 
honourable mention is made of the father* 

" Beneath whose auspices his earlier age 
Imbibed the dictates of the good and sage." 

Frbm Twyford he was removed to Winchester school, 
and afterwards to Brasennose college, Oxford. He in- 
herited from his father, who died while he was at school,, 
a large fortune, of which the first use that he made was to 
build a handsome mansion on his patrimonial inheritance. 
In 1761 he married a lady of great personal accomplish - 
pients, and universally loved and respected, MissCathe* 

1 Baillet Jugemem.— Morhoff Poly hist. — Saxii Oootnast. 

W D H U L L. 229 

rine Mileah Ingram, of an ancient family situated at Wol* 
ford, in Warwickshire, who left him a widower without 
family in 1808. In 1803 be took advantage of the short 
peace to gratify his curiosity in the libraries of Paris, and 
was one- of the English detained by Bonaparte, but was 
afterward released on account of his age. He returned 
home an invalid and alone, and it was a source of great 
distress to him to be compelled to leave behind him in 
France his faithful servant. From that period bis bodily 
infirmities gradually increased, his sight at length failed, 
and his voice became scarcely audible, but his senses apd 
bis memory, which was most singularly retentive, con- 
tinued unimpaired to the last. He died without a struggle 
or groan, Nov. 10, 1816, in the seventy-seventh year of 
his age. 

Of his politics, Mr. Wodhull say* they were " those of a 
British whig, not run away with by national prejudices; 1 ' 
but he never entered into public life ; his chief occupation 
and amusement being the study of books, of which he was 
celebrated as a collector. He disposed during bis life of 
many which he had purchased, but left behind him above 
4000 volumes, consisting principally of first editions and 
rare specimens of early printing. The duties of private 
and social life no man discharged with more fidelity or ex- 
actness. As a son, a husband, a friend, a master,, a land- 
lord, few could excel him, and his charities, which were 
numerous, were known generally to those only whom he 

. As to his religious sentiments, although he was an advo- 
cate for toleration, he invariably asserted the principle of 
conformity to the sound and apostolic establishments of 
the land. His practice, even when very infirm, was to 
attend divine service in his parish church, to read or pro- 
cure some friend to read a sermon and prayers to his family 
and domestics every Sunday evening. He never spoke an 
unkind word to his servants, and there was hardly an instance 
known of any one quitting his service for that of another 
master. He never complained, nor uttered a peevish ex- 
pression under the greatest privations and the most severe 
pain. His funeral was, by his own desire, as his life had 
been, without parade or ostentation, and the monumental 
stone declares no more than the name ' and age of him 
whose mortal reliques lie near it. 

The first edition of Mr. Wodhull's translation of " Euri- 

?3o W0PBU1I, 

pides" appeared in 1782, 4 rob. Svo, since reprinted in 3 
yob. 8vo. Whoever considers the number of dramas com* 
posed by tbe Greek tragedian, the variety of allusions which 
they contain to ancient manners, and to the tenet* of phi T 
losophers ; and. the peculiar force of the language in which 
they were written, will acknowledge that the attempt to 
render them into English verse must have failed altogether 
without a rare union of perseverance, knowledge, and abi? 
lity. Original composition is the surest test of genius, but 
the poetiqal images and ideas of one man cannot adequately 
5>e represented or expressed by another who does not him- 
self possess the imagination and fancy of a poet, In his 
translation of Euripides, Mr, Wodhull has selected blank 
verse as the best adapted for tbe dialogue, and hy rendered 
the cborusses for tbe most part in a Pindaric ode. The 
difference therefore both of tbe subject and versification is 
sijch that no comparison can fairly be instituted with the 
poetical versions of the iEneid and tbe Iliad. Bu^ as Dry- 
flen and Pope have secured to theroselyes a^bigb rank in 
tbe U*t of British Classics by their translations, an honour-r 
able post will, also be assigned to Mr. Wodhull, who has 
contributed no mean addition to tbe stock of British Lite* 
rature, and naturalized among us him, whom he entitles 
"The Philosophic Bard." 

Mr.Wodhull's poetical fame, however, does not rest 
merely on translations ; be was the author of several poems 
published at different periods, which he collected in 1804, 
and printed with several alterations for tbe use of bis friends 
in an elegant octavo volume, to which his portrait was pre- 
fixed. The poems consist of five odes, two songs, "Tbe 
Equality of Af ankind ;" " On Mr. hollis's print of Dr. May- 
hew; 1 ' "The Use of Poetry, 9 ' and thirteen epistles ad* 
pressed to different friends. When a Very young man he 
wrote an *' Ode to Criticism," which is not found in this 
collection* It was intended as an attack on certain pecu- 
liarities in the writings of Thomas Warton. Warton took 
a singular mode of avenging himself, by inserting tbe ode 
in "The Oxford Sausage" among poems of a very diffe* 
rent sort. This proceeding may perhaps be considered as 
a proof of humour in the laureate; but it is to be regretted 
(hat it has been the means of perpetuating a composition 
which its author would long ago have consigned to oblivion.' 

1 Private eommufiiaitioiu 

WODROW. *31 

WODROW (Robert), a Scotch ecclesiastical historiap, 
son to the rev. James Wodrow, professor of divinity in the 
university of Glasgow, was born there in 1679, and after 
passing through his academic course, was chosen in 1698 
librarian to the university. H^ held this office for four 
years, during which he had many valuable opportunities for 
indulging his taste in the history and antiquities of the 
church of Scotland, In 1703 be was ordained minister of 
the parish of Eastwood, in which humble station he con- 
tinued all his life, although he had encouraging offers of 
greater preferment in Glasgow and Stirling. He died in 
1734, at the age of fifty-five. He* published in 1721, in 
2 vols, folio, a " History of the singular sufferings of the 
Church' of Scotland, during the twenty-eight years imme- 
diately preceding the Revolution," written with a fidelity 
which has seldom been disputed, and confirmed, at the end 
of each volume, by a large mass of public and private re* 
cords. In England this work has been little known, ex- 
cept perhaps by an abridgment in 2 vols. 8vo. by the Rev. 
.Mr. Cruickshanks, but since the publication of the histori- 
cal work of the Hon. Charles James Fox, as well as by the 
writings of Messrs. Sommerville and Laing, it has greatly 
risen in reputation as well as price. " No historical facts," 
Mr. Fox says, " are better ascertained than the accounts 
which are to be found in Wodrow. In every instance 
where there has been an opportunity of comparing these 
accounts with the records arid authentic monuments, they 
appear to be quite correct." Mr. Wodrow also left a great 
many biographical memoirs of the Scotch reformers and 
presbyterian divines, which are preserved in the university 
library of Glasgow. l 

WOIDE (Charles Godfrey), a name worthy to be pre- 
served on account of his valuable edition of the Alexandrine 
MS. of the New Testament, was a native of Holland, but 
of his early history we have no account. His first prefer- 
ment in this country was to the preachership of the Dutch 
chapel-royal at St. James's, about 1770, to which be was 
afterwards appointed reader also. At the time of bis death 
he was reader and chaplain at the Dutch chapel in the Sa- 
voy. In 1778 he was elected a fellow of the society of an- 
tiquaries, and in that year distinguished himself by revising, 
through the Clarendon presf, Scholtz's " Egyptian Gram- 

1 Encyclop. Britannic*, last edition. 


bit WOID £. 

mar," written in 1750, in 2 vols. 4to, and also La Croze's* 
*' Lexicon Egyptiaco-Latinum." It had long been the 
Wish of thelearned that both these works, left in MS! by 
their respective authors, might be published, but they could 
not find a printer furnished with Egyptian types, or who 
would hazard the undertaking, until at last the university 
Of Oxford, with its usual munificent spirit, determined to 
bear the expense. When the Lexicon was printing, Mr. 
Woide was desired to make some additions to it, but this 
not being proposed till more than half the'wbrk was printed, 1 
he could extend his remarks to three letters only, and to 
render the undertaking more useful, he added an index. 
It was intended to print Scholtz's Grammar in 2 quarto 
vols, immediately after the Dictionary, which consists of 
one vol. quarto; but it being found too voluminous, Woide 
very properly abridged it, and has improved it by carefully 
examining and correcting it by means of MSS unknown to 
Scholtz. The Sahidic part was entirely supplied by Dr. 

In 1782 Dr. Woide was appointed an assistant librarian 
at the British Museum, at first in the department of natu- 
ral history, but soon after in one more congenial to his 
studies, that of printed books. He had before obtained 
the degree of D. D. from the university of Copenhagen, 
and in 1786 was created doctor of laws at Oxford. In this 
year appeared his truly valuable work, the " Novum Tes- 
iamentum Grascum, e codice MS. Alexandrino, qui Lon- 
dini in Bib}. Musei Britannici asservatur, &c. Ex prelo 
Joannis Nichols, Typis Jacksonianis," fol. The history 
<|f this MS. thus preserved and perpetuated by an accurate 
fac-simile, is contained in the editor's learned preface, which 
was reprinted at Leipsic in 1790, in an octavo volume) with 
notes by Gottliebb Leberecht Spohn. Dr. Woide was 
seized with an apoplectic fit, May 6, 1790, while at sir 
Joseph Banks's converxatione, of which he died next day at 
his apartments in the British Museum. ' 

WOLFE, or WOLFIUS, (Christian), baron of the Ro- 
man empire, privy-counsellor to the king of Prussia, and 
chancellor of the university of Hall in Saxony, was born at 
Breslau, Jan. 24, 1679. To the college of this city he was 
indebted for his first studies: after having passed his les- 
sons in philosophy, be applied himself, assiduously to the 

1 Nichols's Bowyer, vol. IX. 


mathematics. The " Elementa Arithmetics, vulgaris et 
literalis," by Henry Horcb, were his earliest guides;, by a 
frequent perusal of these, he was at length enabled to en* 
rich them with additional propositions of his own. So ra- 
pid a progress did him great hqnour ; whilst the different' 
disputes, in which be was engaged with the canons of Bres- 
lau, laid the permanent foundation of his increasing fame. 
In 1699, he repaired to the university of Jena, and chose 
John Philip Treuner for his master in philosophy, and 
George Albert Hamberger for the mathematics; whose 
lessons he received with so happy a mixture of attention 
and advantage, that he became afterwards the able instruc- 
tor of his fellow-students. . . 
. From Philip Muller, and Frederic Beckman, be re- 
ceived his knowledge of theology : a treatise written by 
Tschirnhausen, entitled " Medicina Mentis & Corporis, 9 ' 
engaged him for some time ; in consequence of which, in 
1702, he bad a conference with the author, to clear up 
some doubts concerning particular passages. The. detail 
into which Tschirnhausen had the complaisance to enter 
with this young philosopher, enabled him to model the 
whole on a more extensive plan. Having finished that part 
of his education which he was destined to receive at Jena, ' 
|?e went to Leipsic in 1702 ; and, having obtained a per-* 
mission to give lectures, he began his new employment, 
and, in 1703, opened with a dissertation called "Pbiloso- 
phia practjca universalis, methodo mathematica conscript 
ta ;" which first attempt served greatly to enhance the re- 
putation of his talents. Wolfe chose, for the foundation 
of his lessons, the method followed by Tschirnhausen. His 
philosophy bore as yet a very strong resemblance to that of 
Descartes, as may be seen in his dissertation " De loquela," 
which he published in 1703. Leibnitz, to whom be sent 
it, told him, that he plainly perceived, that his hypothesis 
concerning the union of the soul and body was not hitherto 
sufficiently just and explicit. These objections made him 
review the whole, which afterwards went through several 
material alterations. 

Two dissertations which he published at the end of 1703, 
the first, " De rotis dentatis," and the second, " De Al- 
goritbmo. infinitesimal differential]," obtained him the 
honourable appellation of assistant to the faculty of philo- 
sophy at Leipsic The universities of Giessen and Hall 
having invited him to be their professor in mathematics, 

134 WOLFE. 

he accepted of the o6fer of the last, and went tbhfaer in 
1707. The same year he was admitted into the society at 
Leipsic, which was at that time engaged in the publication 
of the "Acta eruditorum.'* After having irtserted in this 
work many important pieces relating to physic arid the 
mathematics, he undertook, in 1709, to teach all the vari- 
ous branches of philosophy, and began with a little logical 
Latin treatise, which made its appearance afterwards in the 
German language, under the title of " Thoughts on the 
Powers of the human Understanding." While he was 
carrying on these great pursuits with assiduity and ardour, 
the king of Prussia rewarded him with the post of counsel- 
lor to the court on the decease of Bodinus in 1721, and 
augmented the profits of that office by very considerable 
appointments : he was also chosen a member of the Royal 
Society of London and Prussia. 

In the midst of this prosperity he raised a storm against 
himself. He had, on the 12th of July, 1721, delivered a 
Latin oration, the subject of which was the morality of the 
Chinese: he loaded their philosophy with applause, and 
endeavoured to prove how similar its principles were to 
those which he bad advanced in doctrines of his own. 
The divines at Hall were so exasperated at this attempt to 
undervalue their tenets, that on the day following every 
pulpit resounded with censures of Wolfe, and the oppo- 
sition to him continued till 1722, when the faculty of the* 
©logy were determined strictly to examine each production 
6f our extraordinary philosopher. Daniel Strathler, whose 
province was to scrutinize the "Essay on Metaphysics," 
published a refutation of it. Wolfe made his complaints 
to the academic council, who issued out an order, that na 
one should presume to write against him : but the faculty 
having sent their representation to the court, which were 
ail backed by the most strenuous assertions, that the doc- 
trine which Wolfe taught, particularly on the subject of 
liberty and necessity, was dangerous to the last degree, an 
order at length arrived, Nov. 1 8, 1723, not only displacing 
Wolfe, but commanding him (under pain of being severely 
punished if he presumed to disobey) to leave Hall and the 
States in twenty-four hours at the farthest 

Wolfe retired 'now to Cassel, where he obtained the 
professorship of mathematics and philosophy in t{je univer- 
sity of Marbourg, with the title of counsellor to the court 
of the landgrave of Hesse, to which a profitable pension 

WOLFS. 98f 

m* aimeaedu Here he reasaimed hit labours with re- 
doubled ardour ; and it was iot this retreat that he published 
the beat parts of his numerous works. In 1725 be was de- 
clared an honorary professor of the academy of sciences at 
St Petenburgb, and, in 1733, was admitted into that at 
Paris. The king of Sweden also declared him one of the 
council of regency : the pleasing situation of his new 
abode, and the multitude of honours which he had received, 
were too alluring to permit him to accept of many advan- 
tageous offers ; amongst which was the post of president 
of the academy at St. Petersbergh. The king of Prussia, 
who was now recovered from the prejudices he had been 
made to* conceive against Wolfe, wished to re-establish 
him in the university of Hall in 47 33, and made another 
attempt to effect it in 1739. Wolfe met these advances 
with all that respectful deference which became him, but 
took the liberty to insinuate, that he did not then believe 
it right for him to comply. At last, however, he submit- 
ted; and the prince offered him, in 1741, an employment 
which threw every objection that he could make aside. 
Wolfe, still mindful of Jiis benefactors, took a gracious 
Leave . of the king of Sweden ; and returned to Hall, in- 
vested with the characters of privy-counsellor, vice-chan- 
cellor, and professor of the law. of nature and of nations. 
After the death of Ludwig, the king raised him to the dignity 
of chancellor of the university, and the elector of Bavaria 
created him a baron of the empire (whilst he was exercis- 
ing the vicarship of it), from his own free unbiassed incli- 

He died at Hall in Saxony, of the gout in his stomach, 
April 9, 1754, in his seventy-sixth year; after having 
composed in Latin and German more than sixty distinct 
pieces. The chief of bis mathematical compositions is his 
" Elementa Matheseos Uniyersse," the best edition of 
which is that of 1732, 5 vols. 4to, printed at Geneva ; 
which does not, however, comprise his. Mathematical Die* 
tionary in the German language, nor many other dis- 
tinct works on different branches of the mathematics. His 
•" System of Philosophy' 7 is contained in 23 vols. 4to. 

Brucker says, that Wolfe " possessed a clear and me- 
thodical understanding, which by long exercise in mathe- 
matical investigations was particularly fitted for the em- 
ployment of digesting the several branches of knowledge 
into tegular systems; and his fertile powers of invention 

f 36 WOLFE, 

enabled him to enrich almost every field of science, in 
which he laboured, with some valuable additions. The 
lucid order which appears in all his writings enables his 
reader to follow his conceptions, with ease and certainty, 
through the longest trains of reasoning. But the close 
connection of the several parts-of his works, together with 
the vast variety and extent of the subjects on which he 
treats, renders it impracticable to give a summary of his 
doctrines." A French critic remarks that all the German 
works of this e«thor are *' extremely well written, and he 
has also been very happy in finding words, in that language, 
answering to the Latin philosophical terms which bad till 
then been adopted ; and as this renders a small dictionary 
necessary for understanding his phrases, he has placed one 
at the end of such books as require it. As to his Latin 
works, they are very ill written ; his words are ill chosen, 
and frequently used in a wrong sense ; his phrases too per- 
plexed and obscure, and his style in general too diffuse." 
An abridgment of his great Latin work, "On the Law of 
Nature and Nations," has been published in French, three 
small vols. 12mo, by'Formey ; to which is prefixed, a life 
of Wolfe, and a chronological list of all his writings. He 
was, doubtless, one of the most learned philosophers and 
mathematicians Germany has produced ; but his eulogy 
seems to us to be carried too far, when he is compared to 
Descartes and Leibnitz for his genius and writings, in both 
which he was certainly much inferior to them. 1 

WOLFE (Major* General James), a brave English of- 
ficer, was the son of lieutenant-general Edward Wolfe, and 
was born at Westerham, in the county of Kent, where he 
was baptised the nth of Jan. 1726. He seemed by nature 
formed for military greatness : bis memory was retentive, 
his judgment deep, and bis comprehension amazingly quick 
and clear: his constitutional courage was not only .uniform 
and daring, perhaps to an extreme, but he possessed that 
higher species of it, that strength, steadiness, and activity, 
of mind, which 'no difficulties could obstruct, or dangers 
deter. With an universal liveliness, almost to impetuosity 
of temper, he was not subject to passion ; with the great- 
est independence of spirit, free from pride. Generous, 
almost to profusion, he contemned every little art for the 
acquisition of wealth ; whilst he searched after objects for 

1 Life by Forcney. — Morten.-- Diet. Hist. — Brucker. — Saxij Ouotna«t. 

WOLFE; as* 

his charity and beneficence, the deserving soldier never 
went unrewarded, and even the needy inferior officer fre* 
quently tasted of his bounty : constant and distinguishing 
in his attachment, manly and unreserved, yet gentle, kind* 
and conciliating in his manners. He enjoyed a large share 
of the friendship, and almost the universal good-will, of 
mankind; and, to crown all, sincerity and candour, a true 
sense of honour, justice, and public liberty, seemed the in- 
herent principles of his nature, and the uniform rule of his 
conduct. He betook himself, when very young, to the 
profession of arms ; and with such talents, joined to the 
most unwearied assiduity, he was soon singled out as a most 
rising military genius. Even so early as the battle of La~ 
feldt, when scarcely twenty, he exerted himself in so mas-s 
terly a manner, at a very critical juncture, that it drew the 
highest encomiums from the great officer then at the head 
of tbe army. During the whole war, he went on,, without 
interruption, .forming his military character ; was present 
at every engagement, and never passed undistinguished. 
Even after the peace, whilst others lolled on pleasure's 
downy lap, he was cultivating the arts of war. He intro- 
duced (without one act of inhumanity) such regularity and 
exactness of discipline into his corps, that, as long as the 
six British battalions on the plains of Minden are recorded 
in the annals of Europe, so long will Kingsley's stand 
amongst the foremost of that day. Of that regiment he 
continued lieutenant-colonel, till Mr. Pitt, afterwards lord 
Chatham, who roused the sleeping genius of his country, 
called him forth into higher spheres of action. He was 
early in the most secret consultations for the attack upon 
Rocbfort : and what he would have done there, and whqt 
he afterwards did at Louisbourg, are recorded in history, 
with due approbation. He was scarcely returned thence, 
when he was appointed to command the important expe- 
dition against Quebec. There his abilities shone out in 
their brightest lustre : in spite of many unforeseen diffi- 
culties, from the nature of the situation, from great supe- 
riority of numbers, the strength of the place itself, and his 
own bad state of health, he persevered with unwearied di- 
ligence, practising eveiy stratagem of war to effect his pur- 
pose. At last, singly, and alone in opinion, he formed and 
executed that great, that dangerous, yet necessary, plan 
which drew out the French to their defeat, and will for 
ever denominate hiin the conqueror of Canada. When, 

&3a WOLFE. 

however, within the grasp of victory, he received a biM 
through his wrist, which immediately wrapping op, he 
went on, with the same alacrity, animating his troops by 
precept and example : but, in a few minutes after, a se-j 
oond ball, through his body, obliged him to be carried off 
to a small distance in tbe rear. There, roused from faint- 
ing,' in the last agonies, by the sound of " They run," h* 4 
eagerly asked, "Who run?" and being told the French* 
and that they were defeated, be said, "then I thank God; 
I die contented;" and almost instantly expired, Sept. 13, 

He was brought to England, and interred at Greenwich 
in the same grave with his father, who was buried on the se- 
cond of April preceding. There is no memorial fof hinot 
at Greenwich, but a cenotaph has been put up to his me- 
mory in Westminster Abbey at the public expence, and 
there is another at Westerbam, the place of his nativity. * 

WOLFE (John), a learned compiler, was born Aug. 10, 
1537, at Bergzabern in the duchy of Deux Pents, and was 
educated in law and philosophy at Strasburgh, Wirtemberg, 
Tubingen, and other celebrated academies, and afterwards 
. was entrusted with the education of some noblemen's sons, 
, with whom he travelled in France, &c. from 1564 to 1567. 
Returning then to Dol, he took the degree of licentiate in 
civil law, and settled in practice at Spire, where two years 
after he was admitted into the number of assessors. In 
1569 he attended Wolfgang, the elector Palatine, who came 
with an army to the assistance of tbe French protestants, 
and his highness dyirig a few months afterwards, Wolfe 
conducted his corpse back to Germany by sea, and it was 
interred at Meisenheim. For this melancholy duty and bis 
ether faithful services he grew in esteem with Philip Lewis 
and John, tbe electors Palatine, who thought him worthy of 
being sent twice on important business to queen Elizabeth of 
England, and once to the king of Poland. In 1573 Charles 
marquis of Baden made him one of his counsellors, and 
in 1575 appointed him governor of Mundlesheim, which 
office he held for twenty years, and received many honours 
and marks of favour from the Baden family. In 1594, 
finding his health exhausted by official fatigues, he retired 
to Hailbrun, where he passed the remainder of his days in 
study, and died of a very short illness, as had always been 
his wish, May 23, .1600, in the sixty-third ^ear of his 

1 Pint edit, of this Diet.— Annual Register— and Gent. Mag. for 1759. 

WOL'P.E. 2H 

age. He wrote " Clavis Historiarum ;" and a larger work 
entitled " Lectiotium memorabilium et reconditarum Ceo* 
turiss XVI." 2 vols, fol. printed first in the year he died, 
but there is an edition of 1671, which is not io much va*' 
lued. Mr. Dibdin has accurately described this curiott* 
work in his " Bibliomania/' to which the reader is re* 
f erred. 1 

WOLFE (John Christopher), a learned scholar, hi* 
therto strangely overlooked by roost foreign biographers, 
was a native of Germany, born in 1683, bat removed in 
his youth to Hamburgh, where he was educated under Fa* 
bricius, and assisted him in his " Bibliotheca Grseca," as 
appears by vol. XIII. of that laborious work. He was a 
Lutheran divine, and preached at Hamburgh, where he 
was also professor of the Oriental languages, and where he' 
died in 1739. Many of his works are known in this couq~ 
try, and have been often quoted with approbation by bib- 
lical scholars and critics. Among them are, 1. " Historia 
Lexicorum Hebraieorum," Witteqa. 1705, 8 vo. 2. "Disseiv 
tatio de Zabiis," ibid. 1706, 4to. 3. " Origenis Philoso* 
phumena recognita et notis illustrata," Hamb. 1706, 8vo. 
4. An edition of Pbs&drus, 1 709. 5, " Dissertatio de Atheisms 
falso suspectis," Wittem. 1710, 4to. 6. " Casauboniana, 
sive Isaaci Casauboni varia de. Scriptoribus, librisque j*- 
dicia," Hamb. 1710, 8vo. 7. " Libanii epiat. adbuc non 
editarum centuria select* Gr. cum versione et notis," 
Leipsic, 1711, 8vo. 8. " Anecdota Grseca sacra et pro- 
fana," Hamb. 1722, &c. 3 vols. 8vo. 9. " Curse philolo* 
fficfiB et critic« in omnes libros N. T," Hamb. 1725 — 1735, 
but the best edition is that of Basil, 1741, 5 vols. 4to, 
This, work, says bishop Watson, has some resemblance, ia 
the manner of its composition, to Pool's " Synopsis/ 9 but 
is written with more judgment, and contains the opinions 
of many expositors who have lived since the publication 
of Pool's work. Wolfe, moreover, has not followed Pool 
in simply relating the sentiments of others, but has fre± 
quently animadverted on them with great critical discern- 
ment. Wolfe published other works, and new editions, all 
which display great learning and critical acumen. His 
brother John Christian, who died in 1770, was the author 
of the " Monumenta typographical Hamburgh, 1740, 8 vo, 
aa edition of the fragments of Sappho, and other works.* 

1 Metcliior Adam.— Freheri Theatrura.— •» Bibliomania. ; 

• Saxii OnOuaa^— Bibl. German, vols. V. and VIII. 


WOLLASTON (William), a learned and ingenious 
writer, was born March 26, 1659, at Colon Clan ford, i» 
Staffordshire, where his father theft resided, a private gen- 
tleman of small fortune, being descended from an ancient 
and considerable family in that county, where the elder 
branch always continued; but the second, in process of 
time, was transplanted into other counties. The head of it 
flourished formerly at Oncot, in the county of Stafford, 
though afterwards at Shenton, in Leicestershire ; and was 
possessed of a large estate lying in those and other coun- 
ties. Qur author was a second son of a third son of a se- 
cond son of a second son, yet notwithstanding this remark- 
able series of younger brothers, his grandfather, who 
stands, in the midst of it, had a considerable estate both 
real and personal, together with an office of 700/. per an- 
num. And from a younger brother of the same branch 
sprang sir John Wollaston, lord-mayor of London, well 
known in that city at the time of the grand rebellion. 

At uine years old, Mr, Wollaston was sent to a master, 
who had opened a Latin school, at Shenstone in Stafford- 
shire, where his father then resided. Here he continued 
pear two years, and then removed to Lichfield ; but had 
not been long at this school, when the magistrates of the 
city, in consequence of some dispute, turned the master 
out of the school-house. Mr. Wollaston, however, with 
many of the scholars, followed the ejected master, and re* 
mained with him till he quitted school, which was about 
three years, after which, the schism being ended, he re- 
turned into the free-school, and continued there about a 
year. The rudeness of a great school was particularly dis- 
agreeable to his natural disposition ; and what was stilt 
worse, he began now to be much troubled with the bead* 
ach, which seems to have been constitutional in him ; yet 
bis uncommon attention to his book, and eagerness to im- 
prove, had now rendered him fit for the university. Ac* 
cordingly he was sent to Cambridge,, and admitted a pen- 
sioner at Sidney-college, June 18 r 1674, in the sixteenth 
year of his age. Here he laboured under some discourage- 
ments. He was come up a country l^d from a country* 
school ; had no acquaintance in his college, nor even in 
the university; few books or materials to work with; his 
allowance being by no means more than sufficient for bare 
necessaries ; neither had he sufficient confidence to supply 
that defect by applying to others. Add to this that hi$ 


state of health was not quite firm. However, under ail 
these disadvantages, he acquired much reputation, and 
having taken his degree of fi. A. at the regular time, he 
offered himself a candidate for a fellowship in his college, 
but missed of that preferment. In July 1681 he com- 
menced M. A. and about this time seems to have entered 
into deacon's orders. 

On Michaelmas-day following, be left the university, and 
having made a visit to the then head of this branch of the 
family, his cousin Wollaston of Shenton in Leicestershire, 
be went to pay his duty to his father and mother at Blox- 
wyche, where they then lived, and remained with them till 
May or June 1 682. But seeing no prospect of preferment, 
be so far conformed himself to the circumstances of his 
family, as about this time to become assistant at Birming- 
ham school to the head master, who readily embraced' the 
opportunity of such a coadjutor, and considered Mr. Wollas- 
ton as one who had prudentially stooped to an employment 
beyond what he might reasonably have pretended to. This 
instance, however, of his humble industry was far from 
being displeasing to 'his cousin of Shenton, who had a great 
esteem for the head master, and in a short time, he got a 
small lecture at the distance of about two miles from Bir- 
mingham ; but as he performed there the whole Sunday's 
duty, that fatigue, added to the business of a great free- 
school for about four years, began to break bis constitution. 
But the old master being now turned out, in order to make 
way for a particular person to succeed him, our author was 
chosen second master only, under a pretence that he was 
too young to be at the head of so great a school, but some of 
the governors themselves owned that he was not well used 
in this affair. 

However that may be, it is certain upon this occasion 
he took priest's orders in pursuance to the charter of that 
school, which being interpreted likewise so as to oblige 
the masters to take no church-preferment, he resigned his 
lecture. This happened in 1686, and was a considerable 
relief to him, while his new post was worth about 70/. per 
annum, which afforded him a tolerable subsistence. In the 
mean time the late chief master after his expulsion retired 
to his brother's house, which lying in the neighbourhood 
of Shenton, he once or twice waited upon Mr. Wollaston, 
of Shenton, and undoubtedly informed him of the charac- 
ter, learning, conversation, and conduct of our author, 

Vol. XXXII. R 


which be was very capable of doing, because they lived 
together, till the time of this old gentleman's leaving Bir- 
mingham. Mr. Wollaston, of Sbenton, having now lately 
lost his only son, and never intending (as appears from his 
whole conduct) to give his estate to bis daughters, pursued 
his father's design of continuing it in the male line of bis 
family, and resolved to settle it upon our author's uncle 
and father, his own first cousins, and his nearest male-re- 
lations, in the same proportions and manner exactly as it 
had been entailed on them by his father. And accordingly 
he made such a settlement, subject however to a revo- 

Our author all this while applied himself to his business ; 
and never waited upon bis cousin, or employed any one to 
. speak or act in his behalf (though many then blamed him 
for neglecting to do it) ; only one visit be made him in the 
November before his death, which was upon a Saturday in 
the afternoon. He gave him a sermon the next day, re- 
ceived his hearty thanks, aijd the next morning desired 
leave to return to the duties of bis station ; without speak- 
ing or even insinuating any thing respecting his estate. 
His cousin dismissed him with great kindness ; and by his 
looks and manner seemed to have a particular regard for 
him, but discovered nothing of his intention by words. 
However, he used to employ persons privately to observe 
our author's behaviour (who little suspected any such mat- 
ter), and his behaviour was found to be such, that the 
stricter the observations were upon it, the more they turned 
to his advantage. In fine, Mr. Wollaston, of Shenton, be* 
came so thoroughly satisfied of our author's- merit, that be 
revoked the above-mentioned settlement, and made a will 
in his favour. In August following, that gentleman fell 
sick, and sending secretly to our author to come over to 
him, as of his own accord, without any notice of his illness, 
he complied with the message, and staid some days at 
Shenton. But while he was gone home, under a promise 
of returning, his cousin died, August 19, 1688. 

By bis relation's will, Mr. Wollaston found himself in« 
titled to a very ample estate ; but this change, sudd/en, and 
advantageous as it was to his affairs, wrought no change in 
his temper. The same firmness o( mind, which had sup- 
ported him under the pressure of a more adverse fortune, 
enabled, him to bear bis prosperity with moderation. In 
November following he came to London, and about a year 

W O L L A S T O N. 243 

after, on the 26th of that month, 1689, he married miss 
Catherine Charlton, daughter of Mr. Nicholas Charlton, 
an eminent citizen of London, a fine woman with a good 
fortune, and an excellent character. With "this lady he 
settled in Charter-house square, in a private, retired, and 
studious life. His carriage was nevertheless free and open. 
He aimed at solid and real content, rather than show and 
grandeur, and manifested his dislike of power and dignity, 
by refusing one of the highest preferments in the church, 
when it was offejfed to him. 

He had now books and leisure, and he was resolved to 
make use of them. He was perfectly acquainted with the 
elementary parts of learning, and with the learned lan- 
guages, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, &c. He thought 
it necessary to ajld to these such a degree of philology and 
criticism as seemed likely to be useful to him : and also 
mathematical sciences, or at least the fundamentals of 
them ; the general philosophy of nature : the history and 
antiquities of the more known and noted states and king- 
doms ; and in order to attain the knowledge of true reli- 
gion, and the discovery of truth, the points which he al- 
ways had particularly in view, and to which he chiefly di- 
rected all bis studies, he diligently inquired into the ido- 
latries of the heathens ; and made himself master of the 
sentiments, rites, and learning of the Jews ; the history of 
the first settlement of Christianity, and the»opinions and 
practice introduced into it since. In the mean time he 
exercised and improved his mind by using himself to clear 
images, observing the influence and extent of axioms, the 
nature and force of consequence's, and the method of in- 
vestigating truth. In general, he accustomed himself to 
much thinking as well as much reading. He likewise de- 
lighted in method and regularity : and chose to have his 
labours and refreshments periodical, and that his family and 
friends should observe the proper seasons of their revolu- 
tion. He was most remarkably cheerful and lively in con- 
versation, which rendered his company agreeable, and him*- 
self worthy to be courted by the learned and virtuous. But 
a general acquaintance was what he never cultivated, and 
it grew (as is mostly the case) more and more his aversion, 
so that he passed his days principally at home, with a few 
friends, with whom he could enjoy an agreeable relaxation 
of mind, and receive all the advantages of a sincere and 
epen friendship. 

244 W O L L A S T O N. 

Having thus fixed bis resolution to deserve honours, but 
not to wear them, it was not long before he published a 
piece entitled, " Th6 Design of Part of the Book of Eccle- 
siastes, or the Unreasonableness of Man's restless Conten- 
tions for the present Enjoyments, represented in an Eng- 
lish poem," in 8vo. But as he had never made poetry his 
study, he was very sensible of the defects of this attempt, 
and was afterward very desirous to suppress it. This poem 
was printed in 1690. Notwithstanding be declined to ac- 
cept of any public employment, yet his studies were de- 
signed to be of public use, and his solitude was far from 
being employed in vain and trifling amusements, termina- 
ting in himself alone. But neither in this last view, could 
his retirement be without some inconveniences. His inti- 
mates were dropping off, and their places remained unsup- 
plied; his own infirmities were increasing; the frequent 
remission of study, growing more and more necessary ; and 
his solitude at the same time becoming less and less agree- 
able, for want of that conversation which had hithertp sup- 
ported it. 

It was but a short time before his death that he pub- 
lished his celebrated treatise, entitled " The Religion of 
Nature delineated." He appears at first to have doubted 
the success of this work, and in 1722 printed only a few 
copies for the use of bis friends, but when prevailed upon 
to publish it, it was so much approved that upwards of 
10,000 copies were sold in a few years; and it has in all 
passed through eight or nine editions, five of which were 
in quarto. 

Of the ingenuity, of this work as a composition no doubts 
have been entertained, but its tendency was soon thought 
liable to suspicion. Some objected that he had injured 
Christianity by laying too much stress upon the obligations 
of truth, reason, and virtue ; and by making no mention 
of revealed religion, nor even so much as dropping the 
least and most distant hints in its favour. This made him 
pass for an unbeliever with some ; and the late lord Bo- 
lingbroke supposes Dr. Clarke to have had him iti his eye 
when he described his fourth sort of theists. Wollaston 
held and has asserted the being and attributes of God, na- 
tural and moral ; a providence, general and particular; the 
obligations to morality ; the immateriality and immortality 
of the soul ; a future state : and Clarke's fourth sort of 
theists held and asserted the same. But whether Wollaston, 


like those theists, rejected all above this in the system of 
revelation, cannot with any certainty be concluded, though 
at the same time the contrary perhaps may not appear ; 
because, whatever might have been thought necessary to 
prevent offence from being taken, it was not essential to 
Wollaston's design to meddle with revealed religion. In 
the mean time, lord Bolingbroke has treated " The Reli- 
gion of Nature delineated, 9 ' as a system of theism ; which 
it certainly is, whether Wollaston was a believer or not. 
His lordship calls it " strange theism, as dogmatical and 
absurd as artificial theology," and has spent several pages 
to prove it so ; yet allows the author of it to have been " a 
man of parts, of learning, a philosopher, and a geometri- 
cian." The seventh edition of this work was printed in 
1750 in 8vo, to which are added an account of the author, 
and also a translation of the notes into English. There is 
prefixed an advertisement by Dr. John Clarke, late dean of 
Salisbury, which informs us, that this work was in great 
esteem with her late majesty queen Caroline, who com- 
manded him to translate the notes into English for her own 
use. Pope, who has taken some thoughts from it into his 
" Essay on Man," informs Mr. Bethel in one of bis letters 
how much this work was a favourite with the ladies, but 
accompanies his information with a sneer at the sex, which 
we dare not transcribe. 

Immediately after he had completed the revisal and pub- 
lication of his " Religion of Nature delineated," Mr. Wol- 
laston had the misfortune to break his arm ; and as his 
health was before in a very infirm state, this accident ac- 
celerated his death, which happened Oct. 29, 1724. He 
was interred in Great Finborough church, Suffolk, in the 
same grave with his wife, who died in 1720. 

He had begun seVeral other works, but they being in an 
unfinished state, he had burnt, or ordered them to be 
burnt, some time before his death. The following, how- 
ever, happened to be spared; but from the place in which 
they were deposited, and from some other circumstances, 
it is probable that they owed their escape to mere forget- 
ful ness. They were in number thirteen (besides about 
fourscore sermons) viz. 1. "An Hebrew Grammar." 2. 
a Tyrocinia Arabica & Syriaca." 3. " Specimen Voca- 
bularii Biblico-Hebraici, Uteris nostratibus, quantum fert 
Linguarum dissonantia, descripti." 4. " Formulas quae- 
dam Gemarinae." 5. " De variis generibus" pedum, me- 


trorum, earminum, &c. apad Judaeos, Graecos, & Latinos/* 
6. " De Vocum Tonis Monitio ad Ty rones." 7. " Rudi- 
roenta ad Mathesin & Philosophiam spectantia." S. " Mis- 
cellanea Philologica." 9. Opinions of the ancient Philo- 
sophers. 10. " Judaica: sive Religionis & Literature Ju- 
daicse synopsis." 11. A collection of some antiquities and 
particulars in the history of mankind; tending to shew, 
that men have not been here upon this earth from eternity, 
&c. 12. Some passages relating to the history of Christ, 
collected out of the primitive fathers. 13. A treatise re- 
lating to the Jews, of their antiquities, language, &c. 
What renders it the more probable, or indeed almost be- 
yond doubt, that he would have destroyed these likewise, 
if he had remembered them, is, that several of those which 
remain undestroyed, are only rudiments or rougher sketches 
of what he afterwards reconsidered and carried on much 
farther; and which even after such revisal, he neverthe- 
less committed to the flames, as being still (in his opinion) 
short of that perfection, to which he desired and bad in- 
tended to bring them, and accordingly none of them have 
appeared. 1 

WOLSEY (Thomas), a celebrated cardinal and states- 
man, but to be remembered with more respect as a bene- 
factor to learning, was so obscure in his origin that scarcely 
any historian mentions the names of his father and mother. 
Their names, however, are preserved by Rymer (Feed. vol. 
XIV. p. 355), in the pope's bull of favours to those who 
came to Cardinal college in Oxford, and prayed for the 
safety of the said cardinal, and after his decease for the 
souls of him, his father Robert, and bis mother Joan. This 
partly confirms the discovery of his zealous biographer, Dr. 
Fiddes, that he was the son of one Robert Wolsey, a but- 
cher of Ipswich, where he was born in March 1471. Fiddes 
says that this Robert had a son whose early history corre- 
sponds with that of the cardinal, and that he was a man of 
considerable landed property. We may from other evi- 
dence conclude that his parents were either not poor, or 
not friendless, since they were able to give him the best 
education his native town afforded, and afterwards to send 
him to Magdalen college. But in whatever way he was in- 
troduced here, it is certain that his progress in academical 

1 Life prefixed to tbe Religion of Nature, many particulars of which are take* 
from a narrative drawn up by himself, and printed for the first time in Mr. Ni- 
ahols , a " Illustrations of Literature," vol. L— J*iog. Brit. 

WOLSEY. 247 

studies was so rapid that he was admitted to the degree of 
bachelor of arts at the age of fifteen, and from this ex- 
traordinary instance of precocity, was usually named the 
boy bachelor. 

No proofs are indeed wanting of 'his uncommon reputa- 
tion as a scholar, for he was elected fellow of his college 
toon after taking his bachelor's degree, and proceeding to 
that of master, he was appointed teacher of Magdalen 
grammar school. In 1498, he was made bursar of the 
college, about which time be has the credit of building 
Magdalen tower. It is yet more in proof of his learning 
having been of the most liberal kind, and accompanied 
with a corresponding liberality of sentiment, that he be- 
came acquainted with Erasmus, then it Oxford, and joined 
that illustrious scholar in promoting classical studies, which 
were peculiarly obnoxious to the bigotry of the times. The 
letters whiph passed between Wolsey arid Erasmus for some 
years imply mutual respect and union of sentiment on all 
matters in which literature was concerned ; and their love 
of learning, and contempt for the monks, although this last 
was excited by different motives, are points in which we 
perceive no great disagreement. Yet as Erasmus conti- 
nued to live the life of a mere scholar, precarious and de- 
pendent, and Wolsey was rapidly advancing to rank and 
honours, too many and too high for a subject, a distance 
was placed between them which Wolsey would not shorten, 
and Erasmus could not pass. Hence, while a courteous 
familiarity was preserved in Wolsey* s correspondence, Eras- 
nrus could not' help betraying the feelings of a client who 
has received little more than promises from his patron, and 
when Wolsey fell from his high state, Erasmus joined in 
the opinion that he was unworthy of it. For this he is se- 
verely censured by Fiddes, and ably defended by Knight 
and Jortin. 

Wolsey's first ecclesiastical preferment was the rectory 
of Lymington in Somersetshire, conferred upon him in 
1500, by the marquis of Dorset, to whose three sons he 
had acted as tutor, when in Magdalen college. On receiv- 
ing this presentation he left the university, and resided for 
some time on his cure, when a singular circumstance in- 
duced, or perhaps rendered it absolutely necessary for him 
to leave it. At a merry meeting at Lymington he either 
passed the bounds of sobriety, or was otherwise accessary 
in promoting a riot, for which sir Amyas Paulet, a justice 


of peace, set him in the stocks. This indignity Wolsey 
remembered when it would have been honourable as well 
as prudent to have forgot it. After he had arrived at the 
high rank of chancellor, he ordered sir A my as to be con* 
fined withi/i the bounds of the Temple, and kept him in 
that place for five or six years. 

On his quitting Lymington, though without resigning 
the living, Henry Dean, archbishop of Canterbury, made 
bim ope of his domestic chaplains, and in 1503, the pope, 
Alexander, gave him a dispensation to bold two benefices. 
On the death of the archbishop, in the same year, he was 
appointed chaplain to sir John Nan fan of Worcestershire, 
treasurer of Calais, which was then in the possession of the 
English, and by him recommended to Henry VII. who 
made him one of his chaplains. About the end of 1504, 
he obtained from pope Julius II. a dispensation to hold a 
third living, the rectory of Redgrave in Norfolk. In the 
mean time he was improving bis interest at court by an 
affable and plausible address, and by a display of political 
talent, and quick and judicious dispatch in business, which 
rendered him very useful and acceptable to his sovereign, 
In February 1508, the king gave him the deanery of Lin* 
coin, and two prebends in the same church, and would 
probably have added to these preferments had be not been 
prevented by his death in the following year. 

This event, important as it was to the kingdom, was of 
no disadvantage to Wolsey, who saw in the young king, 
Henry VlII. a disposition that might be rendered mpre fa- 
vourable to bis lofty views ; yet what bis talents might have 
afterwards procured, he owed at this time to a court in- 
trigue. Fox, bishop of Winchester and founder of Cor- 
pus Christi college, introduced bim to Henry, in order to 
counteract the influence of the earl of Surrey (afterwards 
duke of Norfolk), and bad probably no worse intention 
than to preserve a balance in the council; but Wolsey, 
who was not destined to play a subordinate part, soon rose 
higher in influence than either his patron or bis opponent. 
He studied, with perfect knowledge of the human heart, to 
please the young king, fyy joining in indulgencies which, 
however suitable to the gaiety of a court, were i)l becoming 
the character of an ecclesiastic. Yet amidst the luxuries 
which he promoted in bis royal master, he did not neglect 
to inculcate maxims of state, and, above all, to insinuate, in 
9 manner that appeared equally dutiful and disinterested, 

W O L S E Y. 249 

the advantages of a system of favouritism, which he se- 
cretly hoped would one day center in his own person. Nor 
was he disappointed, as for some time after this, his bis* 
tory, apart from what share he had in the public councils, 
is little more than a list of promotions following each other 
with a rapidity that alarmed the courtiers, and inclined the 
people, always jealous of sudden elevations, to look back 
on his origin. 

In this rise, he was successively made almoner to the 
king, a privy counsellor, and reporter of the proceedings 
of the Star-chamber; rector of Turrington in the diocese 
of Exeter, canon of Windsor, registrar of the order of the 
garter, and prebendary and dean of York. From these he 
passed on to become dean of Hereford, and precentor of 
St Paul's, both of which he resigned on being preferred 
to the bishopric of Lincoln ; chancellor <of the order of the 
garter, and bishop of Tournay in Flanders, which he held 
until 1518, when that city was delivered up to the French, 
but he derived from it afterwards an annual pension of 
twelve thousand livres*. In 1514, he was consecrated 
bishop of Lincoln, in the room of Smyth, founder of Bra- 
sen-nose college, and was chosen chancellor of the univer- 
sity of Cambridge. The same year be was promoted to 
the archbishopric of York* and created cardinal of St. Ce- 

Yet in the plenitude of that political influence which be 
now maintained to the exclusion of the ancient nobility and 
courtiers, it appears that for some time he preserved the 
peace of the country, by a strict administration of justice, 
and by a punctuality in matters of finance, which admitted 
no very unfavourable comparisons between him and his 
predecessors. Perhaps the splendour and festivities which 
be encouraged in the court might, by a diffusion of the 
royal wealth among the public, contribute tb a certain de- 
gree of . popularity, especially when contrasted with the 
more economical habits encouraged by Henry VII. It was 
not until he established his legantine court, a species' of 
English popedom, that the people had reason to complain 
•of a vast and rapacious power, unknown to the constitution, 
boundless in its capricious decrees, and against which there 
was no redress. This court, however, could not have in- 

* Br, Fiddes allows that this piece been neither legally nor ecclesiastically 
of preferment partook of usurpation, deprived. 
as the former bishop of Tournay had 

250 WOLSE Y. 

flicted many public injuries/ as it formed no part of tfce 
complaints of parliament against him, when complaints 
might have been preferred with safety, and would have 
been welcomed from any quarter. At that time, the le- 
gality- of the power was called in question, but not the 
exercise of it. 

In the private conduct of this extraordinary man, while 
in the height of his prosperity, we find a singular mixture 
of personal pride and public munificence. While bis train 
of servants rivalled that of the king, and was composed of 
many persons of rank and distinction, his house was a 
school where their sons were usefully educated, and ini- 
tiated in public life. And while he was dazzling the eyes, 
or insulting the feelings of the people by an ostentation of 
gorgeous furniture and equipage, such as exceeded the 
royal establishment itself, he was a general and liberal pa- 
tron of literature, a man of consummate taste in works of 
art, elegant in his plans, and boundless in his expences to 
execute them ; and, in the midst of luxurious pleasures and 
pompous revellings, he was meditating the advancement of 
science by a munificent use of those riches which he seemed 
to accumulate only for selfish purposes. 

In the mean time, there was no intermission in his pre- 
ferments. His influence was courted by the pope, who bad 
made him a cardinal, and, in 1516, his legate in England, 
with powers not inferior to his own; and by the king of 
Spain, who granted him a pension of three thousand livres, 
while the duchy of Milan bestowed on him a yearly grant 
of ten thousand ducats. On the resignation of archbishop 
Warham, he was appointed lord high chancellor. " If this 
new accumulation of dignity," says Home, " increased his 
enemies, it also served to exalt his personal character, and 
prove the extent of his capacity. A strict administration 
of justice took place during bis enjoyment of this high 
office ; • and no chancellor ever discovered greater impar- 
tiality in bis decisions, deeper penetration of judgment, or 
more enlarged knowledge of law or equity ." 

In 1518, he attended queen Catherine to Oxford, and 
intimated to the university his intention of founding lec- 
tures on theology, civil law, physic, philosophy, mathema- 
tics, rhetoric, Greek, and Latin ; and in the following year 
three of these, viz. for Greek, Latin, and rhetoric, were 
founded and endowed with ample salaries, and read in the 
hall of Corpus Chtisti college. He- appointed fpr his lee- 

W O L S E Y. 251 


tures the ablest scholars whom the. university afforded, or 
whom he could invite from the continent The members 
of the convocation, about, this time, conferred upon him 
the highest mark of their esteem by a solemn decree that 
he should have the revisal and correction of tfre Oniversity 
statutes in the most extensive sense, and it does not ap- 
pear that they had any reason to repent of this extraordi- 
nary instance of their confidence. The same power was 
conferred upon him by the university of Cambridge, and 
in both cases, was accompanied by documents which proved 
the very high opinion entertained by these learned bodies 
of his fitness to reform what was amiss in the republic of 

In the same year the pope granted him the administra- 
tion of the bishopric of Bath and Wells, and the king be- 
stowed on him its temporalities. This see, with those of 
Worcester and Hereford, which the cardinal, likewise 
farmed, were filled by foreigners who were allowed non- 
residence, and compounded for this indulgence by yield- 
ing a share of the revenues. The cardinal's aid, about 
this time, in establishing the College of Physicians of Lon- 
don, is to be recorded among the many instances of the 
very liberal views he entertained of every improvement 
connected with literature. In 1521, he evinced his zeal 
against the reformation which Luther had begun, by pro- 
curing bis doctrines to be condemned in an assembly of 
divines held at his own house, published pope Leo's bull 
against him, and endeavoured to suppress his writings in 
this kingdom ; but there is no favourable part of his cha- 
racter so fully established as his moderation towards the 
English Lutherans, for one article of bis impeachment was 
his being remiss in punishing heretics, and showing a dis- 
position rather to screen them. 

In the same year, he received the rich abbey of St. AI- 
ban's to hold in commendam, and soon after went abroad 
on an embassy. About this time also, he became a candi- 
date for the papal chair, on the demise of Leo X. but wat 
not successful. This disappointment, however, was com- 
pensated in some degree by the emperor, who settled a 
pension on him of nine thousand crowns of gold, and by 
the bishopric of Durham, to which he was appointed in 
1523. On this he resigned the administration of Bath and 
Wells. The same year he issued a mandate to remove 
the convocation of the province of Canterbury from St* 

2*2 W O L S E Y. 

Paul's to Westminster, one of bis most unpopular acts, but 
which appears to have been speedily reversed. On the 
■death of pope Adrian he made a second unsucdessful at- 
tempt to be elected pope; but while he failed in this, he 
received from his rival a confirmation of the whole papal 
authority in England. 

In 1524, he intimated to the university of Oxford his 
design of founding a college there, and soon commenced 
that great work. About two years after he founded his 
school*, or college, as it has been sometimes called, at 
Ipswich, as a nursery for his intended college at Oxford, 
and this for, a short time is said to have rivalled the schools 
of Winchester and Eton. As he mixed ecclesiastical dig- 
nity with all his learned institutions, he appointed here a 
dean, twelve canons, and a numerous choir. At the same 
time he sent a circular address to the schoolmasters of Eng- 
land, recommending them to teach their youth the elernents 
of elegant literature, literatura eleganlissirjta, and prescribed 
the use of Lily's grammar. 

Of the immense riches which he derived from his vari- 
ous preferments, some were no doubt spent in luxuries 
which left only a sorrowful remembrance, but the greater 
part was employed in those magnificent edifices which 
have immortalized his genius and spirit. In 1514 he be- 
gan to build the palace at Hampton Court, and having 
finished it, with all its sumptuous furniture, in 1528, he 
presented it to the king, who in return gave him the pa- 
lace of Richmond for a residence. In this last mentioned 
year,* he acceded to the bishopric of Winchester by the 
death of Fox, and resigned that of Durham. To Winches- 
ter, however, he never went. That reverse of fortune 
which has exhibited him as an example of terror to the 
ambitious, was now approaching, and was accelerated by 
•events, the consequences of which he foresaw, without the 
power of averting them. Henry, was now agitated by a 
passion not to be controuled by the whispers of friendship, 
pr the counsels of statesmen, and when the cardinal, whom 
he had appointed to forward his divorce from queen Ca- 
therine and his marriage with Anne Boleyn, appeared tar- 

dily to adhere to forms, or scrupulously to interpose ad* 


* On the site of the priory of St. for this school was discontinued on 

Peter's, which was surrendered to the the cardinal's fall. The foundation 

cardinal, March 6, 1537. Dr. Wil- stone is now preserved in Christ 

liana Capon was first and last dean, Church. 

W O L S E Y. 253 

vice, he determined to make him feel the weight of his 
resentment. It happened unfortunately for the cardinal 
that both the queen and her. rival were his enemies, the 
queen from a suspicion that she never had a cordial friend 
in him, and Anne from a knowledge that be had secretly 
endeavoured to prevent her match with the king. But a 
initiate detail of these transactions and intrigues belongs 
to history, in which they occupy a large space. It may 
suffice here to notice that the cardinal's ruin, when once 
determined, was effected in the most sudden and rigorous 
manner, and probably without his previous knowledge of 
the violent measures that were to be taken. 

On the first day of term, Oct. 9, 1529, while he was 
opening the Court of Chancery at Westminster, the at- 
torney-general indicted him in the Court of King's Bench, 
on the statute of provisors, 16 Richard II. for procuring a 
bull from Rome appointing him legate, contrary to the 
statute, by which he had incurred a pramunire> and for- 
feited all his goods to the king, and might' be imprisoned. 
Before be could give in any reply to this indictment, the 
king sent to demand the great seal from him, which w£s 
given to sir Thomas More. He was then ordered to leave 
York-place, a palace which had for some centuries been 
the residence of the archbishops of York, and which he 
had adorned with furniture of great value and magnifi- 
cence : it now became a royal residence under the name 
of Whitehall. Before leaving this place to go to Esher, 
near Hampton Court, .a seat belonging to the bishopric of 
Winchester, he made an inventory of the furniture, plate, 
&c. of York-place, which is said to have amounted to the 
incredible sum of five hundred thousand crowns, or pounds 
of our money. He then went to Putney by water, and 
set out on the rest of his journey on his mule, but he had 
not gone far before he was met by a messenger from the 
king, with a gracious message, assuring him that he stood 
as high as ever in the royal favour, and this accompanied 
by a ring, which the king had been accustomed to send, as 
a token to give credit to the bearer. Wolsey received these 
testimonials with the humblest expression of gratitude, but 
proceeded on his way to Esher, which he found quite un- 
furnished. The king's design by this solemn mockery is 
not easily conjectured. It is most probable that it was a 
trick to inspire the cardinal with hopes of being restored 
to favour, and consequently to prevent his defending him* 

25* W O L S EY. 

self in the prosecution upon the statute of provisors, which 
Henry knew he could da hy producing his letters patent 
authorising him to accept the pope's bulls. And this cer- 
tainly was the consequence, for the Cardinal merely in- 
structed his attorney to protest in his name that he was 
quite ignorant of the above statute ; but that he acknow- 
ledged other particulars with which be was charged to be 
true, and submitted himself to the king's mercy. The sen- 
tence of the court was, that "he was out of the protection, 
and his lands, goods, and chattels forfeit, and his person 
might be'&eized." 

The next step to complete his ruin was taken by the 
duke of Norfolk and the privy counsellors, who drew up 
articles against him, and presented them to the king; but 
he stilt affecting to take no personal concern in the matter, 
remained silent. Yet these probably formed the basis of 
the forty r four articles presented December I, to the House 
of Lords, as by some asserted, or, according to other ac- 
counts, by the lords of the council to the House of Com- 
mons. Many of them are evidently frivolous or false, and 
others, although true, were not within the jurisdiction of 
the House.. The cardinal had, in fact, already suffered, as 
' his goods had been seized by the king ; he was now in a 
pramunirc, and the House could not go much farther than 
to recommend what had already taken place. The car- 
dinal, however, fouhd one friend amidst all his distresses, 
who was not to be alarmed either at the terrors of the 
court or of the people. This was Thomas Cromwell, for- 
merly Wolsey's steward (afterwards earl of Essex), who 
now refuted the articles with so much spirit, eloquence, 
and argument, that although a very opposite effect might 
have been expected, his speech is supposed to have laid 
the foundation of that favour which the king afterwards 
extended to him, but which, at no very distant period, 
proved as fatal to him as it had been to his master. His 
eloquence had a yet more powerful effect, for the address 
founded on these articles was rejected by the Commons, 
and the Lords could not proceed farther without their con- 

During the cardinal's residence at Esher the king sent 
several messages to him/ " some good and some bad," 
says Cavendish, " but more ill than good," until this tan- 
talizing correspondence, operating on a mind of strong 
passions, brought on, about the end of the year, a sickness 

WOLSEV, 255 

which w&s represented to the king as being apparently 
fatal. The king ordered his physician, Dr. Butts, to visit 
him, who confirmed what had been reported of the dan* 
gerous state of his health, but intiihated that as his disease 
affected his mind rather than his body, a kind word from 
his majesty might prove more effectual than the best skill 
of the faculty. On this the king sent him a ring, with a 
gracious message that be was not offended with him in his 
heart ; and Anne Boleyn sent him a tablet of gold that . 
usually hung at her side, with many kind expressions* 
The cardinal received these testimonies of returning favour 
with joy and gratitude, and in a few d?y& was pronounced 
out of danger. 

Nor can we blame Wolsey for his credulity, since Hen- 
ry, although he had stripped the cardinal of all his pro- 
perty, and the income arising from all his preferments, 
actually granted him, Feb. 12, 1530, a free pardon for all 
crimes and misdemeanors, and a few days after restored to 
him the revenues, &c. of the archbishopric of York, ex- 
cept York place, before- mentioned, and one thousand 
marks yearly from the bishopric of Winchester. He also 
sent him a present of 3000/. in money, and a quantity of 
plate and furniture exceeding that sum, and allowed him 
to remove from Esher to Richmond, where he resided for 
some time in the lodge in the old park, and afterwards in 
the priory. His enemies at court, however, who appear 
to have influenced the king beyond his usual arbitrary dis- 
position, dreaded Wolsey *s being so near his majesty, and 
prevailed on him to order him to reside in his archbishop- 
ric. Jn obedience to this mandate, which was softened by 
another gracious message from Henry, he first went to the 
archbishop's seat at Southwell, and about the end of Sep- 
tember fixed his residence at Cawood castle, which he 
began to repair, and was acquiring popularity by his hos- 
pitable manners and bounty, when his capricious master was 
persuaded to arrest him for high treason, and order him to 
be conducted to London. Accordingly, on the first of 
November he set out, but on the road he was seized with 
a disorder of the dysenteric kind, brought on by fatigue 
and anxiety, which put a period to bis life at Leicester 
abbey on the 28th of that montl}, in the fifty-ninth year 
of his age *. Some of his last words implied the awful and 

• The cardinal bad a bastard son Pont. Rom. dilecti filio Thoroae Wulcy 
•ailed Thomas Winter* " Bulla J alii Rectori parocb. Eccl'iw de Lymyngtoa 

256 W L S E Y. 

just reflection, that if be had served his God as diligently 
as be had served his Jcing, he would not have given him 
over to his enemies. Two days after he was interred in 
the abbey church of Leicester, but the spot is not now 
known. As to the report of his having poisoned himself, 
founded on an expression in the printed work of Cavendish, 
it has been amply refuted by a late eminent antiquary, who 
examined the whole of the evidence with much acuteness*. 
Modern historians have formed a more favourable esti- 
mate of Wolsey's character than their predecessors, yet it 
bad that mixture of good and evil which admits of great 
variety of opinion, and gives to ingenious party-colouring 
all the appearance of truth. Perhaps Shakspeare, borrow- 
ing from Holinshed and Hall, has drawn a more just and 
comprehensive sketch of his perfections and failings than is 
to be found in any other writer. 

' « This cardinal, 

Though from an humble stock, undoubtedly 

Was fashioned to much honour. From his cradle 

He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one ; 

Exceeding wise, fair spoken, and persuading -, 

Lofty and sour to them that lov'd him not j 

But to those men that sought him, sweet as summer. 

And though he was unsatisfy'd in getting, 

(Which was a sin) yet in bestowing, madam, ' 

He was most princely : Ever witness for him 

Those twins of learning that he raised in you, 

Ipswich and Oxford ! one of which fell with him, 

Unwilling to Outlive the good that did it ; 

The other, though unfinished, yet so famous, 

So excellent in art, and still so rising, 

That Christendom shall ever speak his virtue. 

His overthrow heap'd happiness upon him ; 

For then, and not till then, he felt himself, 

And found the blessedness of being little : 

And, to add greater honours to his age 

Than man could give him, he died, fearing God 1 ." 

The cardinal's biographers, in treating of the founda- 
tion of his college, begin with a very laboured defence of 
his seizing the property and revenues of many priories and 
nunneries, which were to serve as a fund for building and 

* » 

Batho. Well. dioc. M agist rum in Ar * The learned Dr. Samuel Pegge. * 

tibui pro Dispensatione ad tcfrtium in? See' Gent Mag. vol. XXV. p. 25, and - 

compatible, dat. Rome. 1508. pud, two very able articles on the cardinal's 

cat. Aogusti Pont, n'ri anno quinto." impeachment, p. 299, 345. 

—Rennet's MSS, in Brit. Mu*. oblig- f The speech af the " honeat chro- 

ingly commuuicated by Mr. Ellis. nicler, Griffith," to queen Katherine. 

Henry VIII. Act IV. Scene H. 

W O L S E Y. 257 

endowment; and the zeal they display on this subject, if 
it cannot now enforce conviction, at least proves the histo- 
rical fact that the rights of property even at that time were 
not to be violated with impunity $ and that the cardinal's 
conduct was highly unpopular* At first it was objected 
to even by the king himself/ although he soon afterwards 
converted it into a precedent for a more general dissolu- 
tion of religious bouses. Wolsey* however* ought not to 
be deprived of such defence as has been set up. It has 
been urged, that he. procured bulls from the pope em- 
powering him to seize on these priories; and that the 
pope, according to the notions then entertained of his su* 
premacy, could grant a power by which religious houses 
might be converted into societies for secular priests, and 
for the advancement of learning. It has been also pleaded* 
that the cardinal did not alienate the revenues from reli- 
gious service, but only made a change in the application 
of them ; that the appropriation of the alien priories by 
Chichele and Waynftete was in some respects a precedent, 
and that the suppression of the Ternplers in the fourteenth 
century, might also be quoted. Bishop Tanner likewise, 
in one of his letters to Dr. Charlett, quotes as precedents, 
bishops Fisher, Alcdck, and Beckington. But perhaps the 
best excuse is that hinted by lord Cherbury, namely, that 
Wolsey persuaded the king to abolish unnecessary mo- 
nasteries that necessary colleges might be erected, and 
the progress of the reformation impeded by the learning 
of the clergy and scholars educated in them. The same 
writer suggests, that as .Wolsey pleaded for the dissolution 
of only the small and superfluous houses, the king might 
not dislike this as a fair experiment how far the project of 
a general dissolution would be relished. On the other 
hand, by two -letters still extant, written by the king, it 
^ appears that be was fully aware of the unpopularity of the 
measure, although we cannot infer from them that he had 
any remedy to prescribe. 

Whatever weight these apologies had with one part of . 
the public, we are assured that they had very little with 
another, and that the progress of the college was accom- 
panied by frequent expressions of popular dislike in the 
shape of lampoons. The kitchen having been first finished, 
one of the satirists of the day exclaimed, Egregium opus I 
Cardindis iste instituit Collegium et absolvit popinam. Other 


25S W O L S £ Y. 

mock inscriptions wfcre placed on the wails, one of whirl* 
at least, proved prophetic : 

" Non stabit ilia domus, alits fundata rapmis, 
A»t ruet, aut alter raptor habebit earn.'* 

By two bulls, the one dated 1524, the other 1525, WoU 
soy obtained of pope Clement VII. leave to enrich his coU 
lege by suppressing twenty-two priories and nunneries, the 
revenues of which were estimated at nearly 2000/.; but on 
hi* disgrace some of these were given by the king for other 
purposes. The king's patent, after a preface paying high 
compliments to the cardinal's administration, enables him 
to build his college principally on the site of the priory of 
St. Frideswide ; and the name, originally intended to be 
" The College of Secular Priests*" was now changed to 
Cardjnal College. The secular clergy in it were to be 
denominated the " dean and canons secular of the cardinal 
of York," and to be incorporated into one body, and sub- 
sist by perpetual succession. He was also authorised to 
settle upon it 2000/. a year clear revenue. By other pa* 
tents and grants to the dean and canons, various church 
livings were bestowed upon them, and the college was to 
be dedicated to the praise, glory, and honour of the Holy 
Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St. Frideswide, and All Sairiu. 

With respect to the constitution of this college, there is 
a considerable variation between the account given by the 
historian of Oxford, and that by Leonard Hutten, canon 
of Christ Church, in 1599, and many years sub-dean* His 
manuscript, now in the possession of the college, and quoted 
in the Monasticon, states that, according to Wolsey's de«» 
sign, it was to be a perpetual foundation for the study of 
the sciences, divinity, canon and civil law, also the arts, 
physic, and polite literature, and for the continual per* 
formance of divine service. The members were to .be, a 
dean, and sixty regular canons, but no canons of the se*» 
cond order, as Wood asserts. 

Of these Wolsey himself named the dean and eighteea 
of the canons. The dean was Dr. John Hygdep, pre- 
sident of Magdalen college, and the canons first nonrir- 
nated were all taken from the other colleges in Oxford, 
and were men of acknowledged reputation in their day. 
He afterwards added others, deliberately, and according 
as he was able to supply the vacancies by men. of talents, 
whom he determined to s^ek wherever they could be found. 
Among bis latter appointment? frcr Cambridge, we find 

W O L S E Y. 2$$ 

the names of Tyndal and Frith, the translators of the Bible* 
and who had certainly discovered some symptoms of heresy 
before this time. Cranmer and Parker, afterwards the 
first and second protestant archbishops of Canterbury, were 
also invited, but declined ; and the cardinal went on to 
complete his number, reserving all nominations to himself 
during his life, but intending to bequeath that power to 
the dean and canons at his death. In this, however, he 
was as much disappointed as in his hopes to embody a force 
of learned men sufficient to cope with Luther and the fo* 
reign reformers, whose advantage in argument he con* 
ceived to proceed from the ignorance which prevailed 
among the monastic clergy. 

The society, as he planned it, was to consist of one hiirjf 
dred and sixty persons, according to Wood, or omitting 
the forty canons of the second order, in the enumeration 
of whom Wood was mistaken, one hundred and forty-six; 
but no mention could yet be made of the scholars who 
were to proceed from his school at Ipswich, although, had 
he lived, these would doubtless have formed a part of the 
society, as the school was established two years before hh 
fall. This constitution continued from 1525 to 1529-30, 
when he was deprived of his power apd property, and for 
two years after it appears to have been interrupted, if not 
dissolved. It is to his honour that in his last correspond* 
ence with secretary Cromwell and with the king, when all 
worldly prospects were about to close upon him, he pleaded 
with great earnestness, and for nothing so earnestly,, afs 
that his majesty would be pleased to suffer his college at 
Oxford to go on. What effect this, had, we know not, but 
the urgent entreaties of the members of the society, and of 
the university at large, were at length successful, while at 
the same time the king determined to deprive Wolsey of 
all merit in the establishment, and transfer the whole to 
himself. The subsequent history of Christ church it would 
be unnecessary to detail in this place. 

An impartial life of cardinal Wolsey is perhaps still a de- 
sideratum in % English biography*. Cavendish is minute 
and interesting in what he relates of the cardinal's domestic 
history, but defective in dates and arrangement, and not 
altogether free from partiality ; which, however, in one so 

* A life of Wolsey bat indeed been recently published by Mr. Gait, which 
the editor hat not yet had an opportunity of perusing. 

S'2 * 

260 W O L S t * . 


near to the cardinal, may perhaps be pardoned, Fiddes i* 
elaborate, argumentative, and Upon the whole osefql, as art 
extensive collector of facts and authorities ; but be wrote 
for a special purpose, and has attempted, what no man can 
effect, a portrait of his hero free from those vices and fail- 
ings of which it is impossible to acquit him. Grove, with 
all the aid of Cavendish, Fiddes, and even Shakspeare, 
whose drama he regularly presses into the service, is a 
heavy and injudicious -compiler, although he gives so much 
of the cardinal's contemporaries, that bis volumes' may be 
consulted with advantage as a series of general annals of 
the time. But Cavendish, on whom all who have written 
on the actionjs of Wolsey, especially our modern histo- 
rians, have relied, has been the innocent cause of some of 
their principal errors. Cavendishes work remained in ma- 
nuscript, of which several copies are still extant, until the 
civil wars, when it was first printed under the title of '/The 
Negotiations of Thomas Wolsey, &c." 1641, 4to, and the 
chief object of the publication was a parallel between the 
cardinal and archbishop Laud* in order to reconcile the 
public to the murder of that prelate. That this object 
might be the better accomplished, the manuscript was mu- 
tilated and interpolated without shame or scruple, and no 
pains having been taken to compare the printed edition 
with the original, the former passed for genuine above a 
century, nor until very lately has the work been presented 
to the public a» the author left it, in Dr. Wordsworth's 
" Ecclesiastical Biography. * 

WOMOCK (Lawrence), an English prelate, was a na- 
tive of Norfolk, born in 1612, and the son of Lawrence 
Wornock, B. D. rector of Lopham and Fersfield in that 
county. He was admitted pensioner of Corpus Cbristi, 
Cambridge, July 4, 1629, and in October following was 
•chosen a scholar of sir Nich. Bacon's foundation. He took 
the degree of A. B. in 1632, was ordained deacon Sep*. 
21, 1634, and proceeded A. M. in 1639. He is supposejd 
to have succeeded his father in the living of Lopham upoti 
.his diocese in 1642, but was ejected by the Norfolk com- 
mittee for the examination of those who we're deemed scan- 
dalous ministers, and appears to have beep afterwards im- 
prisoned for his principles of religion and loyalty, and to 
have suffered extreme hardships. After the restoration, 

l Fidde#»t Mid Qrorb't Lives.— Chalmers's Hist, of Oxford. 

W O M O C K. , 261 

however, he was promoted by letter* mandate to the de- 
gree of 0. D. and made both archdeacon of Suffolk, Sept* 
8, 1660, and a prebendary of Ely. In 1662 be was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Horningsbeath in Suffolk, and in 
1663 to that of Box ford in the same county. He was at 
length promoted, but late in life, to the bishopric of St. 
David's, Nov. 11, 1683, a preferment which, owing to his 
short continuance in it, was detrimental to his relations* 
He died March 12, 1685, aged seventy-three, and was 
Juried near the remains of his only daughter in the south 
aile of the church of St. Margaret, Westminster, where, on 
a small compartment affixed to the pillar next the west end, 
is an inscription to his memory, 

He is said to have been a man of wit and learning, and 
possessed of a very noble library. He was attached with 
much firmness to the constitution in church and state, and 
rejected all compromise with the principles of the dissen- 
ters. He took an active part in the controversies of the 
times, and was esteemed an antagonist worth contending 
with. ' His chief publications, besides some single sermons, 
were, " Beaten Oyle for the lamps of the Sanctuarie," 
Lond. 1641, 4to, in defenceof the liturgy. " The Exami- 
nation of Tilenus before the Triers," London, 16&8, 8vo. 
" Arcana Dogmatum Anti-RetnomtrantiunV 1659, against 
Baxter, Hickman, and the Calvinists. " The Result of 
false Principle*," in several dialogues, published anony- 
mously, 1661, 4to. " Uniformity re-asserted," 1661. "The 
Solemn League and Covenant arraigned and condemned," 
Lond. 1661, 4to. " An Antidote to cure the Calamities* 
of their trembling for fear of the Arke," Lond. 166S, 4to. 
"The Verdict upon the Dissenters 1 plot," 1 6&1, 8vo. "Two 
Letters containing a farther justification of the Church of 
England," Lond. 1682. " Suffragiam Protestantiurn, where- 
in our governors are justified in their impositions and pro- 
ceedings against dissenters. Meisner also, and the verdict 
rescued from the cavils and seditious sophistry, of Dr. 
Whitby's Protestant Reconciler," Lond. 1683,, 8V0. 1 
i WOOI> (Anthony), an eminent English antiquary and 
biographer, was the son of Thomas Wood, bachelor of arts 
and of the civil law ; and was born at Oxford, Deceipber 
17, 1652* He was sent to New-college school in that city 

* Eat her Calamkes, or followers of Mr. Calamy. 
i Masters'! C.C.C.C. 


362 WOOD. 

;n 1641 ; and three y£ars after removed to the free-school 
at Thame in Oxfordshire, where he continued till his ad- 
mission at Merton, 1647. His mother in vain endeavoured 
to prevail on him to follow some trade or profession ; his 
prevailing turn was to ^antiquity : " heraldry, music, and 
painting, he says, did so much crowd upon him, that he 
Could not avoid them; and he could never give a reason 
why he should delight in those studies more than others ; 
so prevalent was nature, mixed with a generosity of mind, 
and a hatred to all that was servile, sneaking, or advanta- 
/ tageous, for lucre-sake." He took the degree of B.A. 

1652, and M. A. in 1655, As he resided altogether at Ox- 
ford, he perused all the evidences of the several colleges 
and churches, from which he compiled his two great worfcs, 
and assisted all who were engaged in the like designs ; at 
the same time digesting and arranging all the papers he 
perused ; thus doing the cause of antiquity a double ser- 
vice. His drawings preserved many things which soon 
after were destroyed. In 1663, he began to lay the foun~ 
dation of " Historia & Antiquitates Universitatis Oxonien- 
sis ;-' which was published in 1674, in 2 vols, folio. The 
first contains the antiquities of the university in general; 
find the second those of the particular colleges. This work 
was written* by the author in English, and so well esteemed 
that the university procured it to' be translated into Latin, 
t\te language in which it was published. The author spent 
tight years about it, and was, as we are told, at the pains 
to extract it from the bowels of antiquity. Of the Latin 
translation, Wood himself has given an account. He tells 
Vfo that Dr. Fell, having provided one Peers, a bachelor of 
arts of Christ-church, to translate it, sent to him for some 
of the English copy, and set the translator to' work ; who, 
however, was some time before he could make a version to 
^is mind. u But at length having obtained the knack/' 
says Wood, "he went forward with the work; yet all the 
proofs, that came from the press, went through the doc- 
tor's hands, which he would .correct, alter, or dash out, or 
put in what he pleased ; which created a great deal of 
trouble to the composer and author, but there was no help, 
fie was a great man, and carried all things at his pleasure 
so much, that many looked upon the copy as spoiled and 
vitiated by him. Peers was a sullen, dogged, clownish, and 
perverse, fellow ; and when he saw the author concerned 
at the altering of his copy, he woujd alter it the more, and 

WOOD. ' 263, 

study to put things in that might vefc him, and yet please 
his dean, Dn. Fell." And he afterwards complains, how 
44 Dr. Fell, who printed the book at bis own charge, took ' 
so much liberty of putting in and out what he pleased, that 
the author was so far from dedicating or presenting the 
book to any one, that he would scarcely own it." Among 
the " Genuine Remains of Barlow, bishop of Lincoln, pub- 
lished by sir Peter Pen in 1693," 8vo, are two letters of 
that prelate, relating to this work. In the first letter we 
have the following passage : " What you say of our late 
antiquities is too true. We are alarmed by many letters, 
not only of false Latin, but false English too, and many bad 
characters cast on good men ; especially oh the Anti-Armi- 
niaris, who are all made seditious persons,* schismatics, if 
Hot heretics: nay, our first reformers are made Janatics. 
This they tell me ; and our judges of assise, now in town, 
say no less. I have not read one leaf of the book yet; but 
I see I shall be necessitated to read it over, that I jtnay 
with my own eyes see the faults, and (so far as I am able) 
endeavour the mending of them. Nor do I know any 
other way but a new edition, with a real correction of all 
faults ; and a declaration, that those miscarriages cannot 
justly be imputed to the university, as indeed they cannot* 
but to the passion and imprudence, if not impiety, of oito 
or two, who betrayed the trust reposed in them in the. ma- 
naging the edition of that book.'* In the second Letter, 
lifter taking notice that the translation was made by the 
order and authority of the dean of Christ-church ; that not 
Only the Latin, but the history itself, is in many things 
ridiculously false ; and then producing passages as proofs 
of both ; be concludes thus ; " Mr. Wood, the compiler of 
those antiquities, was himself too favourable to papists ; 
«bd has often complained to me, that at Christ-church 
some things were put in which neither were in his original 
copy, nor approved by him. The truth is, not only the 
Latin, but also the matter of those antiquities, being erro- 
neous in several things, may prove scandalous, acid give 
our adversaries some occasion to censure, not only the uni- 
versity, but the church of England and our reformation. 
Sure I am, that the university had no hand in composing 
or approving those antiquities ; and therefore the errors * 
^wfaich are in them cannot de Jure be imputed to the uni- 
versity, 'but must lie upon Christ-church and the composer 
of them." This work, however, is now in a great measure 

264 WOO D. 

rescued from misapprehension by the publication of Wood's 
MS. in English by the rev. John Gutch, 3 vol&.*4to. 

Mr. Wood afterwards undertook his more important work, 
which was published in 1691, folio ; and a second edition 
in 1721, folio, with this title: " Athenae Oxonienses. An 
exact history of all the writers and bishops who have had 
their education in the most ancient and famous university 
of Oxford, from the fifteenth year of king Henry the se-r 
venth, A.D. 1500, to the author's death in November, 
1695; representing the birth, fortune, preferment, and 
death of all those authors and prelates, the great accidents 
of their lives, and the fate and ctiaracter of their writings. 
To which are added, the Fasti,' or annals of the said univer- 
sity. In two volumes. The second edition,, very much 
corrected and enlarged ; with the addition of above 50Q 
new lives from the author's original manuscript." Jmparr 
tiality and veracity being qualities so essential in ar> histo- 
rian, that all other qualities without them cannot make a 
history good for any thing, Wood has taken sqme pains to 
prove, that these great qualities were not wanting in him; 
and for that purpose thought it expedient to prefix to his 
work the following curious account of himself. " As, to the 
author himself/' says he, " he is a person who delights to 
converse more with the dead than with the living, and has 
neither interest with, nor inclination to flatter or disgrace, 
any man, or any community of men, of whatever denomi- 
nation. He is such a universal lover of all mankind, ^bat- 
he could wish there was such a standing measure of merit 
and honour agreed upon among them all, that there might 
be no cheat put upon readers and writers in the business 
of commendations. But, since every one will have a double 
balance herein, one for himself and bis own party, and ano- 
ther for his adversary and dissenters, all he can do is, to* 
amass and bring together what every side thinks will make 
best weight for themselves. Let posterity hold the scales 
, and judge accordingly; mum cuique dtcus posttritas repen- 
dat. To conclude : the reader is desired to know, that 
this Herculean labour had beep more proper for a head 
or fellow of a college, or for a public professor or office** 
of the most noble university of Oxford to have undertaken 
and consummated, than the author, who never enjoyed any 
place or office therein, or can justly say that be hath eaten 
the bread of any founder. Also, that it had been a great 
deal more fit for one who pretends to be a virtuoso, and to 

WOOD. 265 

know all men*; anil all things that are transacted; or for one 
who frequents much society in common rooms, at public 
6res, in coffee-houses, assignaiipns, clubs, &c. where the 
characters of men and their works are frequently discussed ; 
but the author, alas ! is so far from frequenting such com- 
pany and topics, that he is as it were dead to the world, 
and utterly unknown in person to the generality vf scholars 
in Oxon. He is likewise so great an admirer of a solitary 
and retired life, that he frequents no assemblies of the said 
university, hath no companion in bed or at board, in his 
studies, walks, dr journeys; nor holds communication with 
any, unless with some, and those very few, of generous and 
noble spirits, that have in some measure been promoters 
and eocouragers of this work: and, indeed, all things con- 
sidered, he is but a degree different from an ascetic, as 
spending all or most of his time, whether by day or night, 
in reading, writing, and divine. contemplation. However, 
he presumes, that, the less his company and acquaintance 
is, the more impartial his endeavours will appear to the 
ingenious and learned, to whose judgments only he sub- 
mits them and himself." 

But, as unconnected as Wood represents himself with 
all human things and persons, it is certain that he had his 
prejudices and attachments, and strong ones too, for cer- 
tain notions and systems; and these prejudices and at- 
tachments will always be attended with partialities for or 
against those who shall be found to favour or oppose such 
notions or systems. They had their influence upon Wood, 
who, though he always spoke to the best of h& judgment, 
and often with great truth and exactness, yet sometimes 
gave way to prejudice and prepossession. Among other 
freedoms, he took some with thfe earl of Clarendon, th^ir 
late chancellor, which exposed him to the censure of the 
university. He had observed in the life of judge Glynne, 
that " after the restoration of Charles II. he was made his 
eldest serjeant at law, by the corrupt dealing of the then 
chancellor," who was the earl of Clarendon : for which 
expression, chiefly, the succeeding earl preferred an ac- 
tion in the vice-chancellor's court against him for de- 
famation of his deceased father. The issue of the process 
was a hard judgement given against the defendant ; which, 
to be made the more public, was put into the Qazette in 
these words: " Oxford, July 31, 1693. On the 29th in- 
stant, Anthony Wood was condemned in the vice-chancel* 

266 WOO D. 

lor's court of the university of Oxford, for having written 
and published, in the second volume of his bobk, entitled 
* Athens Oxonienses,' divers infamous libels against the 
right honourable Edward late earl of Clarendon, lord high 
chancellor of England, and chancellor of the said univer- 
sity ; and was therefore banished the said university, until 
such time as he shall subscribe such a public recantation 
as the judge of the court shall approve of, and give secu- 
rity not to offend in the like nature for the future : and his 
said book was therefore also decreed to be burnt before the 
public theatre ; and on this day it was burnt accordingly, 
and public programmas of his expulsion are already affixed 
in the three usual places." An historian who has recorded 
this censyre says, that it was the more grievous to the 
blunt author, because it seemed to come from a party of 
men whom he had the least disobliged. His bitterness had 
been against the Dissenters ; but of all the zealous Church- 
men he had given characters with a singular turn of esteem 
and affection. Nay, of the Jacobites, and even of Papists 
themselves, he had always spoken the most favourable 
things ; and therefore it was really the greater mortification 
to him, to feel the storm coming from a quarter where he 
thought he least deserved, and might least expect it. For 
the same reason, adds the historian, this correction was 
some pleasure to the Presbyterians, who believed there was 
a rebuke due to him, which they themselves were not able 
to pay. Wood was animadverted upon likewise by Burnet, 
in his " Letter to the bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, 
concerning a book of Anthony Harmer (alias Henry Whar- 
ton, called ' A Specimen of some Errors and Defects in 
the History of the Reformation,' &c." upon which, in 
1693, he published a vindication of himself, which is re- 
printed before the second edition of his " Athens Oxoni- 

As a collector Mr. Wood deserves highly of posterity \ 
indeed we know not any man to whom English biography 
is so much indebted, although we may allow, at the same 
time, that he is deficient in judgment and style. His er- 
rors, in other respects, have been corrected, and many 
valuable additions made, from genuine authorities, in the 
new edition (of which two volumes, quarto, have already 
been published), by Philip Bliss, Fellow of St John's-college. 
Mr. Wood died at Oxford Nov. 29, 1695, of a retention 
of urine, under which he lingered above a fortnight; The 



circumstances of his death are recorded in a letter of Dr. 
Arthur Charlett, rector of University-college, to archbishop 
Tenison : this letter, which was published by Hearne, in 
the appendix to his edition of. " Johannis Confratris et Mo- 
nachi Glastoniensis Chronica," Oxon. 1726, illustrates th6, 
character of this extraordinary person, by minutely de- 
scribing his behaviour at the most important and critical of 
ail seasons. He left his papers and books to the charge of 
Dr. Charlett, Mr. Bisse, and Mr. (afterwards bishop) Tan- 
ner, to be placed in the Ashmolean library. ' 

WOOD (Robert), a polite scholar, and Under-Secre- 
tary of state in 1764, has a right to a place here, for his 
Very curious " Essay on the original Genius of Homer/* 
, Of the particulars of his life, the proper subject for our 
pages, we reluctantly confess ourselves ignorant; but shall 
observe, that in 1751, he made the tour of Greece, Egypt, 
and Palestine, in company with Mr. Dawkins and Mr. Bou- 
verie ; and at his return published a splendid work, in folio, 
entitled *' The Ruins of Palmyra, otherwise Tedmor in the 
Desert," being an account of the ancient,and modern state 
of. that place ; with a great number of elegant engravings 
of its ruins by Fourdrinier, from drawings made on the spot. 
This was followed by a similar work respecting Balbec. 
Speaking of the abovementioned friends/ he says, " Had I 
been so fortunate as to have enjoyed their assistance in 
arranging and preparing for the public the substance of our 
marly friendly conversations on this subject (Homer) I 
should be less anxious about the fate of the following work: 
but, whatever my success may be in an attempt to contri- 
bute to the amusement of a Vacant hour, I am happy to 
think, that, though I should fail to answer the expecta-* 
tions of public curiosity, I am sure to satisfy the demands 
of private friendship ; and that, acting as the only sur- 
vivor and trustee for the literary concerns of my late fellow- 
travellers, I am, to the best of my judgment, carrying 
into execution the purpose of men for whose memory I 
shall ever retain the greatest veneration ; and though I may 
do injustice to those honest feelings which urge me to this 
ptbus task, by mixing an air of compliment in an act of 
duty, yet I must not disown a private, perhaps an idle con-: 
solation* which, if it be vanity to indulge, it would be iife- 

. ' Life written by himself, and other information prefixed to the first volume 
of Mr. Bliss's edition, and so copious as to render every other reference uu« 
necessary* » 

268 WOO,D. 

gratitude to suppress, viz. that, as long as my imperfect 
descriptions shali preserve from oblivion the present state 
of the Troade, and the remains of Balbec and Pa] my r a, so 
long will it be known that Dawkins and Bouverie were my 

Mr. Wood was meditating future publications relating to 
other parts of his tour, especially Greece, when he was 
called upon to serve his country in a more important sta- 
tion, being appointed under-secretary of state in 1759, by 
the earl of Chatham ; during* the whole of whose pros- 
perous administration, as well as in those of his two imme- 
diate successors, he continued in that situation. 

Mr. Wood had drawn up a great part of his " Essay oa 
Homer" in the life-time of Mr. Dawkins, who wished t it to 
be made public. " But," says Mr. Wood, " while I was 
preparing it for the press, I had the honour of being called, 
to a station, which for some years fixed my whole altera- 
tion upon objects of so very different a nature, that it be- 
came necessary to lay Homer aside, and to reserve the far- 
ther consideration of my subject for a time of -more lei- 
sure. However, in the course of that active period, the 
duties of my situation engaged me in an occasional atten- 
dance upon a nobleman (the late earl Granville), who, 
though he presided at his majesty's councils, reserved 
some moments for literary amusement. . His lordship was 
so partial to this subject, that I seldom had the honour of 
receiving his commands on business, that he did not lead 
the conversation to Greece and Homer. Being directed to 
wait upon his lordship a few days before he died, with the 

J)reliminary articles of the treaty of Paris, I found him $o 
anguid, that I proposed postponing my business for another 
time; but he insisted that I should stay, saying, "it could 
hot prolong his life, to neglect his duty :" and, repeating a 
passage out of Sarpedon's speech, dwelt with particular 
emphasis on a line which recalled to his mind, the distin- 
guishing part he had taken in public affairs. His lordship 
Then repeated the last word several times with a c^lrn and 
determined resignation ; and, after a serious pause of some 
minutes, he desired, to hear the treaty read ; to which be 
listened with gr^at attention ; and recovered spirits Qnpugh 
to declare the approbation of a dying statesman (I use his 
own words) on the most glorious war, and most honourable 
peace, this country ever saw." 

WOOD. 269 

' Mr; Wood also left behind him several MSS. relating to 
his travels, but not sufficiently arranged to afford any 
hopes of their being given to the public. The house in 
which he lived in Putney is situated between the roads 
which lead to Wandsworth and Wimbledon, and became 
the residence of his widow. Mr. Wood- purchased it of 
the executors of Edv\ard,Gibbon, esq. whose son, the cele- 
brated historian, was born there. The farm and pleasure- 
grounds which adjoin the house are very spacious, contain- 
ing near fourscore acres, and surrounded by a gravel-walk, 
which commands a beautiful prospect of London and the 
adjacent country. Mr. Wood was buried in the cemetery 
Dear the upper road to Richmond. On his monument 
is the following inscription, 'drawn up by the hon. Horace 
Walpole, earl of Orford, at the request of his widow : 

"To the beloved memory of Robert Wood, a man of 
supreme benevolence, who was born at the castle of tti- 
verstown near Trim, in the county of Meath, and died 
Sept. 9, 1771, in the fifty-fifth* year of his age; and of 
Thomas Wood his son, who died August 25th, 4772, in his 
ninth year; Ann, their once happy wife and mother, now 
dedicates this melancholy and inadequate memorial of her 
affection and grief. The beautiful editions of Balbec and 
Palmyra, illustrated by the classic pen of Robert Wood, 
supply a nobler and more lasting monument, add will sur- 
vive those august remains." * 

WOODFORD (Samuel), a divine and poet, eldest son 
•of Robert Woodford, of Northampton, ggnt. was born in 
tfte parish of All-hallows on the Wall, London, April 15, 
1636; became a commoner of Wad ham college in 1653 ; 
took one degree in arts in 1656 ; and in 1658 returned to 
the Inner Temple, where he was chamber- fellow with the 
poet flatihan. In 1660, he published a poem " On the 
rettlrh 'of king Charles H." After that period, he lived 
first at Aldbrook, and afterwards at Bensted in Hampshire, 
in a married and secular condition, and was elected F, R.'S. 
in Nov. 1664. He took orders from bishop Morley, And 
w$s soon after presented by Sir Nicolas Stuart, bart. to the 
rectory of Hartley- Maudet in Hampshire. He was installed 
prebend of Chitbesjer May 27, 1676 ; made D. D. by the 
diploma of archbishop Sancroft in 1677; 'and prebendary 
; ©f Winchester, Nov. 8, 1680, by the favour qf his great 

1 Nichols'! Bowyser.— -Tyson*** Environs, vol. I. 


patron j the bishop of that diocese. He died in 1700* His 
poems, which have some merit, are numerous. His " Pa** 
ra phrase on the Psalms, in five books/* was published in 
1667, 4to, and again in 1678, 8vo. This "Paraphrase," 
which was written in the Pindaric and other various sorts of 
verse, is commended by R. Baxter in the preface to his 
" Poetical Fragments, 9 ' 1681 ; and is called by others "an 
incomparable version," especially by his friend Flatman, 
who wrote a Pindaric ode on it, and a copy of verses on 
Woodford's " Paraphrase on the Canticles," 1679, 8vo. 
With this latter paraphrase are printed, 1. "The Legend 
of Love, in three cantos." 2. " To the Muse," a Pindaric 
ode. 3. " A Paraphrase upon some select Hymns of the 
New and Old Testament." 4. " Occasional compositions 
in English rhymes," with some translations out of Latin, 
Greek, and Italiau, but chiefly out of the last ; some of 
which compositions and translations were before falsely 
published by a too-curious collector of them, from very 
erroneous copies, against the will and knowledge of their 
author. Dr. Woodford complains, that several of his trans- 
lations of some of the moral odes had been printed after 
the same incorrect manner. 1 / 

WOODHEAD (Abraham), whom Dr. Whitby pro-' 
nounces " the most ingenious and solid writer of the Ro- 
man (catholic) party," and who merits some notice from his 
name occurring so frequently in the popish controversy at 
the latter end of the seventeenth century, was the son of 
John Woodhead of Tbornhill in Yorkshire, and was born 
in 1608 at Meltbam in the parish of Abbersbury, or Am- 
btiry, in that county. He bad his academical education 
ia University college, Oxford, where he took his degrees 
in arts, was elected fellow in 1633, and soon after entered 
into holy orders. In 1641 he served the office of proctor, 
and then set out for the continent as travelling tutor to 
some young gentlemen of family who had been his pupils 
in college. While at Rome he lodged with the duke of 
Buckingham, whom he taught mathematics, and is sup- 
posed about the same Jtirne to have embraced the commu- 
nion of the church of Rome, although for a long time he 
kept this a profound secret. On his returu to England he 
had an apartment in the duke of Buckingham's house in 
the Strand, and was afterwards entertained in lord Capel'? 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. II. — Nichols's Poems* 

W O O D H h A D. 27* 

family. In 1648 be was deprived of bis fellowship by the 
parliamentary visitors, but merely on the score of absence, 
and non-appearance, when called. After the restoration 
be was. reinstated in his fellowship, but finding it impos- 
sible any longer to conform, be obtained leave to travel, 
with the allowance of a travelling fellowship. Instead,, 
however, of going abroad, be retired to an obscure resi- 
dence at Hoxton near London, where he spent several 
years, partly in instructing some young gentlemen of po- 
pish families, and partly in composing bis works. Her* 
he remained almost undiscovered, yptil a little while before 
bis death, which happened at Hoxton, May 4, 1678. Hf, 
was buried in St. Pancras church-yard, where there is a 
monument to his memory. 

Wood head was considered as one of the ablest contro- 
versial writers, on the popish side, in his time, and some 
protectants have paid respect to his abilities and candour* 
Most of his works were printed at Mr. Obadiah Walker's 
private press, and some of them have been attributed to 
him. Wood gives a long list of about twenty-three articles, 
some of which are translations. The principal of bis ori T 
ginal writings is his " Guide in controversies," or more 
tfullv, "A rational account of the doctrine of catholics,, 
concerning the ecclesiastical guide iu controversies of s reli T 
gion: reflecting on the late writings of v protean tv par- 
ticularly of archbishop Laud, and doctor Stil^ingfleet,. ( o,i> 
this subject; in four discourses;" under the' initials R. H, 
1666,1667, and 1673, 4to. Wood adds, "Many stick not tQ 
•ay, which is a wonder to me, vthat he was, the author of 
" The Whole Duty of Man ;" and of all that goes lender the 
name of that author." The protest,ant, writers with whom 
be was involved in controvetsy, and in whose lives or writ r 
iogs his name occurs, were, Peter Heylyn, Stillingfleet, 
archbishop Wake, Drs. Aldrxch, Smalridge, HarringtQn, 
Tully, Hooper, aqd Whitby. 1 . • ■ , 

WOODWARD (John), an eminent natural philosopher, 
was descended from. a good family,, originally of Glouces- 
tershire, and was born in Derbyshire, May 1, 1665. He 
received the first part of bis education at a school in the 
countty, where he made a considerable progress in the La- 
tin aud Greek languages ; but his father designing him for 
trade, hfe was taken from school, before he was sixteen 

» Atfc. Ox, roU II.— Dodd's Ch. Hist.— Biog. Brit. art. Wake. 


years old} and put apprentice, as is said, to a linen-draper* 
in London. This way of life, however, was so contrary to 
his natural thirst for knowledge and love of books, that he 
quitted it in a few years, and devoted himself entirely to 
literary pursuits. His studies Were directed to philoso- 
phical objects, and the progress he made soon attracted 
the notice of some persons of eminence in the learned 
world. Amongst others he was honoured with the parti* 
cular friendship of that distinguished scholar and physician 
Dr. Peter Barwick, who was so p teased with his ingenuity 
and industrious applica£ion, that he took> him under his 
•immediate tuition in his own family. In this advantageous 
situation he prosecuted his studies in philosophy, anatomy, 
and physic, with the utmost ardour. 

During his residence here, sir Ralph Dutton, who was 
Dr. Barwick' s son-in-law, invited Mr. Woodward to accom* 
pany the doctor on a visit to his seat at Sherborne, in Glou- 
cestershire. He probably made some stay here, for we are 
told that he was now first led to inquire into that branch of 
natural philosophy, which became afterwards the favourite 
object of bis studies, and the foundation of the fame which 
he acquired. The country about Sherborne, and the neigh* 
bouring parts of Gloucestershire, to which he made fre- 
quent excursions, abounded with stone; and there being 
quarries laid open almost every where, he was induced to 
visit them, and to examine the nature and condition of the 
stone. In these visits he was struck with the great variety 
of sea-shells, and other marine productions, with, which the 
sand of most of this stone was incorporated ; and being en- 
couraged by the novelty, and as he judged, the singular 
importance of this speculation, he resolved to pursue it 
through the remote parts of the kingdom. In consequence 
of this resolution, he travelled throughout almost all Eng- 
land, in order to inform himself of the present condition of 
the earth, and all bodies contained in it, as far as either 
grottoes, caverns, mines, quarries, &c. led him into a know- 
ledge of the interior, and as far as his best observations 
could extend in respect to the exterior surface, and such 
productions as any where occurred, plants, insects, sea, 
river, and land-shells. He directed his attention likewise 
to the fluids ; as well those within the surface of the earth, 
the water of mines, grottoes, caverns, &c. as those upo* 
the surface, the sea, rivers, and springs; and in making 
these observations, he entered every curious circumstance* 

W O O D W A RiD, 373 

with great care, in a journal. When he had finished these 
researches, and had returned to London, he would gladly 
have gone to the continent on the same pursuit, hut was 
prevented by, the war which at that time disturbed the quiet ' 
of Europe. In order, however, to supply this defect as far 
as possible, be applied to gentlemen who had travelled, and 
were likely to give him information on the subject of his 
inquiries; and he also drew up a list of questions upon this 
subject, which he sent off to all parts of the world, where- 
ever either himself, or any of his acquaintance, had any 
friends resident; the result of which was, that in time he 
was abundantly satisfied, that the circumstances after which 
he inquired, were much the same every where. Being 
now prepared with information, and,, as it will appear, not 
unprovided with a theory, he published in 1695, in 1 vol. 
Svq, " An Essay towards a natural history of the Earth and 
terrestrial bodies, especially minerals ; as also of the sea, 
rivers, and springs. With an account of the universal de- 
luge, and of the effects that it bad upon the earth." He 
called it an " Essay,'* because it was designed, as he said, 
to be followed by a large work upon the same subject, of 
which this was but a specimen. 

Not only the account of the deluge in Genesis, and the 
traditions io> the same effect preserved by all ancient na- 
tions, but the abundant remains of sea-shells and coral, 
found at great distances from the sea, at great heights, and 
intermixed with various rocks, have induced mineralogists* 
without exception, to agree that at some former period the 
whole of this earth was covered with the sea. Various hy- 
pothetical explanations of the way in which this deluge 
took place, have been from time to time published, and 
several of these are to be found in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions* It is not necessary to take notice of the old hy- 
pothesis of Burnet, who conceived that the ante-diluvian 
wdrld consisted of a thin, smooth c^ust spread over the 
whole sea, and that this crust breaking occasioned the de- 
luge, .and the present uneven surface of the earth ; nor of 
v Whiston, who ascribed the «deluge to the effect of the jtaij 
of a cornet^ because those opinions have many years ago 
lost all. their supporters. Nor is any attention at present 
paid to the hypothesis of Buffon, who conceived the earth 
to have been splintered from the sun by the blow of a 
comet, and accounted for the deluge by suppositions equally 
arbitrary, and inconsistent with the phenomena. Dr. 

Vol- XXXII, T 

274 W 6 6 D W A R D. 

Wd6d ward was the first writer Whd acquired a splendid, 
reputation by hit tbedty ; and his opinions, though not 
always correct, generally prevailed in bis titae, and after. 
In the work above rtientioned, which he afterwards consi- 
derably augmented and Unproved, after refuting the hy- 
p6theses of his predecessors, he proceeds to shew, that 
the present state of the earth is the consequence of the 
universal deluge ; that the waters took up and dissolved all 
the minerals and rocks, and gradually deposited them along 1 
with the sea-shells; and he affirms that all rocks lie in the 
ordef of their specific gravity. Although this theory has 
long lost its authority, several of the positions which he 
laid down continue still to find a place in every theory 
which has succeeded him. 

In the mean time Woodward's " Essay" occasioned no 
small controversy. JSotne of its errors were pointed Out. by 
Dr. Martin Lister, in three distinct pieces; and Mr. Ro~ 
binstih, a clergyman of Cumberland, soon after published 
sortie '< Observations on the natural history of the world of 
matter, and the world of life," in Which be accused Wood- 
ward of plagiarism, and mentioned the authors from wham, 
as he said, he had borrowed most of his notions. But these 
different works received an answer in a single treatise pub- 
lished by Mr. Harris, in 1697 ; and the dispute was cem-> 
promised that same year, in & pamphlet written by £>r. Ar- <- 
buthnot, in -which, after an impartial examination of Wood-' 
ward's hypothesis, he decided that though it seemed liable 
to taany just exceptions, yet the whole was not to be ex* 
ploded. Hitherto the author himself had made no reply to 
any of the objections against his " Essay ;" but in 1704, a 
Latin translation of it being published at Zurich, he was 
led into a controversy, by letters on the subject, with sotee 
of his learned correspondents abroad, and particularly witto 
the celebrated Leibnitz. This controversy continued feeing 
years, and when ended, a fresh attack was made on our 
author's hypothesis, by Elias Came rati us, professor of 
physic at Tubingen, in some Latin dissertations printed iti 
1712. On this Dr. Woodward published hi 1714, " N*<- 
turalis historia telluris illustrata et aucte," in the preface to 
which he declares, that what had been urged by bis anta- 
gonists, before Camerarius, was not of tueh force as tfc 
deserve a distinct reply ; that every thing considerable in % 
their objections was now proposed by CftttterarHlaj with 
some additions of his own entirely new, and that the pre- 


sent might be considered as a general answer. In this 
work, therefore, he supplied the main defects and omissions 
of his Essay, and endeavoured to vindicate his hypothesis. 
The dispute with Camerarius was closed in a, very friendly 
address from that learned professor, which was published 
in the German Ephemerides in 1717, though not without 
some intimation of his continuing still in his first senti- 
ments. In 1726, Mr. Benjamin Holloway, F. R. S. having 
translated the " Naturalis His tori a telluris" into English, 
doctor Woodward readily embraced this opportunity of 
strengthening bis opinion by some additional papers with 
which he furnished the translator. 

The connexion of all the circumstances of Dr. Wood- 
ward's publication with each other, rendered it necessary 
to give the above account of the whole in succession ; but 
we must now return to other transactions in his progress 
towards the reputation he bad acquired, and which was not 
altogether unmixed. In the interval between his visit to 
sir Ralph Hwtton, and the publication of his first " Essay," 
he bad been elected professor of physic in Gresham col- 
lege, to which place he was recommended by some per- 
sons of consequence in the learned world, and particularly 
by Dr. Bar wick. This preferment, which he obtained in 
1692, was soon followed by other honours. In 1693 he 
-was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and was fre- 
quently afterwards one of their council. In 1695 he wa» 
created M. D. by archbishop Tenispn, and in the following . 
year he was admitted of Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, and 
honoured with the same degree in that university. In 1608 
he was admitted a candidate of the college of physicians, 
and was chosen a fellow in 1702. ' 

In 1699 he published, in the Philosophical Transactions, 
" Some thoughts and experiments concerning Vegetation." 
These experiments have acquired great celebrity, and are 
constantly referred, to by all writers on vegetable physi- 
ology. They consist in putting sprigs of vegetables into 
the mouths of phials filled with water, allowing them to 
vegetate for some time, and then determining the quantity 
of water which they have imbibed, and the quantity oif 
weight which they have gained. The difference obviously 
indicates the quantity of moisture exhaled by the plant. 
About 1693, iSr. Woodward's attention was directed to an 
object of a very different kind. He had purchased from 
the museum of a deceased friend, a small, but very curious 

T 2 



ip»n. shield of a round form ; on the concave side of which 
were represented, iu the upper part, the ruins of Rome 
when burnt by the Gauls ; and below, the weighing out 
the gold to purchase their retreat, together with the arrival 
of Camillus, and flight of the Gauls ; and in the centre 
appeared a grotesque mask with horns very large and pro- 
minent ; the figures all executed in a spirited and beautiful 
manner. Mr. Conyers, in whose collection this curiosity 
was, bad purchased it of a brazier, who bought it among 
some brass and iron fragments which came out of the ar- 
moury in the Tower of London, near the end of Charles 
II. 's reign. As soon as it' came into the possession of Dr. 
Woodward, many inquisitive persons came to see it, and 
M) order to enable others, who bad not that opportunity, 
to form a judgment of it, he not only had several casts 
made of it, but also, in 1705, had it engraven at Amster- 
dam, on a copper-plate of the size of the original ; copies 
of which were transmitted to many learned foreigners, for 
their opinion. Antiquaries, however, could not agree as 
to its age. The professors and other critics in Holland, in 
genera), pronounced it antique ; but those in France thought 
otherwise, and Woodward wrote against their opinion a 
letter to the abbe Bignon, which is published by Dr. Ward 
in the appendix to his " Lives of the Gresham Professors/' 
Dodwell wrote a " Dissertatio de Parma equestri Wood- 
wardiana," which was published l^y Hearne (See Hearne) 
in 1713. Dodwell supposed this shield came out of some 
public collection ; such as the Shield Walk in Whitehall- 
palace, from Henry VIII.'s time to Charles I. Theophilus 
Downes, fellow of Baliol college, differed from him as to' 
the antiquity of this monument ; and after his death were 
published, in two leaves, 8vo, his " De clypeo Woodwar- 
diano stricture breves." Ainsworth abridged* DodwelPs 
dissertation, and inserted it at the end of the " Museum 
Woodwardianum," or catalogue of the doctor's library and 
curiosities, sold by auction at Covent-garden in 1728. He 
afterwards enlarged the piece, considered the objections, and 
reprinted it with the title, " De Clypeo Camilli antiquo," 
&c. 1734, 8vo. Spanheim and Abr. Seller bad both begun 
to write dissertations on it, but were prevented by death. 
Ward was the last who made any remarks on it, and those 
in favour of its antiquity ; but Moyle's objection to its ant- 
tiquity from the ruins of an amphitheatre has. not been re* 
moved by Dr. Ward. No, ancient artist, Mr. Gough ob- 


serves, could be so ignorant as to ascribe such buildings to 
that period* At Dr. Woodward's sale, this shield was pur- 
chased by Col. King, one of his executors, for 100/., and 
at the sale of the colonel's effects, in 1768, it was sold to 
Dr. Wilkinson for forty guineas, along with the letters, &c. 
relating to it. 

In 1707, Dr. Woodward published "An account of 
some Roman urns, and other antiquities, lately digged up 
near Bishopsgate ; with brief reflections upon the ancient 
and present state of London, in a letter to sir C. Wren," 
&c. This was reprinted at London and Oxford, 1713 and 
1723, 8vo, with a letter from the doctor to the editor. It 
was printed first at the desire of sir Christopher, whose ob- 
servations have since appeared in the <f Parentalia." Wren 
could not he persuaded that the temple of Diana stood on 
the scite of St. Paul's, though Woodward had prepared a 
dissertation on her image dug up near that cathedral. 
This dissertation, never printed, is now in the possession- 
of the editor of this Dictionary. 

In the midst of those researches into antiquity, Dr. 
Woodward did not neglect his medical profession, although 
it cannot be said that he was eminently successful. In 1 7 1 8 
we find him involved in a controversy with two of the 
greatest physicians of his time, Dr. Freind and Dr. Mead* 
In a learned work which Dr. Freind published, about this 
time, he had advanced several arguments in favour of 
purging upon the access, of the second fever, in some dan- 
gerous cases of the confluent small- pox. This, practice 
was warmly opposed by Dr. Woodward, who, on the con- 
trary, strenuously recommended the use of emetics in such 
cases ; and in the following year printed his " State of 
Physic and of Diseases, with an Inquiry into the Causes of 
the late increase of them ; but more particularly of the 
Small-pox. -With some considerations upon the new prac- 
tice of purging in that disease :" &c. in Svo. This laid 
the foundation of a bitter controversy ; and Dr. Mead re- 
tained a sense of the injury, as he thought it, for many 
years after, as appears from the preface to his treatise on 
the small-pox ; where he gives a short history of the affair, 
and also throws some personal reflections on Dr. Wood- 
ward, which would have been inexcusable in the heat of 
the controversy, and were certainly much more so near 
thirty years after. Pope, Arbutbnot, and other wits, at* 
tenipteu also to turn Dr. Woodward into ridicule, and there 


appears to have been something of irascibility in his tem- 
per, which afforded his enemies considerable advantage in 
this way. 

Dr. Woodward declined in his health a considerable 
time before he died; and though he had all along continued . 
to prepare materials for his large work, relating to the 
Natural History of the Earth, yet it was never finished ; 
but only some collections, said to have been detached from 
it, were printed at different times, as enlargements upon 
particular topics in his essay. He was confined first to his 
house, and afterwards to his bed, many months before his 
death. During this time, he not only drew up instructions 
for the disposal of his books and other collections, but also 
completed and sent to the press his " Method of Fossils," 
in English; and lived to see the whole of it printed, ex- 
cept the last sheet. He died in Gresham-college April 
25, 1728; and was buried in Westminster-abbey, where is 
a monument to his memory. After his death, the two fol- 
lowing works were published, 1. " Fossils of all kinds, di- 
gested into a Method suitable to their mutual relation and 
affinity," &c. Svo. 2. c< A Catalogue of Fossils in the 
Collection of John Woodward, M. D." in 2 vols 8vo. By 
his last will, he founded a lecture in the university of Cam- 
bridge, to be read there upon his " Essay towards the Na- 
tural History of the Earth, his Defence of it, his Discourse 
of Vegetation, and his State of Physic ;" for which he or- 
dered lands of 150/. per annum in South-Britain to be pur- 
chased and conveyed to that university, and out of this a 
hundred pounds per annum to the lecturer, who, after the 
death of his executors Dixie Windsor, Hugh Bethel, Hi* 
chard Graham, esqrs. and colonel Richard King, is to be 
chosen by the archbishop of the province, the bishop of 
the diocese, the presidents of the College of Physicians 
and of the Royal Society, the two members of parliament, 
and the whole senate of the university. This lecturer to. 
be a bachelor ; to have no other preferment ; to read four 
lectures a, year in English or Latin, of which one is to be 
printed ; to have the custody of the two cabinets of fossils 
given by the doctor to the university, to shew them three 
days in each week gratis ; and to be allowed ten pounds 
per, aonutn for making experiments and observations, aad 
keeping correspondence with learned men. Some of these 
conditions it would not be easy to fulfil, yet the p&efeqper- 
ririp continues, and has been held by men of talents. Dr. 


Conyers Middlemen was (be firat appointed to the office, 
who opened the, lectures yviih an elegant Latin oration in 
praise of (he founder, and upon the usefulness of his in- 

Or- Woodward left a great many manuscripts, enume- 
rated by Dr. Ward, some of which he ordered to be burnt, 
but others canje into the possession of his executor, colonel 
Hiqbard King, and were sold in 1768 with the rest of the 
colonel's collection. Dr. Woodward was in many respects 
a FJsiQnary >n <J an enthusiast, but the extent of his inge- 
nuity and learning cannot well be called in question, and 
i^ ought not to be forgot that the circumstances of bis 
yogth were discouraging, and that he had no help in bis 
progress from academical instruction. 1 

WOOLLETT (William), one of the most eminent of oiq- 
dero engravers in England, was born at Maidstone, in Kant, 
Aug. 27, 1735. Of his early history few particulars hav$ 
b$en preserved, and those mostly traditionary His father 
W » thread-maker, and long time a foreman to Mr. Ro- 
bert Pope. The family is said to have come originally 
frpm Holland ; and there is a tradition that Wooltett's, great 
grandfather escaped from the battle? fought by the parlia- 
mentary forces against the royalists near JVIaidstone. Q*pr 
grtist was educated at Maidstone under Mr §imon Qood* 
wjn, wfro qsed to notice his graphic talents. Once haying 
taken eta a slate the likeness of a schoolfellow named Burten- 
#haw> who bad a prominent npse, his master desired him to 
fipifb U QU paper, and preserved the drawing, fje was also 
jflibf* habit of drawing the likenes&es of his father^ acquaint- 
ances. His earliest production on copper was a portrait of 
a Mr. Scott, of Maidstone, with a pipe in his ipouth. 
These a^ perhaps trifles, but the) coippote all th»t is now 
r£0)£mbered of Wooltett's -younger days His first at- 
t^rppts having been seen by Mr Tinne>, an engraver, hp 
took big) as an apprentice at the same thn/e with Mr. An- 
thony Walker and Mr. Prown. tjis ns/e ii} his profession 
W.a$ rapid, and much distinguished, for be brought the art 
stf landscape engraving to great perJ&ction. With respect 
to the grand and sublime, says Strutt, " jf 1 may be al- 
lied the term in landscapes, tb,e whole world cauuot pro- 
duce his equal." Woollett, boweyer, did not confine him- 

1 lyard's Lives of the Gresbam Professors. — Bipg. Brit. — Thomson's Hist, of 
tkt RoyaiSocisty. — Cough's Topography. 


self to landscapes, be engraved historical subjects and por- 
traits with the greatest success. The world has done 
ample justice to his memory, and the highest prices still 
continue to be given for good impressions of all his prints, 
but particularly of his *? Niobe" and its companion " Phae- 
ton," his " Celadon and Amelia/ 7 and " Ceyx and Al- 
cyone ;" and " The Fishery," all from Wilson, whose pecu- 
liar happiness it was that his best pictures were put into the 
hands of Woollett, »who so perfectly well understood and 
expressed the very spirit of his ideas upon the copper. 
To these we may add the portrait of Rubens, from Van- 
dyke, and, what are in every collection of taste, his justly ; 
celebrated prints from the venerable president of the aca- 
demy, " The Death of General Wolfe," and « The Battle 
of the Boyne." 

Mr. Woollett died at his house, Upper Charlotte* street, 
Rathbone-place, May 23, 1785, aged fifty ; and the re- ' 
cord of his death is given in these words : " To s*y he 
was the first artist in his profession would be giving him his 
least praise, for he was a good man. — Naturally modest 
and amiable in his disposition, he never censured the works 
of others, or omitted pointing out their merits ; his patience 
under the continual torments of a most dreadful dfsorder 
Upwards of nine months was truly exemplary ; and he died 
as he had lived, at peace with all the world, in which he 
never had an enemy. He has left his family inconsolable 
for his death, and the public to lament the loss of a man 
whose works (of which his unassuming temper never boast- 
ted) are an honour to his country." An elegant monument 
was afterwards put up to his memory in the cloisters, West- 
minster abbey. * 

WOQLSTON (Thomas), an English divine, very no- 
torious in his day for the .pertinacity with which he pub- 
lished the most dangerous opinions, was born in 1669, at 
Northampton, where his father was a reputable tradesman. 
After a proper education at a grammar-school, he was en- 
tered of Sidney college, in Cam bridge, in 1685, where he 
took both the degrees in arts, and that of bachelor of di- 
vinity, and was chosen fellow of his college. From this 
time, in conformity to the statutes of that society, he ap- 
plied himself to the study of divinity; and entering into 

* Strutt's Diet.— Some MS memorandums purchased at the late Mr. Alexan- 
der's sale, by Mr. J. B. Nichols, and obligingly communicated to the editor. 


holy orders, soon, we are told, became distinguished and 
esteemed for bis learning and piety. Of what sort the lat- 
ter was, bis life will shew. . It appears that he had very 
early conceived some of those notions which afterwards so 
much degraded his character. His first appearance as an 
author was in 1705, when he printed at Cambridge a work 
entitled " The old Apology of the Truth for the Christian 
Religion against the Jews and Gentiles revived," 8vo. The 
design of this work, which is an octavo of near 400 pages, 
is to prove that all the actions of Moses were typical of 
Christ, and to shew that some of the fathers did not think 
them* real, but typical relations of what was to come. < This 
allegorical way of interpreting the scriptures of the Old 
' Testament our author is said to have adopted from Origen, 
whose works, however, he must have studied very inju- 
diciously ; yet he became so enamouredof this method of , 
interpretation, that he not only thought it had been un- 
justly neglected by the moderns, but that it might be use- 
ful, as an additional proof of the truth of Christianity, 
-He preached this doctrine first in the college chapel, and 
afterwards before the university at St. Mary's, to the great 
surprise of his audience. Yet, as his intentions seemed 
to be good, and his character respected, and as he bad not 
yet begun to make use of the indecent language which 
disgraced his subsequent works, no opposition was raised ; 
and when the volume appeared in print, though there 
were some singular notions advanced, and a new manner 
of defending Christianity proposed, yet there was nothing 
that gave particular offence, and many things which shewed 
great ingenuity and learning. He stilT continued to reside' 
at Cambridge, applying himself indefatigably to his studies, 
in a quiet and retired way, until 1720, when he published 
a Latin dissertation entitled " De Pontii Pilati ad Tiberium 
Epistola circa res Jesu Christi gestas ; per Mystagogum," 
8vo, in which he endeavours to prove that Pontius Pilate 
wrote a letter to Tiberius Cesar concerning the works of 
Christ ; but that the epistle delivered down to us under 
that name among the writings of the fathers, was forged. 
The same year he published another pamphlet in Latin, 
with the title of " Origen is Adamantii Kenati Epistola ad 
Doctores Whitbeium, Waterlandium, Whistoniutn, alios- 
que literatos hujus saeculi disputatores, circa fidefn vere 
orthodoxam et scripturarum interpretationem ;" and, soon 
after, a second epistle with the same title* The rage of 

aw w O O h S T Q N. 

allegorizing tbq letter of th* holy scriptures into mystery, 
villi which this writer was incurably infected, began now ' 
to shew itself more openly to the world than it had hitherto 
done. In 1720 and 1721, he published two letters to J)r# 
Rennet, rector of §t. Giles's, Cripplegate, London; op* 
iipon this question, u Whether the people called quakers 
do not the nearest of any other sect of religion regerab)* 
the primitive Christians in principles and practice ?" by 
Aristobulus ; the other, " In defence of the Apostles and 
Primitive Fathers of the Church, for their allegorical in- 
terpretation of the law of Moses, against the ministers, of 
the letter and literal commentators of this age;' 1 and., soon 
after, be himself published an answer to these two letters; 
in all which his view appears to have been rather to t>e 
severe upon the clergy than to defend either apostles, 
fathers, or quakers. At what time be left college does not ' 
appear, but he bad about this time absented himself from 
it beyond the time limited by the statutes. The society 
and his friends, however, compassionating bis case, ?od 
judging it to be in some degree the effect of a bodily dis- 
temper, allowed him the revenues of his fellowship for a 
support. The supposition hurt his pride, and he went 
directly to Cambridge to convince the gentlemen of bis 
College that he laboured under no disorder, and as he at 
the same time refused to reside, be lost his fellowship. 

After this his brother, an alderman of Northampton, 
allowed him thirty poiyids a year, besides other occasional 
assistance;, and on this be supported himself, being a man 
pf great temperance, in London. In 1722 he published a 
piece entitled " The egsxt fitness of the time in which 
Christ was manifested in the Flesh, demonstrated by rea- 
son, against the objections of the old Gentiles, and of 
modern Unbelievers." This was vvell enough received, as 
shewing much learning displayed in a temperate manner, 
and having in it some valuable remarks. It was written 
twenty years before its publication, and delivered as a 
public exercise both in Sidney college chapel, and in St. 
Mary's church, as Woolston 'himself observes in his dedi- 
cation pf it to Dr. Fisher, master of Sidney college. But 
lie did not long abstain from his intended attack on the 
ctargy 8J1< I religion. In 1723 and 1724 came out his four 
" Free Gifts to the Clergy," and his own " Answer" to 
them, in five separate pamphlets; in which he attacks the 
clergy with the greatest contempt,' and, as it would appear, 



without any provocation. Yet, though he treated tbem in 
thif manner, he expressed a very great regard for religion ; 
and did what some thought more 1 than necessary to defend 
it, when in 1726 he published " A Defence of the Thun- ' 
dering Legion, against Mr. Moyle's Dissertations. 9 ' 

The "Four free gifts" were scarcely published, when, 
the controversy with Collins going on at this time, Mr. 
Woolston, under pretence of acting the part of an im- 
partial inquirer, published his " Moderator between an In- 
fidel and Apostate/ 9 and two "Supplements to the Mode- 
rator.' 9 In these pieces, he pursued his allegorical scheme, 
to the exclusion of the letter; and, with regard to the . 
miracles of Christ, not only contended for sublime and 
mystical interpretations of them, but also asserted that 
they were not real, or ever actually wrought. As he con- 
ducted this attempt with greater rudeness and insolence 
than any of those that had appeared before him, his pre- 
sumption was not likely to be unnoticed in a Christian 
country, and he was prosecuted by the attorney-general ; 
but the prosecution was stopped at the intercession of Mr, 
Whiston* In 1727, 1728, 1729, and 1730, were pub- 
lished bis " Six Discourses on the Miracles of Christ," 
and his two " Defences" of them. The six discourses are 
dedicated to six bishops : Gibson, of London ; Chandler, 
of Litchfield; Smalbroke, of St. David's ; Hare, of Chi- 
chester; Sherlock, of Bangor; and Potter, of Oxford, who 
are all treated with the utmost rudeness. What he under- 
take? to prove is, that the miracles of our Saviour, as we 
find them in the Evangelists, however related by tbem as 
historical truths, were not real, but merely allegorical; and 
that they are to be interpreted, not in literal but only in 
mystical senses. His pretence is, that the fathers of the 
church considered our Saviour's miracles in the same alle- 
gorical way that be does; that is, as merely allegorical, and 
excluding the letter : but this is not so. Some of the fa- 
thers, indeed, and Origen in particular, did not .confine 
themselves to the bare letter, but endeavoured, upon the 

* It does not appear very clearly 
whether this was at the intercession of 
Whiston. W km too informs us of his 
having applied to the attorney-gene* 
ral, sir Philip Yorke, who said that he 
would aotprooeed unless the secretary 
of stale Rent him an order so to do. 
u I then," addsWbistoo, " went to Dr. 

Clarke, to persuade him to go with me 
to lord Townsend (the secretary of 
State) hut he refused, all edging Uurt 
the report would then go abroad, jthat 
the king supported blasphemy. How- 
ever, no fanner progress was made in 
Mr. Woolston's trial. 

284 W O O L S T O N. 

foundation of the letter, to raise spiritual meanings, and to 
allegorize by way of moral application ; and they did this, 
not only upon the miracles of Christ, but upon almost alt 
the historical ' facts of the Old and New Testament : but 
they never denied the miracles or the facts. This strange 
and enthusiastic scheme of Woolston was offensive enough 
of itself, but infinitely more so from his manner of conduct- 
ing it; for he not only argues against the miracles of 
Christ, but treats them in a most ludicrous and outrageous 
way : expressing himself in terms of astonishing insolence 
and scurrility. Such conduct raised a general disgust : 
and many books and pamphlets, both from bishops and in- 
ferior clergy, appeared against his discourses ; and a se- 
cond prosecution was commenced and carried on with vi- 
gour, against which there seemed to be now little or no 
opposition, he having by his disingenuity of argument and 
scurrility of manner, excluded himself from all the privi- 
leges of a fair reasoner. At his trial in Guildhall before 
the lord chief-justice Raymond, he spoke several times 
himself; and among other things urged, that "he thought 
it very hard to be tried by a set of men, who, though other* 
wise very learned and worthy persons, were yet no morejudges 
of the subjects on which he wrote than he himself was a 
judge of the most crabbed points of law." He was sen- 
tenced to a year's imprisonment, and to pay a fine of 100/. 
He purchased the liberty of the rules of the King's Bench, 
where he continued after the expiration of the year, being 
unable to pay the fine. Dr. Samuel Clarke had begun his 
solicitations at court for the releasement of Woolston, de- 
claring that he did not undertake it as an approver of his 
doctrines, but as an advocate for that liberty which he him- 
self had always contended for ; but he was hindered from 
effecting it by his death, which happened soon after Wool- 
ston's commitment. The greatest obstruction to his de- 
liverance from confinement was the obligation of giving 
security not to offend by any future writings, he being re- 
solved to write again as freely as before. While some sup- 
posed this author not in earnest, but meaning to subvert 
Christianity under a pretence of defending it; others be* 
lieved him disordered, and not perfectly in his right mind; 
and many circumstances concurred to persuade to the lat- 
ter of these opinions; but how, in either case, a prosecu- 
tion for blasphemy comes to be considered as persecution, 
for religion, remains yet to be explained. Such a con- 

WOO L S T ON. 28$ 

struction, however, appears to have been put upon it by 
the Clarkes and Lardners of those days, and by their suc- 
cessors in our own. As the sale of Woolston's books was, 
very great (for such blasphemies will find readers as well 
as advocates for the publication of them), his gains arising 
from them must have been proportionable; but he defrayed 
all the expences, and those not inconsiderable, to which 
his publishers were subjected by selling. He died Janu- 
ary 27, 1732-3, after an illness of four days; and, a few 
minutes before his death, uttered these words : " This is a 
struggle which all men must go through, and which I bear 
not only patiently, but with willingness." His body was 
interred in St. George's church-yard, Southwark. * 

WOOLTON (John), bishop of Exeter in queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, was born at Wigan in Lancashire, in 1535;' 
he was nephew to the celebrated dean No we II. He en* 
tered a student of Brasen-nose college, Oxford, in 1553, 
whence in 1555 he fled to his uncle and the other exiles in 
Germany. • On his return in the beginning of queen Eli- 
zabeth's reign, he was made canon residentiary of Exeter, 
where he read a divinity lecture twice a week, and preached 
twice every Lord's day ; and in the time of the great plague, 
he only with one more remained in the city, preaching pub- 
licly as before, and comforting privately such as were in- 
fected with the disease. Besides his residentiary ship, he 
had the living of Spaxton in the diocese of Wells, and in 
i575 became Warden of Manchester college, in 1579 he 
was consecrated bishop of Exeter, and, as he had been be- 
fore esteemed a pious, painful, and skilful divine, he was 
now a vigilant and exemplary prelate. His character in 
this last respect excited some animosity, and a long string 
of accusations was presented against him to archbishop 
Parker, which Strype has recorded at length in his appen- 
dix to the life of that celebrated primate, all which bishop 
Wool ton satisfactorily answered. 

Bishop Godwin, the biographer, who married one of his 
daughters, and seems to have been with him in his last mo- 
ments, says, he dictated letters, not two hours before his 
death, on subjects of importance, full of the piety and pru- 
dence of a man in health and vigour; and being reminded 
to consult bis health, he repeated and applied the saying of 
Vespasian, that " a bishop ought to die upon his legs ;" 

1 Biof. Brit.— Inland's Deiitical Writers.— Whistou's J/>fe. 

286 W O O L T 6 N. 

which in him, at before in the emperor, was verified, for as 
he was supported across the room (his complaint being an 
asthma) he sunk, and expired almost before he touched 
the ground, in the fifty-ninth year of his age. He was in- 
terred in Exeter cathedral, with a Latin inscription by his 
son. He composed many theological tracts, monitpry and 
practical, which were all printed and published in the space 
of about twelve months, in the years' 1576 and 1577. 1. 
" Anatomie of the whole man." 2. " Christian manual." 
3. "Of Conscience/* 4. " Armour of proofed 5. «* Im- 
mortalitie of the soule." 6. "Fortress* of the Faithful!/* 
and 7. "David's Chain/' which last is not mentioned by 
Wood or Ames. * 


WORLIDGE (Thomas), an artist of considerable merit, 
was a native of England, born in 1700, and for the greater 
part of his life painted portraits in miniature : he after- 
wards, with worse success, performed them in oil ; but at 
last acquired reputation and money by etchings, in the' 
manner of Rembrandt, which proveif to be a very easy task, 
by the numbers of men who have counterfeited that master 
so as to deceive all those who did not know his works* 
Woriidge's imitations and his beads in black-lead have 
grown astonishingly into fashion. His best piece is the 
whole-length of sir John Astley, copied from Rem- 
brandt, and his copy of the hundred Guilder print ; but bis 
print of *he theatre at Oxford and the act there, and his 
statue of lad} 7 Pomfret's Cicero, are very poor perform- 
ances. His last work was a book of gems from the antique. 
He died at Hammersmith, Sept. 23, 1766, aged sixty-six.* 

WORMIUS (Olaus), a learned physician of Denmark, 
was born May 13, 1588, at Arhusen, a city of Jutland, 
where his father was a burgomaster of an ancient family. 
He began his studies in his native place; but was sent, 
when very young, to the college of Lunenburg; and thence 
to Emmeric, in the duchy of Cleves. Having spent four 
years at these places, he was removed to Marpurg in 1605; 
and two years after to Strasburg, where he applied himself 
to physic, to which profession he had now given the prefer-' 
eoce, and going to Basil studied some time with advantage* 
under Platerus and others. In 1 608, he went to Italy, and 

» Atb. Ox. vol. I.— Strype's Whitgift, p. 220.— Churton's Life of NowelK— 
Fuller^ Worthies. 

* Walpole'i Anecdotes. — Pilkington and Strutt's Dictionaries, * 

W O R M I V S. 291 

doling a residence of ion* months at Padtia, his uflcfotff* 
moti parts and learning procured him singular honours. 
He Visited other cities of Italy, arid passed thence iofi* 
France, remaining three months at Sienna, and four at 
Montpelier; after which his design was, to make along 
abode at Paris; but the assassination of Henry IV. in 1610, 
about two months after his arrival, obliging him as well as 
other strangers to •• retire from that city, he went to Hol- 
land, and thence to Denmark. He had not yet visited the 
university of Copenhagen, so that bis first care was to re-* 
pair thither, and to be admitted a member of it, He was 
earnestly entreated to continue there ; but his passion fof 
travelling was not yet satiated, and he resolved to See Eng- 
land first. The chemical experiments that were then car- 
rying on at Marpnrg made a great noise \ and he went 
thither in 1611, with a view of perfecting himself in a 
science of great importance to a physician. Thence he 
journeyed to Basil, where he took the degree of doctor 
hi physic ; and from Basil to London, in which city he 
resided a year and a half* His friends grew now impa~ 
tient to have him at home, where he arrived in 1613 : and 
was scarcely settled, when he was made professor of the 
belles-lettres in the university of Copenhagen. In 1615, 
he Was translated to the chair of the Greek professor ; and, 
in 1624, to the professorship of physic, in the room of 
Caspar Bartholin, which he held to his death. These oc- 
cupations did not hinder him from practising in his pro* 
fessioOj and from being the fashionable physician. The 
king and court of Denmark always employed him ; and 
Christian IV. as a recompense fof his services, conferred 
en him the canoory of Lunden. He died Aug. 31, 1654, 
aged sixty-six. 

Wormius had three wives, who brought him a family of 
sixteen children. He published some works on subjects 
relating to his profession, several in defence of Aristotle's 
philosophy, and several concerning the antiquities of Den- 
mark and Norway. For these last he is principally re* 
intemhered now, and they are esteemed very lea riled and 
Correct; particularly his, I. "Fasti Danici," 1626. 2. "A 
History of Norway," 1633, 4tt>. 3. " Litteratura Danica 
anti^uissima, vuigo Gothica dicta, & de prisca Danofujn 
Peesi," 16S6, 4to. 4. " Monumeutorum Danicorum Kbri 
VT.* § 1643, folio. 5. "Lexicon Runicum, & Appendix ad 
Monumenta Danica," 1650, folio. 6. "Series Regum 

2*8 W O R M I U Si 

Daoise . duplex, & limttum inter Daniam & Sueciam 0c-»» 
scriptio," 1642, folio. 7- " Talshoi, aeu Monumentain 
Stroense in Scania/' 1628, 4to. 8. " Monumentum Try- 
gwaldense," 1636, 4to. Ail printed, at Hafnia, or Co- 
penhagen. ' 

WORTHINGTON (Dr. John), an excellent divine of 
the church of England, was born at Manchester, in the be- 
ginning of Feb. 1617*18, and was the son of Roger Wor- 
thington, a person of " chief note and esteem" in that town* 
His mother was Mary, the daughter of Christopher Which- 
cote, esq., and niece to sir Jeremy Whichcote, bart He 
was educated at Emanuel college, Cambridge, of which he 
became a fellow, was created B.D. in 1646, and D. D. in 
1655. He was afterwards chosen master of Jesus cottege, 
vacant by the ejectment of Dr. Richard Sterne, afterwards 
archbishop of York, but was with some difficulty prevailed 
upon to submit to the choice and request of the fellows, his 
inclination being to a more private and retired life ; and 
soon after .the restoration he resigned that mastership to 
Dr. Sterne. In the mean time he was successively rector 
of Hortpn in Buckinghamshire, Gravely and Fen Ditton in 
the county of Cambridge, Barking, with Needham, in the 
county of Suffolk, and Ingoldsby in Lincolnshire. During 
the years 1660 and 1661 he cultivated a frequent cor- 
respondence by letters with that great promoter of all use- 
ful learning, Mr. Samuel Hartlib ; four and twenty of Dr. 
Worthington's being published at the end of his Miscella- 
nies ; and several others by bishop Kennet in his Register 
and Chronicle. In 1663, he was collated to the sinecure 
rectory of Moulton All Saints, in Norfolk. He entered 
upon the cure of St. Bene't Fink in June 1664, under Dr.. 
George Evans, canon of Windsor, who held a lease from 
that college of the rectory ; and he continued to preach 
there during the plague-year 1665, coming. thither weekly 
from Hackney, where he had placed his family : and from 
February 18, 1665-6, till the fire in September, he preached 
the lecture of that church, upon the death of the former 
lectures. Soon after that calamity, he was presented by 
Dr. Henry More,, of Christ's college in Cambridge, to the 
living of Ingoldsby, before, mentioned, and to the prebend 
of Asgarby in the cjiurch of Lincoln, procured him by 
archbishop Sheldon, who had a great esteem for him. 

j - • ■ ' 

1 Niceron, vol. lX.— Saxii Ooomast. 


IVom Ingoldsby he removed to Hackney, being choseii 
lecturer of that church with a subscription commencing 
from Lady-day 1670 ; and, the church of St. Bene't Fink 
being then rebuilding*, be made suit to the church of Wind- 
sor to have his lease of the cure renewed to him, being re- 
commended by the archbishop to Dr. Ryves, dean of that 
church. This was granted him ; but some difficulties 
arising about the form of the lease, with regard to the par- 
sonage bouse, agreed to be rebuilt, he did not live to exe- 
cute it, dying at Hackney Nov. 26, 1671. He was interred 
in the church there. 

His funeral-sermon was preached by Dr. Tillotson at 
Hackney, on the 30th of Nov. 1671, on John ix. 4. printed, 
as it was preached on another occasion, in the third volume 
of his posthumous sermons, published by Dr. Barker. But 
the character of Dr.Wortbington* which was the conclusion 
of that sermon,' and omitted in that edition, is inserted in 
the preface to that learned man's " Miscellanies, 9 ' published 
kit London in 1704 in 8vo, by Dr. Fowler, bishop of Glou- 
cester, and prefixed to Dr. Worthington's " Select Dis- 
courses," revised and published by his son John Worthing- 
ton, M.A. at London, 1725, in 8vo. ' 

WORTHINGTON (William), a learned English di- 
vine, was born in Merionethshire in 1703, and educated 
at Oswestry -school, whence he came to Jesus-college, Ox- 
ford, where he made great proficiency in learning. From 
college he returned to Oswestry, and became usher in that 
School. He took' the degree of M.A. at Cambridge in 
1742; was afterwards incorporated at Jesus-college, Ox- 
ford, July* 9, 1758 ; and proceeded B. and D. D. July 10, 
in that year. He was early taken notice of by that great 
encourager of learning bishop Hare, then bishop of St. 
Asaph, who presented • him first to the vicarage of 
Llan'yblodwell, in the county of Salop, and afterwards re- 
moved him to Llanrhayader, or Llanrhadra, in Denbighshire, 
where he lived much beloved, and died Oct. 6, 1773, much 
lamented. As be could never be prevailed upon to ttfk* 
two livings, bishop Hare gave him a stall at St. Asaph, and 
a sinecure, "to enable him," he said, "to support his 
charities" (for charitable he was in an emiuent degree). 

Afterwards archbishop Drummond (to whom he had beerv 

• , • • . ... 

■ Bml-wick'i Life.—Birch'f Life of TilloUoa.— Gcot. Mag. voli. XL1L XLIU, 

Vol. XXXII. V 


chaplain for several years) presented him to a stall in the 
cathedral of York. These were all bis preferments. He 
was a studious man! and wrote several books, of which the 
principal are here enumerated. 1. "An Essay on the 
Scheme and Conduct, Procedure and Extent, of Man's 
Redemption ; designed for the honour and illustration of 
Christianity. To which is annexed, a Dissertation on the 
Design and Argumentation of the Book of Job," by Wil- 
liam Worthing ton, M. A. vicar of Blodwel in Shropshire, 
London* 1743, 8vo. 2. "The historical Sense of the Mo- 
saic Account of the Fall proved and vindicated," 17...., 
8vo. 3. " Instructions concerning Confirmation," 17...., 
8vo. 4. " A Disquisition concerning the Lord's-Supper," 
17...., 8vo. 5. "The Use, Valu^, and Improvement, of va- 
rious Readings shewn and illustrated, in a Sermon preached 
before the University of Oxford, at St. Mary's, on Sunday 
Oct. 18, 1761," Oxford, 1764, 8vo. 6. "A Sermon 
preached in the parish-church of Christchurch, London, on 
Thursday April the 21st, 1763; being the time of the 
yearly meeting of the children educated in the charity- 
schools in and about the cities of London and Westpiini 
ster," 1768, 4to. 7. " The Evidences of Christianity, 
deduced from Facts, and the Testimony of Sense, through- 
out all Ages of the Church, to the present Time* In a 
series of discourses, preached for, the lecture founded by 
the hon. Robert Boyle, esq. in the parish-church of St. 
James, Westmiuster, in the years 1766, 1767, 1768; 
wherein is shewn, that, upon the whole, xthis is not a de- 
caying, but a growing, Evidence," 1769, 2 vols. Svo. 8. 
" The Scripture Theory of the Earth, throughout all its 
Revolutions, and all the periods of its existence, from the 
creation to the final renovation of all things ; being a se- 
quel to the Essay ou Redemption, and an illustration of the 
principles on which it is written/' 17.73, 8 to. ft " Ire* 
nicum; or, the Importance of Unity in tfee Church of 
Christ considered, and applied towards the healing of our 
unhappy differences and divisions," 1775, $.vo. lQ."An 
Impartial Enquiry into the Case of the Gospel- Qemoniaca; 
with an appendix, consisting of an Essay en Scrtpture- 
Demonology," 1777, 8vo. This last was a warm attack 
on the opinion held out by the Rev. Hugh Farmer, i* his 
" Essay on the Demoniacs/ 9 1775, 8vo. and, having pro- 
duced a spirited reply in 1773, Dr. Wortbington prepared 
for the press (what by the express directions of \m will 

WOTTON. 291 

was given to the public aftet bis death) " A farther Enquiry 
into the case of the Gospel-Demoniacs, occasioned by Mr. 
Farmer's on the subject," 1779, Svo* 1 

WOTTON (Anthony), ranked by Fuller among the 
learned writers of King's-college, Cambridge, was born in 
London, about the latter part of the sixteenth century, 
and educated at Eton, whence, being elected to King's- 
cellege, he was entered, Oct. 1, 1579, commenced B. A* 
in 1583, M. A. in 1587, and B. D. in 1594. He was also 
fellow of that college, and some time chaplain to Robert 
earl of Esse*. On the death of Dr. Whitaker in 1596 he 
stood candidate for the king's professorship of divinity in 
Cambridge, with Dr. John Overall of Trhiity*college ; but 
failed, by the superior interest of the latter, although he 
performed bis probationary exercises with general ap- 
plause. In March 1596 he was chosen professor of divinity 
in Gresbanvcollege, upon the first settlement of that 
foundation, and in 1598 quitted his fellowship at Cambridge, 
and marrying soon after, resigned also his professorship. 
He was then chosen lecturer of Allhallows Barking; but 
in 1604 was silenced by Dr. Bancroft, bishop of London, 
for some expressions used either in a prayer or sermon, 
which were considered as disrespectful to the king; but it 
does not appear that he remained long under suspension ; 
at least, in a volume of sermons printed in 1609 he styles 
himself minister of Allhallows. 

His next trouble arose from his brethren in London, of 
the puritan stamp, with which be is usually classed. He 
was accused of holding an erroneous opinion concerning 
the doctrine of justification, which, according to him, con- 
sisted in the forgiveness of sins. His principal accuser 
was the Rev. George, Walker, minister of St. John, the 
Evangelist in Watling-street, who went so far as to bring 
forward a charge of Socinianism, heresy, and blas- 
phemy. This produced a conference between eight di- 
vines of eminence, four for each party; and the result 
was, tbat although these judges differed from Mr. Wottou 
"in some points of obe former doctrine of justification, 
contained in his expositions," yet they held " not the dif- 
ference to be so great and weighty, as that they are to be 
justly condemned of heresy and blasphemy ." 

* Nichols's Bowj *r. 
V 2 

292 WOTTON. 

In 1624, as Mr. Wotton bad promised to explain himself 
more fully on the subject in dispute, he published his 
Latin treatise " De reconciKatione peccatoris," thinking it 
more advisable to discuss the question in a learned lan- 
guage, than to hazard differences among common Chris- 
tians by priming his opinion in English. In this work he 
professed to agree with the Church of England, the gene- 
rality of the first reformers, and particularly Calvin, and to 
oppose only the opinion of Flaccus Illyricus, Hemmingius, 
&c. and that of the Church of Rome, as declared in the 
Council of Trent. Walker, however, returned to the charge, 
but did not publish any thing until after Mr. Wotton's 
death. This obliged his friend Mr. Gataker, one of the 
eight divines who sat in judgement on him, to write a nar- 
rative of the conference, which was published by Mr. 
Wotton's son in 1641. 

As Mr. Wotton was a zealous advocate for the reforma- 
tion, he published several books in defence of it, which 
exposed him to the resentment of a different party. He 
entered particularly into the controversy, with Dr. Monta- 
gue, afterwards bishop of Chichester, whose work entitled 
" Appello Caesarem" met with a host of opponents, on ac- 
count of its leaning towards Arminianism and popery. 
Wotton did not long survive this performance. Though a 
man acknowledged by all parties to be learned and able, 
it does not appear he had any other preferment than the 
lectureship of Allhallows, where, according to the register, 
he was buried Dec. 11, 1626. 

His writings are, 1. "An answer to a -popish pamphlet, 
&c. entitled • Certain Articles, 1 &c." Lond. 1605, 4to. 
2. " A defence of Mr. Perkins 9 booke called A Reformed 
Catholike, &c." ibid. 1606, 4to. 3. "The tryal of the 
Roman Clergy's title to jhe Church," ibid. 1608, 4to. 4. 
" Sermons on part of chapter first of St. John's Gospel,'* 
ibid. 1609} 4to. 5. " Run from Rome; or, The necessity 
of separating from that Church," ibid. 162*, 4to. 6. " De 
reconciliatione peccatoris, &c." Basil. 1624, 4to. 7: "An 
answer to a book, entitled Appello Cxsarem, written by 
Mr. Richard Mountague," ibid. 1626. 8. << The art- of 
Logick," ibid. 1626, 8vo, This is an English translation 
of Ram us' s logic, made by his son, and with a dedication 
by our author. This son, Samtiel, who died in 1680, was 
rector of East and West Wretham in Norfolk. l 

1 Ward's Grctbim Proftisors.— Harwood'i Alumni Etooenses, pp. 189 and 221. 


WOTTON (Edward), an eminent physician, celebrated 
by Leland in bis " Encomia," by tbe name of Ododunus, 
was the son of Richard Wotton, superior beadle of divinity 
in the university of Oxford, and was born there in 1492, 
and educated at tbe school near IVJagdalen-college, of 
which college he became demy, and took a bachelor's de- 
gree in 1513. Bishop Fo*, founder of Corpus Christi col- 
lege, was his patron, by whose interest he was appointed 
' sacius cpmpar and Greek lecturer of that new foundation, 
and continued there till 152Q, when he obtained leave to 
travel into Italy for three years. Jt appears that he studied 
physic on the continent, for be had a doctor's degree con- 
ferred upon him at Padua. After his return he resumed 
bis lectureship, and was incorporated doctor of physic to- 
wards the end of 1525. He became very eminent ia his 
profession, first about Oxford, and then in London ; and 
wa« a member of .the college of physicians, and phy- 
sician to Henry VIII. He died October 5, 1555, and 
lies buried in St. Alban's church, London. He was the 
first of our English physicians who particularly applied 
to the study of natural history. He made himself fa- 
mous at home and abroad by his book, entitled " De 
DirTerentiis Animalium, lib. X." Paris, 1552; on which 
Gesner and Possevin have bestowed much praise, It was 
afterwards considerably improved by Moufet in his " Mi- 
nimorum Animalium Theatrum," Lond 1634. Wotton left 
m.auy children, of wbom his son' Henry became also a phy- 
sician of eminence. ! 

WOTTON (Sir Henry), an Englishman, eminent for- 
learning .and politics, was descended from a gentleman's 
family by both parents, and was born at Bough ton - hall in 
Kent, March 30, 1568. The Wottons were of no incon- 
siderable distinction, having possessed this lordship for 
nearly three centuries. Sir Edward Wotton, our states- 
man's grandfather, was treasurer of Calais, and of the privjv 
council to king Henry VIII. and was elder brother to the 
celebrated Dr. Nicholas Wotton, dean of Canterbury, the 
subject of our next article. Sir Robert Wotton, the father * 
of these, was entrusted by king Edward IV. with the lieu- 
tenancy of Guisnes, and was knight-porter and comptrol- 
ler of Calais ; where he died and lies buried; Sir Henry's- 
e^der brother, who was afterwards raised by king James I, . 

* Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Aikio'i Biog. Memoirs of Mediciqe. 

294 WOTTON. 

to the peerage by the title of lord Wotton, was in 13B$ 
sent by queen Elizabeth ambassador to that monarch m 
Scotland ; and Dr. Robertson speaks of btm, as ** a man, 
gay, well-bred, and entertaining; who excelled in ait the 
exercises, for which James had a passion, amused the 
young king by relating the adventures which he bad met 
with, and the observations be had made during a long* resi- 
dence in foreign countries ; but under the veil of these su- 
perficial qualities," Dr. Robertson adds, that " he eon- 
Sealed a dangerous and intriguing spirit. He soon grew in 
favour with James, and while he was seemingly attentive 
only to pleasure and diversions, he acquired influence of er 
the public councils, to a degree, which was indecent for 
strangers to possess." 

Sir Henry was the only son of the second marriage of his 
father Thomas Wotton, esq. with Eleanora, daughter of 
sir William Finch, of EastweW in Kent (ancestor to lord 
Wjnchelsea), and widow of Robert Morton, of the same 
county, esq. He was educated first under private tutors, 
artd then sent to Winchester-school ; whence, in 1 584, be 
was removed to New* col lege in Oxford. Here he was 
entered as a gentleman-commoner, and had his chamber 
in Hart-hail adjoining ; and, for his chamber-fellow, Ri- 
chard Baker, his countryman, afterwards a knight, and au- 
thor of the well known " Chronicle" which goes by bis 
name. Wotton did not continue long there, but went to 
Queen'g'college, where be became well versed in logic 
and philosophy; and, being distinguished for bis wit, was 
solicited to write a tragedy for private acting in that society. 
The name of it was u Tancredo :" and Walton relates, 
H that it was so interwoven with sentences, and for the me* 
thod and exact personating those humours, passions, axid 
dispositions, wbich he proposed to represent, so performed, 
that the gravest of the society declared, be had in a slight 
employment given an early and solid testimony of big fu- 
ture abilities.'* In r598 he supplicated the congregation 
of regents, that be might be admitted to the reading of any 
of the books of Aristotle's logic, that is, be admitted to tbe 
degree of bachelor of arts ; but " whether he was admitted 
to that or any other degree doth not appear," says Wood, 
"from the university registers; 9 ' although Walton tells us, 
that about his 20th year he proceeded master of arts, and 
at that time read in Latin three lectures de oculo, on tbe 
blessing of sight, which he illustrated by some beautiful 
passages aud apt reflexions. 

W O T T O N. 295 

In 1589 he lost his father, and was left with no other 
provision than a rent-charge of 100 marks a-year. Soon 
after, be left Oxford, betook himself to travel, and went 
into France, Germany, and Italy. • He stayed but ope year 
in France, and part of that at Geneva ; where he became 
Acquainted with Beza and Isaac Casaubon. Three years he 
spent in Germany, and five in Italy, where both in Rome, 
Venice, and Florence, he cultivated acquaintance with the 
most eminent men for learning and all manner of fine arts; 
for painting, sculpture, chemistry, and architecture ; of all 
which be was an amateur and an excellent jndge. After 
having spent nine years abroad, he returned to England 
highly accomplished, and with a great accumulation of 
knowledge of the countries through which be had passed. 
His wit and politeness so effectually recommended him to 
the fcarl of Essex that he first admitted him into his friend- 
ship, and afterwards made him one of his secretaries, the 
celebrated Mr. Henry Cuff being the other. (See Cuff.) 
He personally attended all the councils and employments 
of the earl, and continued with him till he was apprehended 
for high treason. Fearing now lest be might, from his inti- 
mate connexion, be involved in bis patron's ruin, he thought 
proper to retire, and was scarcely landed in France, When 
he heard that his master Essex was beheaded, and his 
friend Cuff hanged. He prdceeded to Florence, and was 
received into great confidence by the grand duke of Tus- 
cany. This place became the more agreeable to him, from 
his meeting with sign or Vietta, a gentleman of Venice, 
with whom he had been formerly intimately acquainted, 
and who was now the grand duke's secretary. It was dur- 
ing this retreat that Mr. Wotton drew up his "State of 
Christendom, or a most exact and curious discovery of 
raatty secret pa$sages, and hidden myteries of the times." 
This was first printed, a thin fol. in 1657, and afterwards in 
1677, with a small alteration in the title. It was here also . 
that the grand duke having intercepted letters which dis- * 
covered a design to take away the life of James VI. of 
Scotland, dispatched Wotton thither to give him notice of 
it. Wotton was on this account, as well as according to 
his instructions, to manage this affair with all possible se- 
crecy : and therefore, having parted from the duke, he 
took the name and language of an Italian ; and to avoid 
the line of English intelligence and danger, be posted into 
Norway, and from that country to Scotland. He found 

996 W O T T O N; 

the king at Stirling, and was admitted to bint under the 
name of Octavio Ifeldi. He delivered bis message and his 
letters to the king in Italian : then, stepping up and whit** 
pering to his majesty, he told him he was an Englishman* 
requested a more private conference with him, and that he 
might be concealed during his stay in Scotland. He spent 
about three months with the king, who was highly entex> 
tained with fyim, and then returned to Florence, where, 
*after a few months, the npws of queen Elizabeth's death, 
and of king James's accession to the crown of England, 

Sir Henry Wotton then returned to England, and, as it 
seems, not sponer than welcome, for king James, finding, 
among other officers of the late queen, sir Edward, who 
was afterwards lord Wotton, asked him, " if he knew one 
Henry Wotton, who had spent much time in foreign 
travel ?" Sir Edward replied, that " he knew him well, and 
that he was his brother." Then the king asking, "Where 
he then was ?" vyas answered, <f at Veuice, or Florence; 
but would soon be at Paris." The king ordered him to be 
sent for, and to be brought privately to him; which being 
done, the king took him into his arms* and saluted him by 
the name of Octavio BaldJ. Then he knighted .bim, and 
nominated him ambassador to the republic pf Venice; 
whither he went, accompanied by sir Albertus Morton, his. 
nephew, who was his secretary, and Mr. William Bedel, 
&, man of great learning and wisdom, and afterwards bishop 
of Kiimore in Ireland, who was bis chaplain, He. con* 
tinued many years in king James's favour, and indeed 
never entirely forfeited it, although he had once the mis- 
fortune to displease his majesty, by an apparently trifling 
circumstance. In proceeding as ambassador to Venice, he 
passed through Germany, and stayed some days £t Augs- 
burg; where, happening tp spend a social evening with 
some ingenious and learned men, whorp he had before 
known in his travels, one Christopher Flecamore requested 
bim tp write some sentence in his Album, a paper book 
which the (German gentry used to carry febout with them 
for that purpose. Sir Henry Wotton, consenting to the 
motion, took occasion frpm some incidental discourse of 
the cpmpany, tp write a definition of an ambassador in 
these words. : " Legatus est vir bonus peregre mis&us ad 
memiendum Rpipubliqae causa:" which Walton says. he 
would have interpreted thus: "An ambassador is an honest 

W O T T O N; 297 

mm tent to He abroad for the good of bis country." The 
word lie was the binge on which this conceit turned, yet 
it was no conceit at all in Latin, and therefore could not 
bear the construction sir Henry, according, to Walton, 
wished to bave puc upon it : so that when the Album fell 
afterwards into the bands of Gaspar Scioppius (See Sciop- 
Pius), be printed it in bis famous book against king James, 
as a principle of the religion professed by that king, and 
bis ambassador sir Henry Wotton ; and in Venice it was 
presently after written in several glass windows, and spite- 
fully, declared to be sir Henry's. This coming to the 
knowledge of king James, be apprehended it to be such an 
oversight, Such weakness, or worse, that he expressed 
much anger against him ; which caused sir Henry to write 
two apologies in Latin ; one to Velserus at Augsburg, which 
was dispersed into the cities of Germany, and another to 
the king " de Caspare Scioppio." These gave such satis- 
faction that the king entirely forgave sir Henry, declaring 
publicly, that " he had commuted sufficiently for a greater 
offence." . 

After this embassy, he was sent twice more to Venice, 
once to the States of the United Provinces, twice to 
Charles Emanuel duke of Savoy, dnce to the united princes' 
of Upper Germany ; also to the archduke Leopold, to the 
duke of Wittemberg, to the imperial cities of Strasbujrgh 
and Ulm, .and lastly to the emperor Ferdinand II. He re- 
turned to England the year before king James died ; and 
brought with him many servants, of which some were Ger- 
man and Italian artists, and who became rather burthensome 
to bun ; for notwithstanding the many public services in 
which he had been employed, he had by no means im- 
proved his private fortune, which was also impaired by his 
liberality and want of ceconomy. As some recompense, 
which may at first appear rather a singular one for a man 
who had spent his days as a courtier and ambassador, he 
was in 1623 appointed provost of Eton-college. But in 
fact this situation was very agreeable to him, for he was 
now desirous of retiring from the bustle of life, and passing 
the evening of his days in studious pursuits. Whoever 
peruses his " Remains, 9 ' must perceive that he had much 
of the literary character, and finding now that the statutes 
of the college required the provost to be in holy orders, 
he. was ordained deacon, and -seemed to begin a new life. 
His usuaj course now was, after his customary public de? 

29S W O T T O N. 

votions, to retire into his study, and there daily spend 
Some hours in reading the Bible, and works of divinity, 
closing those studies with a private prayer. His afternoons 
he spent partly in philosophical studies, and partly in con- 
versation with his friends, or in some recreation, particu- 
larly angling. His sentiments and temper during his lat- 
ter days will best appear by what he said, on one occasion, 
when visited by the learned John Hales, then k fellow of Eton. 
" I have in my passage to my grave met with most of those 
joys of which a discursive soul is capable ; and have been 
entertained with more inferior pleasures than the soul* Of 
men are usually made partakers of. Nevertheless, in this 
voyage I have not always floated on the calm sea of coo* 
tent ; but have often met with cross winds and storms, and 
with many troubles of mind and temptations to evil. And 
yet though I have been, and am a man compassed about 
with human frailties, Almighty God has by his grace pre- 
vented me from making shipwreck of faith and a good con- 
science ; the thought of which is now the joy of my heart, 
and I most humbly praise him for it. And I humbly ac- 
knowledge, that it was not myself, but he that bath kept 
me to this great age, and let him take the glory of his great 
mercy. And, my dear friend, I now see that I draw near 
my harbour of death ; that harbour will secure me from all 
th$ future storms and waves of this restless world ; and I 
praise God I am willing to leave it, and expect a better ; 
that world wherein dwelleth righteousness ; and I long 
tor it." 

Sir Henry Wotton died in December 1639, and was bu- 
ried in the chapel belonging to the college. In his will he 
appointed this epitaph to be put over his grave : " Hie 
jacet hujus sententiie primus auctor, D is put audi Pruritus 
JEcclesia Scabies. Nomen alias quaere :** that is, " Here 
lies the first author of this sentence : * The itch of disputa- 
tion-is the scab of the church.' Seek his name elsewhere." 

Sir Henry Wotton was a man of eminent learning and 
abilities, and greatly esteemed by his contemporaries. His 
knowledge was very extensive, and his taste perhaps not in* 
ferior to that of any man of his time. Among other proofs 
of it, he was among the first who were delighted with Mil- 
ton's mask* of Comus; and although Mr. Warton has pro- 
nounced him to be " on the whole a mixed and desultory 
character," he has found San able defender in a living au- 
thor of equal taste and judgment, who observes on Mr. 

W O T T O N. *M 

Warton's expression, that " this in a strict sense may be 
tine) but surely not in the way of censure. He mingled 
the character of an active statesman with that of a recluse 
scholar; and be wandered from the crooked and thorny 
intrigues of diplomacy into the flowery paths of the muses. 
But is it not high praise to have been thus desultory ?" 
The same writer says of sir Henry as a poet, " It may be 
true, that sir Henry's genius was not suited to the bighet 
conceptions of Milton. His mind was subtle and elegant 
rather than sublime. , In truth the habits of a diplomatist, 
and of a great poet, are altogether incompatible/' but 
"for moral and didactic poetry, the experience of a states- 
man does not disqualify him," and of this species, sir 
Henry has left some exquisite specimens. He seems to 
have lived in a perpetual struggle between his. curiosity 
respecting the world, fomented by his ambition, and his 
love of books, contemplation, and quiet. His letters to 
sir Edmund Bacon, who married his niece, prove his strong 
family affections. His heart appears to have been moulded 
with a high degree of moral tenderness. This, both the 
sentiments attributed to him by Walton, and the cast of 
his poems, sufficiently evince. 

He was a great enemy to wrangling and disputes about 
religion ; and used to cut inquiries short by witticisms. 
To one who asked him, " Whether a Papist may be saved ?" 
he replied, " You may he saved without knowing that : 
look to yourself." To another, who was railing at the 
papists with more zeal than knowledge, he gave this ad- 
vice : " Pray, Sir, forbear, till you have studied the pofnts 
better ; for, the wise Italians have this proverb, ' He that 
understands amiss concludes worse ;' and beware of think- 
ing, that, the farther you go from the church of Rome, 
the nearer you are to God." One or two more of his bohs 
mots are preserved. A pleasant priest of his acquaintance 
at Rome invited him one evening to hear their vesper- 
music, and seeing him standing in an obscure corner of 
the church, sent a boy to him with this question, writ upon 
a scrap of paper, " Where was your religion to be found 
before Luther?" To which sir Henry sent back under- 
written, "Where yours is not to be found, in the written 
word of God." Another evening, sir Henry sent a boy of 
the choir with this question to his friend: " Do you be- 
lieve those many thousands of poor Christians damned who 
were excommunicated because the pope and the duke of 

300 W O T T O N. 

Venice could not agree about their temporalities? 99 To 
which the priest underwrit in French, " Excusez moi, 
. Monsieur." 

Sir Henry Wotton had proposed, after he was settled at 
Eton, to write the " Life of Martin Luther," and in it 
" The History of the Reformation," as it was carried orr in 
Germany. He bad made some progress in this work* when 
Charles I. prevailed with him to lay that aside, and to apply 
himself to the writing of a history of England. He pro- 
ceeded to sketch out some short characters as materials, 
which are in his " Reliquiae," but proceeded no farther. 

His works separately or collectively published were, i. 
u Epistola de Caspare Scioppio," Amberg, 1613, 8 vo. 2. 
" Epistola ad Marcum Velserum duumvirum Augustas Vin- 
delic. ann. 1612." 3. "The Elements of Architecture," 
Lond. 1624, 4to, a treatise still held in estimation. It was 
translated into Latin, and 'annexed to the works of Vitru- 
vius, and to Freart's " Parallel of the ancient architecture 
with the modern." 4. " Plausus et Vota ad regem e Sco- 
tia reducem," Lond. 1633, small folio, reprinted in Lam- 
phire's "Monarchia Britannica," Oxford, 1681, 8vo. 5. 
€C Parallel between Robert earl of Essex and George late 
duke of Bucks," London, 1641, 4to, not remarkable for 
the judgment displayed. There were scarcely any paral- 
lelisms in the twa characters. 6. " Short View of the 
life and death of George Duke of Bucks," London, 1642,4to. 

7. " Difference and disparity between the estates and con- 
ditions of George duke of Bucks and Robert earl of Essex." 

8. " Characters of, and observations on some kings of Eng- 
land." 9. " The election of the new duke of Venice after 
the death of Giovanni Bembo." \6. " Philosophical Sur- 
vey of Education, cfr moral Architecture." 11. ."Apho- 
risms of Education." 12. " The great Action between 
Pompey and Caesar extracted out of the Roman and Greek 
writers." 13. " Meditations on the 22d chapter of. Gene- 
sis." 14. " Meditations on Christmas day." 15. " Leu 
ters to and characters of certain personages." 16. " Various 
Poems." All or most of these pieces are published toge- 
ther in a volume entitled "Reliquiae Wottonianae," at Lon- 
don, 1651, 1654, 1672, and 1685, in 8vo. 17. " Letters 
to sir Edmund Bacon," London, 1661, 8vo, reprinted with 
some editions of " Reliquiae Wottonianae." 18. " Letters 
to the Lord Zouch," printed at the end of " Reliquiae Wot- 
tonianae" in the edition of 1685. 19. "The State of Chris- 

WOTTON. >301 

tendom; or a more exact and. curious discovery of maay 
secret passages and hidden mysteries of the times," Lon- 
don, 1657, folio, reprinted at' London in 1667, folio, with 
this title; "The State of Christendom, giving a perfect 
and exact discovery of many political intrigues and secret 
mysteries of state practised in most of the courts of Europe, 
with ?ui account of their several claims, interests, and pre- 
tensions.'* 20. He hath also several letters to George 
duke of Bucks in the " Cabala, Mysteries of State, 9 ' Lon- 
don, 1654, 4to, and in "Cabala, or Serin ia sacra," London, 
1663, folio. 21. "Journal of his Embassies to Venice,'* 
a manuscript fairly written, formerly in the library of Ed- 
ward lord Conway. 22. "Three propositions to the Count 
d'Angosciola it) matter of duel, comprehending (as it seems) 
the < latitude of that subject ;" a manuscript some time in 
the library of Ralph Sheldon, esq.; and since in ttiat of 
the college of arms. 1 

- WOTTON (Nicholas), an eminent statesman and dean 
of Canterbury, was, as we have already noticed, grand 
uncle to the preceding sir Henry. He was the fourth son 
of sir Robert Wotton, knt. by Anne Belknapp, daughter of 
sir Henry Belknapp, knt. and was born about 1497. He 
was educated in the university of Oxford, where he studied 
the canon and civil law, his skill in. which recommended 
him to the notice of Tunstall, bishop of London, to whom 
he became official in 1528, being at that time doctor of 
laws. Having entered into the church, he was collated by 
archbishop Warbam to the rectory of Ivychurch in the 
county of Kent. But this benefice he resigned in 1555, 
reserving to himself a pension of twenty-two marks, one 
third of its reputed value, during .his life. He continued 
to act as a civilian ; and in 1536, when sentence was pro- 
nounced upon Anne Bojeyo, he appeared in court, as her 

In 1538 archbishop Cranmer constituted him commissary 
of his faculties for the term of his natural life. About the 
same time be became chaplain to the king, who in 1539 
nominated him to the archdeaconry of Gloucester, then 
vacant by the promotion of archdeacon Bell to the see of 
Worcester. His next promotion was to the deanery of 
Canterbury in 1541 ; in addition to which he obtained in 

1 Life by Walton. — Biog. Brit.-— Life by tir Egerton Brvdges in the Biblio- 
grapher, vol. M.— Burnet's Lift of Bedel.— Garwood'* Alumni Etoneases. — 
Topographer, vol. I. 

«02 WOTTON. 

1544 the deanery of York, and was the only: person wfcp 
ever possessed at the same time the deaneries of the two 
metropolitan churches* In 1545 he was presented to the 
prebend of Osbaldwick in York cathedral;. Jn 155$ here- 
signed the archdeaconry of Gloucester, and was presented 
in 1 557 to the treasuryship of the church of Exeter, which 
be also relinquished the succeeding year. 

Such were the appointments which Wotton obtained, 
but in 1539 he had refused a bishopric, and it is said that 
he refused the see of Canterbury, so that whatever he 
might be as a courtier, he was an unambitious ecclesiastic. 
His talents indeed were better suited to political negocisv 
tion, and accordingly he was often employed on. foreign 
embassies. His first service abroad is thought to have been 
his embassy to Cleves in 1539, in order to carry on the 
treaty of marriage between Henry and the Jady Anne ; and 
it fell to his lot afterwards to acquaint the duke of Cleves 
with Henry's repudiation of his sister. In 1546 he was one 
of the commissioners who met at Carnpe, a small place be- 
tween Ardres and Guisnes, in order to negociate peace 
between England, Scotland, and France. In\ September fol- 
lowing he obtained the royal dispensation for non-resideace 
on his preferments, being then the king's ambassador in 
France, and was there at the death of Henry, by whose 
will he was appointed one of the executors to whom, during 
the minority of his son Edward V L he entrusted the go- 
vernment of the kingdom. 

During the reign of Edward, the abilities of Wotton were 
exercised not only abroad, but also in his own country ; as 
he held, for a short time, the distinguished office of prin- 
cipal secretary of state, to which he was appointed in 
1549, but resigned it in 1550 to Cecil. He was one of 
the council who, on Oct. 6, 1549, seceded from the pro- 
tector, and who addressed a memorial to the young king on 
the encroachments of that unfortunate nobleman. In 155 L, 
he was sent ambassador to the emperor, in order to explain 
that no absolute assurance had ever been made to the lady 
Mary, in respect to the exercise of her religion, but that 
only a temporary connivance had been granted under the 
hope of her amendment. Mary had been threatened, as 
well as pressed, on the point of conformity, and she did not 
fail to represent in the most odious lights these proceedings 
to her kinsman Charles, who, by his ambassador, remon- 
strated to the English court on her behalf, and Edward), 

W O T T O N. 303 

prevailed upon by his council, sent Wotton. to continue a 
good correspondence with bia imperial majesty. At the 
death of Edward, Wotton, sir William Pickering, and sir 
Thomas Chaloner, were ambassadors in France, whence 
they wrote to Mary on her accession to the throne, acknow- 
ledging her queen, and ceasing to act any further in their 
public character. But in this capacity she thought proper 
to continue Wotton, with whom she joined sir Anthony St* 

From France the dean is said, to have written to the queen 
in 1553, on the following subject. He. dreamed that hi* 
nephew Thomas Wotton was inclined to be a party in such 
a project, as, if he were not suddenly prevented, would 
turn out both to the loss of bis life, and the ruin of his fa* 
miiy. Accordingly he resolved to use such a preventive, 
as might be of no inconvenience either to himself or his 
nephew. He therefore wrote to Mary, requesting that his 
nephew might be sent for out of Kent, and that he might 
be interrogated by the lords of the council in some such 
feigned speeches, as would give a colour to bis commit- 
ment to & favourable prison. He added, that he would ac- 
quaint her majesty with the true reason of his request, 
when he should next become so happy as to see and speak 
to ber. It was accordingly done as he desired, > but whe- 
ther he gave her majesty " the true reason, 9 ' we are not 
informed. The subject dwelling much on the dean's mind, 
he might have had a dream, yet the whole was probably an 
ingenious precaution to prevent his nephew from being in* 
vol.yed in Wyat's rebellion (which broke out soon after), 
and which he was afraid might be the case, from the ancient 
friendship that hod subsisted between the families of Wot- 
ton and Wyat. 

The last important service Wotton performed in the 
reign of queen Mary was in 1557, when he detected the 
rebellions plot of Thomas Stafford, the consequence of 
which was Stafford's defeat . and execution, and a declara- 
tion of war against France. At the queen's death he was 
acting as one of the commissioners to treat of a peace be- 
tween England, Spain, and France, and in this station 
queen Elizabeth retained him (having also appointed btfln 
a privy-counsellor), and after much negociation peace was 
concluded at Chateau-Cambresis April 2, 1559. He was 
afterwards commissioned with lord Howard and sir Ntcho~ 
las Tbrogmorton to receive from the French king the con* 
firmaiion of the treaty. 

364 WOTTON. 

This peace, however, was of short duration. The am* 
Jritious proceedings of the French court in 1.159, and the 
success of their arms against the Scotch protestants, were 
sufficient to excite the vigilance of Elizabeth. Her indig- 
nation at the claim of Mary (queen of Scots) to the Eng-> 
lish crown, a claim which the French hoped to establish, 
and the declining affairs of the reformers who solicited her 
assistance, at length determined ber to send a powerful, 
force to Scotland. In the event of this quarrel the French 
were obliged to capitulate, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed to treat of peace. Those on the part of England 
were dean Wotton and sir William Cecil; on that of 
France, Mouluc bishop of Valence, and the Sieur de Ran- 
dan. The interests of the English and French courts were 
soon adjusted ; but to a formal treaty with the Scots, the 
French ambassador considered it derogatory from the dig- 
nity of their sovereign to accede. The redress of their 
grievances was, however, granted in the name of Francis 
and Mary, and accepted by the Scots, as an act of royal 
indulgence. And whatever concessions they obtained, 
whether in respect to their personal safety, or their public 
demands, the French ambassadors agreed to insert in the 
treaty with Elizabeth ; so that they were sanctioned, though 
not with the name, yet with all the security of the most so* 
lemn negociation. The treaty" was signed at Edinburgh, 
July 6, 1560. 

The public services of Wotton were afterwards employed 
in regard to the trade of the English merchants, who had 
been ill-treated not only in Spain, but more particularly in 
the Netherlands, upon pretence of civil differences, but in 
"fact out of hatred to the protestant religion. They there* 
fore removed their mart to Embden in East FrieslaneL But 
Guzman de Sylva (canon of Toledo), then the Spanish am- 
bassador in England, endeavoured to compose these diffe* 
rences, which he found materially to affect the interests of 
the Netherlands. At length Elizabeth, and the duchess of 
Parma, regent of the Low- Countries, exchanged in Dec. 
1564, a mutual agreement, by which the commerce be- 
tween the two countries was restored, and viscount Mon- 
tague, dean Wotton, and Dr. Haddon, N were sent commis- 
sioners to Bruges in order to a full discussion of the subject. 
But, in the following year, the troubles in the Netherlands 
pat a stop to their farther conference, after it had beet) 
agreed, that there should be an open trade, till one prince 



denounced war against the other; and in that case, the 
merchants should hare forty days notice to dispose of them* 
selves and their effects. 

This was probably the last employment of the dean, 
which indeed he did not Jong survive* He died at his 
house in Warwick-lane, Jan. 25, 1566, aged about seventy, 
, and was interred in Canterbury cathedral, in the chapel of 
.the Holy Trinity, where is a beautiful and much admired 
monument, part, if not the whole of which, was executed 
at Rome. He is represented kneeling at bis devotions; 
the head is said to have been carved by, his own order, while 
living. Over his figure is a very long Latin inscription, 
containing many particulars of his life. As he died un- 
married, he left his nephew Thomas Wotton his heir. 

The dean's life, we have seen, was chiefly devoted to 
political affairs, yet he was not wholly unemployed as a 
divine. In 1537, the more learned ecclesiastics of that 
period were called together in order to the composition of 
the book entitled " The godly and pious institutioa of a 
Christian man ;" among these was Dr. Wotton. To their 
discussion and judgment many of the principal points of 
religion were submitted. From his compliance under the 
differing reigns of Henry, Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth, ' 
he has been concluded to be a time-server, and a man of 
ho decided religious principle*; and he certainly is rather 
to be considered as a politician than an ecclesiastic, for it 
was in the former character principally that his services* 
were required by his respective sovereigns. His learning 
is said to have been profound, and extensive, find to have 
been displayed to the greatest advantage in the force of 
his arguments, and in the easiness of his elocution. In 
council bis sentiments were delivered with admirable dis- 
cretion, and maintained with undaunted resolution. The 
' Vigilance of his political conduct, both at home and abroad, 
distinguished him as an exemplary statesman ; and the fa* 
cility with which he could discuss the merit? of a cause 
(his method being exact, and his memory tenacious), 
marked him as an acute civilian. His knowledge of trade 
' and commerce was no less conspicuous, and in an ac-* 
quaintance with the polity of nations he was inferior to 
none. " To the greatness of his character Holinsbed and 
Camden have bequeathed their testimonies ; and Henry 
VIII. is said to have thus addressed him, when he was 
about to depart on spi embassy, " Sir, I have sent a head 

Vol. XXXII. X 

306 W O T T O N. 

by Cromwell, a purse hy Wolsey, a sword by Branded and 
I must fiow send the law by you to treat with enemies." ' < 
WOTTON (William), an English divine of uncommon 
parts and teaming, was the son of Mr. Henry Wotton, , 
rector of Wrentbam, in Suffolk, a man of considerable 
learning also, and well skilled in the Oriental tongue& He 
was born at Wcentham the 1 3th of August, 1666, and was 
educated by his father. He discovered a most extraor- 
dinary genius for learning languages ; and, though what is 
related of him upon this head may appear wonderful, yes 
it is so .well attested that we know not how to refuse it 
Credit. Sir Philip Skippon, who lived at Wrentbam, in a 
letter to Mr. John. Ray, Sept. IS, 167 J, writes thus of him s 
" I shall somewhat surprise you with what 1 have seen in a 
little boy, William Wotton, five year* old the last month, 
the son of Mr. Wotton, minister of this parish, who hath* 
instructed his child within the last three quarters of a year, 
in the reading the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages* 
which be can read almost as well as English; and that 
tongue be, could read at four years and three months old 
as well as most lads of twice his age* I could send you- 
many particulars about bis rendering chapters and psalm? 
out of the three learned languages into English,' 9 &c. 
Among sir Philip's papers was found a draught of a longer 
letter to Mr. Ray, in which these farther particulars are* 
added to the above; " He is not yet able to parse any 
language/ but what hq performs in turning the three 
learned tongues it\to English is, done by strength 6f me- 
mory; so that he is ready to mistake when some words of 
different signification have near the same sound. His father 
hath taught him by no rules, but only uses the child's me- 
mory in remembering words : some other children of his> 
age seem to have as good a fancy and as quick apprehen- 
sion." He was admitted of Catharine Hall, Cambridge, in 
April 1676, some mouths before he was ten years old ; and. 
upon hk admission Dr. John Eachard, then master of the 
college, gave him this remarkable testimony: Gulielmus 
Wottonus infra decern annas nee Ilammondo nee Groth $e- 
cundits. His progress in learning was answerable to the e»- ; 
pectat tons conceived of him; and Dr. Duport, the master. 
of Magdaleft-coliege* and dean of Peterborough, has de- 

; l tfoifcj'ft Account of the pepm of Canterbury .-♦-Lodgfc's fllustrationf.— W*l« 
too Y Life of Sir Henry Wotton, Zoych> edition. — Cootv's iCMalog i>e of Civilians. 

WOTTON. 307 

ieribtii it in an elegant copy of verses ; " In GelielmtH* 
Wottonum stupendi ingenii et iftcomparabilis spei puerrnn 
vixdum duodecira annorum." He then goes on to cele- 
brate bis skill in the languages, not only in the Greek and 
Latin, which he understood perfectly, but also in the He- 
brew, Arabic, Syriac, Chaldee; his skill too in arts and 
sciences, in geography, logic, philosophy, mathematics, 

In 1679 be took the degree of B, A. when be was but 
twelve years and five months old ; and, the winter follow- 
ing, was invited to London by Dr. Gilbert Burnet, then 
preacher at the Rolls, who introduced him to almost all the 
learned; and among the rest to Dr. William Lloyd, bishop 
of St. Asaph, who was so highly pleased with him, that he 
took him as an assistant in making the catalogue of his \U 
brary, and carried him the summer following to St Asapht 
Upon his return, Dr. Turner, afterwards bishop of Ely, 
procured him by his interest a fellowship in (St. John's col- 
ege, where he took his degree of M. A. in 1683, and in 
1691 he commenced bachelor of divinity. The same year 
bishop -Lloyd gave him the sinecure of Llandrillo, in Den- 
bighshire. He was afterwards made chaplain to the earl of 
Nottingham, then secretary of state, who in 1693 presented 
him to the rectory of Middleton Keynes, in Buckingham* 
shire. In 1694 he published " Reflections upon Ancient 
and modern Learning;" and dedicated his book to his pa- 
tron the earl of Nottingham. To settle the bounds of all 
branches of literature, and all arts and sciences, as they 
have been .extended by both ancients and moderns, and 
thus to make a comparison between each, was a work too 
vast, one should think, for any one man, even for a whole 
life spent in study.; yet it was executed with very consi- 
derable ability by Mr. Wotton at twenty-eight years of 
age ; and if it did involve him somewhat in the controversy 
between Boyle and Bentley, that was rather owing to his 
connections with Bentley, whose " Dissertations upon Pha- 
laris," &c. were printed at the end of the 2d edition of his 
book in 1697, than to any intermeddling of his own. Boyle 
himself acknowledged that " Mr. Wotton is modest and 
decent, speaks .generally with respect of those he differs 
from, and with a due distrust of his own opinion. His 
book has a vein of learning running through it, where there 
is no ostentation of it," This . and much more is true of 
Wottoo's performance; yet it must not be dissembled, 

x 2 

-308 WOTTON. 


that thi9, as it stands in Boyle's book, appears to have 
been said rather for the sake of reflecting on Bentley than. 
to commend, Wotton. Wotton suffered, as is well known, 
under the satirical pen of Swift; and this induced him to 
write " A Defence of the Reflections upon Ancient and 
Modem Learning, in answer to the objections of sir Wil- 
liam Temple and others;" with "Observations upon the 
Tale of a Tub ;" reprinted with a third corrected edition of 
the "Reflections," &c. in 1705, 8Vo. He says that this 
"Tale is of a very irreligious nature, and a crude banter 
upon all that is esteemed as sacred among all sects and 
' religions among men ;" and his judgment of that famous 
piece is confirmed by that of Mr. Moyle, in the following 
passage : " I have read over the * Tale of a Tub.' There 
is a good deal of wild wit in it, which pleases by its extra-' 
vagance and uncommonness ; but I think it, upon the 
whole, the profanest piece of ribaldry which has appeared 
since the days of Rabelais, the great original of banter and 

His " Reflections" were published, as already noticed, 
in 1694. In 1695 he published, in the "Philosophical 
Transactions/' an " Abstract" of Agostino Scilla's book 
concerning marine bodies which are found petrified in se- 
veral places at land ; and in 1697, a "Vindication" of that 
abstract, which was subjoined to Dr. John ArbuthnotV 
" Examination of Dr. Woodward's Account of the Deluge,'* 
&c. In 1701, he published " The History of Rome from 
the death of Antoninus Pius to the death, of Severus Alex- 
ander," in 8vo. He paid great deference to the authority 
of medals in illustrating this history, and prefixed several 
tables of them to his book, taken chiefly from the collec- 
tions ofAngeloni, Morell, and Vaillant. This work was 
undertaken at the direction of bishop Burnet, and intended 
for the use of his lordship*s royal pupil, the duke of Glou- 
cester, who, however, did not live to see it. finished. It 
Was therefore dedicated to the bishop, to whom Wotton 
had been greatly obliged io his youth, and who afterwards, 
in 1705, gave him a prebend in the church, of Salisbury. 
This history was esteemed no inconsiderable performance : 
M. Leibnitz immediately recommended it to George II. his 
late majesty, then electoral prince of Hanover ; and it was 
the first piece of Roman history which he. read in our 

In 1706 Wotton preached a visitation-sermon, at< New- 

WOTTON. 309 

port-Pagnel in Backs, against TindaPs bookof u The Rights 
of the Christian Church," and printed it. This was the 
first answer that was written to that memorable perform- 
ance ; and it was also the first piece which Wotton published 
as a divine. In 1707, archbishop Tenison presented hind 
with the degree of doctor of divinity. In 1708 he* drew 
op a short view of Dr. Hickes's " Thesaurus ;" but the ap- 
pendix and notes are Hickes's own. In 1714 the difficul- 
ties he was under in his private fortune, for he had not a 
grain of economy, obliged him to retire into South Wales, 
where, though he had much leisure t he had few books. 
Yet, being too active in his nature to be idle, he drew up, 
at the request of Browne Willis, esq. who afterwards pub- 
lished them, the " Memoirs of the Cathedral Church of St. 
David," in 1717, and of "Landaff" in 1719. Here he 
also wrote his " Miscellaneous discourses relating to the 
traditions and usages of the Scribes and Pharisees," &c. 
which was printed 1718, in 2 vols. 8vo. Le Clerc tells us 
that " great advantage may be made by reading the writ- 
ings of the Rabbins ; and that the public is highly obliged 
to Mr. Selden, for instance, and to Dr. Lightfoot, for .the 
assistances which they have drawn thence, and communi- 
cated, to those who study the holy scripture. Those who 
do not read tbeir works, which are not adapted to the ca- 
pacity of every person, will be greatly obliged to Dr. Wot- 
ton for the introduction which he has given them into that 
kind of learning." In 1719 he published a sermon upon 
Mark xiii. 32, to prove the divinity of the Son of God from 
his omniscience. 

After his return from Wales he preached a sermon in 
Welsh before the British Society in 1722 ; and was, per-, 
baps, the only Englishman who ever attempted to preach 
iii that language. The same year, his account of the life and 
writings of Mr. Thomas Stanley was published at Eysenach, 
at the end ofScsevola Sammarthanus's "Elogia Gallorum." . 
Iu 1723 he printed in the "13ibliotheca Literaria" an account 
of the .'* Caernarvon Record," a manuscript in the Harletan 
library. This manuscript is an account of several ancient. 
Welsh tenures, and bad some relation to the Welsh laws, 
which he was busy in translating. He undertook that la- 
borious work at the instance of Wake, who knew that the 
trouble of learning a new and very difficult language would' 
be no discouragemen t to Dr. Wotton. It was published in 
J 730, , under this . ti tie, " Cysrfcithjeu Hy wel Dda, ac erail ; 

310 W O T T O N. 

ceu, Leges Wallicas Ecclesiastic® et Civiles Hoeli Boni, 
et aliorum Wallise principum, quas ex variis Codicibus 
Manuscriptis eruit, interpretatione Latina, notis et glossa- 
rio illustravit Gulielmus Wottoous/' in folio. But this was 
a posthumous work, for be died at Busted, in Essex, Feb. 
13 # 1726. He left a daughter,- who was the wife of the 
late Mr. William Clarke, canon-residentiary of Chichester* 
After his death came out his " Discourse concerning the 
Confusion of Languages at Babel," 1730, 8vo ; as did the 
same year bis " Advice to a young Student, with a method 
of study for the four first years." He was likewise the au- 
thor of five anonymous pamphlets : I. " A Letter to Euse- 
bia," 1707. 2. " The case of the present Convocation 
considered," 1711. 3. " Reflections on the present pos- 
ture of Affairs, 1712. 4. " Observations on the State of 
the Nation," 1713. 5. " A Vindication of the Earl of Not- 
tingham," 1714. 

What distinguished him from other men chiefly was hie 
memory : his superiority seems to have lain in the strength 
of that faculty ; for, by never forgetting any thing, he 
became immensely learned and knowing; and, what is 
more, his learning (as one expresses it) was all in ready 
cash, which he was able to produce at sight. When he 
was very young be remembered the whole of almost any 
discourse he had heard, and often surprised a preacher 
with repeating his sermon to him. This first recommended 
him to bishop Lloyd, to whom he repeated one of his own 
sermons, us Dr. Burnet had engaged that he should. But 
above all, he had great humanity and friendliness of tem- 
per. His time and abilities were at the service of any per- 
son who was making advances in real learning. The nar- 
rowness of a party-spirit never broke in upon any of bis 
friendships ; he was as zealous in recommending Dr. Hickes's 
great work as if it had been his own, and assisted Mr. 
Spinkes in his replies to Mr. Collier in the controversy 
about the necessity of mixing wine and water in the sacra- 
ment, in 1718 and 17 19^ He was a great lover of ety- 
mology ; and Mr. Thwaites in his Saxon Grammar, takes 
notice of his skill and acuteness that way, which he was 
extremely well qualified for, liy knowing most of the Ian* 
guages from east to west. Mr. John Chapman, chaplain 
to the archbishop of Canterbury (in " Remarks upon the 
Letter to Dr. Waterland in relation to the natural account 
of Languages/' pag. 8, 9.) has done him the honour to 

WOTTON, 3ii 

plaoe^biin in a list of great names after Boehart, Walton,*. 
VossUis, Scaliger, Duret 9 Heinsius, Selden, &c. all men 
of letters and tracers of languages. Wotton lived at a time 
when a man of learning would have been better preferred 
than be was ; but it is supposed that some part of his con-* 
duct, which was very exceptionable, prevented it. l 

WOUVERMANS (Philip), an eminent artist of Hol- 
land, was born at Haerlem, iu 1620, and was the son of 
PaiH Wouvermans, a tolerable history- painter, of whom, 
however, he did not learn the principles of (its art, but of 
John Wyuant?, an excellent painter of Haerlem. It does 
not appear that he ever was in Italy, or ever quitted the 
city of Haerlem; though no man deserved more the en- 
couragement and protection of some powerful prince than 
be did. He is one instance, among a thousand, to prove 
that oftentimes the greatest merit remains without either 
recom pence or honour. His works have all the excellences 
we can wish ; high finishing, correctness, agreeable com- 
position, and a tast£ for colouring, joined with a force that 
approaches to the Caracci's *. The pieces he painted in 
his latter time have a grey or blueishcast; they are finished 
with too much labour, and his grounds look too much like 
velvet : but those be did in his prime are free from these 
faults, and equal in colouring and correctness to any thing 
Italy can produce. Wouvermans generally enriched his 
landscapes with ' huntings, halts, encampment of armies, 
and other subjects where horses naturally enter, which he 
designed better than any painter of his time : there are 
also some battles and attacks of villages by his hand. These 
beautiful works, which gained him great reputation, did 
not make him rich ; on the contrary, being charged with 
a numerous family, and but indifferently paid for his work,* 
he lived very meanly ; and, though be painted very quick, 
a&ti was very laborious, had much ado to main tarn himself. 
The misery of his condition determined him not to bring 
up any of his children to painting. In his last hours, whioh 
happened at Haerlem in 1688, he burnt a box filled with 
bis studies and designs ; saying, I have been so ill-paid 

* Maqy of the best works of Wou- horses is equally excellent," &c. "Upoq 

vermans were in the gallery of the the whole, he is one of the few painters 

prinee of Orange at the Hague. " One whose excellence in his way is such at 

of. the most remarkable of them is leaves nothing to he wished for." 
known by the name of the Hay -cart ; Sir Joshoa Reynolds's Workij 

another in which there is a coach and vol. II. p. 343, 4tc, 

1 Gen. Diet.— Nichols's Bowyer.— Swift's Works, 

S12 W O U V E R M A N S. . 

for my labours, that I would not have those designs eiH 
gage my son in so miserable a profession." Different au- 
thors, however, ascribe the burning of his designs .to dif- 
ferent motives. Some say it proceeded from his dislike to 
his brother Peter, being unwilling that be should reap the 
product of bis labours; others allege that he intended to 
compel his son (if be should follow the profession) to seek 
out the knowledge of nature from his own industry, and 
pot indolently depend on copying those designs; and 
other writers assign a less honourable motive, which seems 
to be unworthy of the genius of Wouvermans, and equally 
unworthy of being perpetuated. 

• Houbraken observes, that the works of Wouvermans and 
Bamboccio were continually placed in competition by the 
ablest judges of the art; and the latter having painted a 
picture which was exceedingly admired, John De Witt 
prevailed on Wouvermans to paint the same subject, which 
he executed in his usual elegant style. These pictures 
being afterwards exhibited together to the public, while 
both artists were present, De Witt said (with a loud voice),. 
« All our connoisseurs seem to prefer the works of those 
painters who have studied at Ronie ; and observe -only, 
how far the work of Wouvermans, who never saw Rome, 
surpasses the work of him who resided there for several, 
years !" That observation, which was received with general 
applause, was thought to have had too violent an effect 
on the spirits of Bamboccio ; and by many it was imagined 
that it contributed to his untimely death. ? 

WRAY (Daniel), a man of taste and learning, was born 
Nov. 28, 1701, in the parish of St. Botolpb, Aldersgate. 
His. father, sir Daniel Wray, was a London citizen, who 
resided in . Little Britain, made a considerable fortune in 
trade fas a soap-boiler), afnd purchased an estate in Essex, 
near Ingatestone, which his son possessed after him. Sir 
Daniel served the office of sheriff for that county, and was ' 
knighted- in 1708 on presenting a loyal address to queen 
Anne. His son was educated* at the Charter-house, and 
was supposed in 1783 to have bgf.n. the oldest survivor of 
any person educated there. In 1718 he went to Queen's 
college, Cambridge, as a fellow commoner. He took his 
degree of B, A. in 1722, after which he made the tour of 
Italy, accompanied by John, earl of Morton, and Mr. King, 

" } Argenvilfc, voli III.— Pilkiagtan.— -Sir J. Rrynold&'s Works. 

W R A Y.' 313 

the son of lord chancellor King, who inherited his title. 
How long he remained abroad between 1722 and 1728 is 
not precisely ascertained, except by the fact that a cast in 
bronze, by Pozzo, was taken of his profile, in ,1726, at 
Rome. • It had this inscription upon the reverse, "Nil ac- 
tum reputans, si quid superesset agendum," which line is 
said to have been a portrait of his character, as he was in 
all bis pursuits a man of uncommon diligence and perse- 
verance. After his return from his travels, he became 
M.A. in 1728, and was already so distinguished in philo- 
sophical attainments, that be was chosen a fellow of the 
Royal Society in March 1728-9. He resided however ge- 
nerally at Cambridge, though emigrating occasionally to 
London, till 1739, or 1740, in which latter year, January 
1740-41, he was elected F. S.A. and was more habitually a 
resident in town. In 1*737 commenced his acquaintance 
and friendship with the noble family of Yorke; and in 1745, 
Mr. Yorke, afterwards earl of Hardwicke, as teller of the 
exchequer, appointed Mr.Wray his deputy teller, in which 
office he continued until 1732, when his great punctuality 
and exactness in any business he undertook made the con- 
stant attendance of the office troublesome to him. He was 
an excellent critic in the English language ; an accom- 
plished judge of polite literature, of virtO, and the fine' 
arts ; and deservedly a member of most of our learned so* 
cieties ; he was also an elected trustee of the British Mu- 
seum. He was one of the writers of the "Athenian Let- 
ters" published by the earl of Hardwicke; and in the first 
volume of the Arcbseologia, p. 128, are printed " Notes on 
the walls of antient Rome," communicated by bim in 1756; 
and "Extracts from different Letters from Rome, giving an 
Account of the Discovery of a most beautiful Statue of Ve- 
pus, dug up there 176*." He died Dec. 29, 1783, in his 
eighty-second year, much regretted by his surviving friends, 
to whose esteem he was entitled by the many worthy and 
ingenious qualities which he possessed. Those of bis heart 
were as distinguished as those of his mind ; the rules of re- 
ligion, of virtue, and morality, having regulated his con- 
duct from the beginning to the end of his days. He was 
married to a lady of merit equal to his own, the daughter 
of Darrel, esq. of Richmond. This lady died at Rich- 

mond, where Mr.Wray had a bouse, in May 1803. Mr. 
Wray left his library at her disposal ; and she, knowing his 
attachment to the Charter-house, made the governors an 

314 WRA Y. 

offer of it, which was thankfully accepted : and a room was 
fitted up for its reception, and it is placed under the care 
of the master, preacher, head schoolmaster, and a librarian. 
The public at large, and particularly the friends of Mr. 
Wray, will soon be gratified by a memoir of him written by 
the late George Hardinge, esq. intended for insertion in 
Mr. Nichols's " Illustrations of Literature." This memoir, 
of which fifty copies have already been printed for private 
distribution, abounds with interesting anecdotes and traits 
of character, and copious extracts from Mr. Wray's corre- 
spondence, and two portraits, besides an engraving of the 
cameo. J 

WREN (Matthew), a learned bishop of Ely, was de- 
scended of a. very ancient family, which came originally 
from Denmark. His father, Francis, citizen and mercer 
of London, was the only son of Cuthbert Wren, of Monks- 
kirby iit Warwickshire, second son of William Wren of 
Sherburne-house and of Billy-ball in the bishopric of Dur- 
ham : but the chief seat of the family was at Winchester in 
that county. Our prelate was born in the parish of St. Peter- 
cheap, London, Dec. 2>, 1585. Being a youth of promis- 
ing talents, he was much noticed while at school by bishop 
Andrews, who being chosen master of Pembroke-hall in 
Cambridge, procured his admission into that society June 
23, 1601, and assisted him in his studies afterwards, which: 
he pursued with such success as to be chosen Greek scho- 
lar, and when he had taken his batchelor'a degree waselected 
fellow of the college Nov. 9, 1605. He commenced M.A. 
in 1608, and having studied divinity was ordained deacon 
in Jan. and priest in Feb. 1610. Being elected senior re- 
gent master in Oct. 1611, he kept the philosophy act with 
great applause before king James in 1614, and the year fol- 
lowing was appointed chaplain to bishop Andrews, and was 
presented the same year to the rectory of Teversham in 
Cambridgeshire. In 1621 he was made chaplain to prince 
(afterwards king) Charles, whom he attended in that office 
to Spain in 1623. After his return to England, he was 
consulted by the bishops Andrews, Neile, and Laud, as to 
what might be the prince's sentiments towards the church 
of England, according to any observations he had been able 
to make. His answer was, " I know my master's learning 

1 Memoir, as above, a copy of which we have to acknowledge among the 
many obligations we owe to Mr. Nichols's steady and friendly attention \fi this 
work, and to its editor. 

w r e n: in 

is not equal to his father's, yet I know his judgment is very 
right : and as for his affections in the particular you point 
at (the support of the doctrine and discipline of f he church) 
I have more confidence of htm than of his father, in whom 
yotii have seen better than I so much inconstancy in some 
particular cases." Neile and Laud examined him as to his 
grounds for this opinion, which he gave them at large; and 
after an hour's discussion of the subject, Andrews, who had 
hitherto been silent, said, " Well, doctor, God send you 
may be a true prophet concerning your master's inclina- 
tion, which we are glad to hear from you. 1 am sure I shall 
be a true prophet : I shall be in my grave, and so shall you, 
my lord of Durham (Neile), but my lord of St. David's (Laud) 
and you, doctor, will live to see the day, that your master 
will be put to it upon his bead and his crown, without he 
will forsake the support of the church." 

In 1624, the rectory of Bingham in Nottinghamshire was* 
conferred upon Mr. Wren, together with a stall in the church 
of Winchester. In July 1625 he was chosen master of Pe- 
fcerbouse, in Cambridge, to which he became a great bene- 
factor, building a great part of the college, putting their 
writings and records into order, and especially contributing 
liberally, and procuring the contributions of others towards 
the beautiful chapel, which was completed and dedicated' 
by him in 1632. In July 1628 he was promoted to the dig- 
nity of dean of Windsor and Wolverhampton. The same 
year he served the office of vice-chancellor, and was made 
register of the garter. While he held this office, he com- 
posed in Latin, a comment upon the statutes of Henry VIII. 
respecting the order. This was published by Anstis, in the 
" Register of the most noble order of the Garter." Ash- 
mole had a high opinion of this work, and regretted that 
he had not met with it before he had almost finished his 
" Institution of the order of the Garter." 

In April 1629, Mr. Wren was sworu a judge of the star- 
chamber for foreign causes. In 1633, he attended Charles 
I. in his progress to Scotland, and he had some hand in com- 
posing the ill-fated form of liturgy for that country. On 
bis return home he was made clerk of the closet to his ma- 
jesty, and was about the same time created D. D. at Cam-, 
bridge. In 1634 he was installed a prebendary of West- 
minster, and the same year promoted to the bishopric of 
Hereford, which he held only until the following yefcr, 
when he was translated to the see of Norwich, in whk:4i< he 

316 WREN. 

sat two years and a half, and appears to have been very un- 
popular with the puritan party. Lord Clarendon informs 
us that he " so passionately and warmly proceeded against 

♦ the dissenting congregations, that many left the kingdom, 
x to the lessening of the wealthy manufacture there of ker- 
seys and narrow cloths, and, which was worse, transporting 
that mystery into foreign parts." But the author of the 
" Parentalia" says, " that this desertion of the Norwich 
weavers was chiefly procured through the policy and ma- 
nagement of the Dutch, who, wanting that manufacture, 
(which was improved there to great perfection) left no 
means unattempted to gain over these weavers to settle in 
their towns, with an assurance of full liberty of conscience, 
and greater advantages and privileges than they bad obtained 
in England.' 9 This author commends his modesty and hu- 
mility, particularly in never seeking preferment: but be 

* says too little of his zeal, which was indeed, ardent and 
active. This drew upon him the unjust imputation of po- 
pery. Nothing seems to have rendered him more hateful 
and invidious to the parliament, than bis standing high in 
the favour of his* sovereign. 

In 1636 he succeeded Juxon, as dean of his majesty's 
chapel, and in May 1638 was translated to the bishopric 
of Ely. He had not enjoyed this above two years, when in 
Dec. 1640, the day after the impeachment of Laud, Hamp- 
den was sent by the Commons with a message to the House 
of Peers, acquainting their lordships that the Commons bad 
received informations of a very high nature against Mat- 
thew Wren, bishop of Ely, for setting up idolatry and su- 
perstition in divers places, and acting some things.of that 
nature in bis own person, and also to signify, that because 
they bear of his endeavouring to escape out of the king- 
dom, some course might be taken for his putting in secu- 
rity to be forthcoming, &c. Their lordships fixed his bail 
at 10,000/.; and this being given, he was impeached July 5, 
1641, of high crimes and misdemeanours. - These were 
contained in twenty-four articles, the sum total of which 
amounts to a zeal he shewed in enforcing the observances 
of the church. Against these he composed a long and spi- 
rited defence, in consequence of which his enemies declined 
trying him for bis life, which they commuted for au order 
to keep bim in prison in the Tower during their pleasure. 
This lasted full eighteen years, during which he employe^ 
himself chiefly in study and in composing some of his 

WREN. 317 

works. He had offers of release from Cromwell, but be 
disdained the terms, which were an acknowledgment x>f 
the favour, and submission to the usurper. When the re- 
storation drew nigh,' he was released in March 1659, and 
returned to his pal&ce at Ely in 1660. In May 1661, he 
introduced to the convocation the form of prayer and 
thanksgiving which is still in use on May 29. In 1663 he 
built a-new chapel at Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, at his 
own expence, and settled an estate upon the college for 
the, perpetual support of the building. 

Bishop Wren died at Ely-house, London, April 24, 
1667, in bis eighty-second year, and was buried in Pem- 
broke-hall chapel. He was a man of unquestionable learn- 
ing, and sincere in his attachment to the doctrines and dis- 
cipline of the church, of great courage in suffering for his 
principles, but of a most intolerant spirit. No prelate's 
name occurs oftener in the accounts of the prosecutions of 
4be puritans. He resembled Laud in many respects, and 
narrowly escaped his fate. He distinguished himself by 
some publications; as, 1. " Increpatio Bar Jesu, sive Pole- 
mics adsertiones locorum aliquot gacrae Scripturae ab im- 
post ur is perversionum in Catechesi Racoviana," Lond. 1660, 
in 4to, and reprinted in the ninth volume of the "Critici 
Sacri." 2. " The abandoning of the Scots Covenant, 1661," 
4to. 3. " Epistolte Variae ad Viros doctissimos ;" particu- 
larly to Gerard John Vossius. 4. Two " Sermons ;" one 
printed in 1627, the other in 1662. Dr. Richardson made 
use of 6ome of his MSS. in his " Pe Presulibus Angliae." ' 
WREN (Matthew), eldest son of the preceding, 
was born Aug. 20, 1629, at Peter-house, Cambridge, at 
which time his father Was master of that college. His first 
education was in that university, being admitted of St. 
Peter's-college in 1 64*2, whence he removed to Oxford, 
where he. was a student^ not in a college or hall, but in a 
private house, as he could not conform to the principles or 
practises of the persons who then had the government of 
the university. At the* restoration he was elected burgess 
of St. Michael in Cornwall, in the parliament which began 
May 8, 1661, and was appointed secretary to the earl of 
Clarendon, lord high chancellor of England, who visiting 
the university of Oxford, of which he was chancellor, in 
Sept. 1661, Mr. Wren was there created master of arts. 

1 Wru»'« Parental ia.— Biog. Brit. .. 

318 ' WREN. 

He was one of the first members of the Royal Society, 
when they began their weekly meetings at London, in 
1660. After the fall of his patron, the earl of Clarendon, 
he became secretary to James duke of York, in whose ser~> 
vice he continued till his death, June 1J., 1672, in the forty- 
third year of his age. He was interred in the same vault 
with his father, in the chapel of Pembroke- hill, Cambridge. 
He wrote, 1. " Considerations on Mr. Harrington's Com- 
monwealth of Oceana, restrained to the first part of the 
preliminaries, London, 1657," iu 8vo. To this book is pre-* 
fixed a long letter of our author to Dr. John Wilkips, war- 
den of Wadham-college in Oxford, who had desired Jura 
to give his judgment concerning Mr. Harrington's " Oce- 
ana." Harrington answered this work in the first book of 
his "Prerogative of popular government," 1658, 4to r in 
which he reflects on Mr. Wren as one of those virtuosi, who 
then met at Dr.Wilkins's lodgings at Wadbam- college, 
the seminary of the Koyal Society, and describes them as 
an assembly of men who "had an excellent faculty of mag- 
nifying a louse, and diminishing a commonwealth. 1 ' Mr. 
Wren replied in 2. "Monarchy asserted; or, the State of 
Monarchical and Popular Government, in vindication of 
ttie considerations on Mr. Harrington's ' Oceana/ London, 
1659," in 8vo. Harrington's rejoinder was an indecent 
piece of buffoonery, entitled " Politicaster: or, a Comical 
Discourse in answer to Mr. Wren's book, entitled ' Monar- 
johy asserted, &c.' " 1659, 4to. Sir Edward Hyde, after- 
wards -earl of Clarendon, in a letter to Dr. John Barwick, 
dated at Brussels the 25th of July, 1659, and printed in the 
appendix to the doctor's " Life," was very. solicitous, that 
Mr. Wren should undertake a confutation of Hobbes's "Le- 
viathan :" " I hope," says he r **it is only modesty in Mr- 
Wren, that makes him pause upon undertaking the work 
you have recommended to him ; for I dare swear, by what 
I have seen of him, he is very equal to answer every part of 
it : I mean, every part that requires an answer: Nor is 
there need of a professed divine to vindicate the Creator 
from making man a verier beast than any of those of the 
field, or to vindicate scripture from his licentious interpre- 
tation. I dare say, be will find somewhat in Mr. Hoboes 
himself, I mean, in his former iiooks, that contradicts what 
he sets forth in this, in that part in which be takes himself 
to be most exact, his beloved philosophy. And sure there 
is somewhat due to Aristotle and Tulty, and to our univer* 

WREN. 31* 

sities, to free them from his reproaches ; and it is high 
time,, if what I hear be true, that some tutors read his Le- 
viathan, instead of the others, to their pupils. Mr. Hobbes 
is my old friend, yet I cannot absolve him from the mis- 
chiefs he hath done to the king, the church, the laws, and 
the nation ; and surely there should be enough to be said 
to the politics of that man, who, having resolved all reli- 
gion, wisdom, and honesty, into an implicit obedience to 
the laws established, writes a book of policy, which, I may 
be bold to say, must be, by the established laws of any 
kingdom or province in Europe, condemned for impious 
and seditious : and therefore it will be very hard if the, 
fundamentals of it be not overthrown. But I must ask 
both yours and Mr. Wren's pardon for enlarging so much, 
and antedating those animadversions he will make upon it." 

Besides the above works, Mr. Wren wrote a kind of his- 
torical essay "On the origin and progress of the revolutions 
in England/ 9 printed in vol. I. of Mr.Gutch's " Collecta- 
nea Curiosa," 1731, from a trauscript in the hand- writing 
of archbishop Sancroft. ' 

WREN (Christopher), a learned and illustrious Eng- 
lish architect and mathematician, was nephew to bishop. 
Wren, and the son of Dr. Christopher Wren, who was fel- 
low of St. John's college, Oxford, afterwards chaplain to 
Charles I. and rector of Knoyle in Wiltshire; made dean 
of Windsor in 16*5, and presented to the rectory of 
Hasely in Oxfordshire in 1638; and died at Blechindon, 
in the same county, 1658, at the house of Mr. William' 
Holder, rector of that parish, who had married his daugh- 
ter. He was a man well skilled in all the branches of the 
mathematics, and had a great hand in forming the genius 
of his only son Christopher. In tjie state papers of Ed- 
ward, earl of Clarendon, vol. I. p. 270, is an estimate of a 
building to be erected for her majesty by dean Wren. He 
did another important service to his country. After the 
chapel of St. George and the treasury belonging to it had 
been plundered by the republicans, he sedulously exerted, 
himself in recovering as many of the records as could be 
procured, and was so successful as to redeem the three re- 
gisters distinguished by the names of the Black, Blue, and 
Red, which were carefully preserved by him till his death. 

i Ocn. Diet.— Far^nt alia.— Birpli'g Hist, of the Royal Society.— Cole's MS. 
Athene in Brit. My*. 


320 WREN. 

They were afterwards committed to the custody of bis son, 
who, soon after the restoration, delivered them to Dr. 
Bruno Ryves, dean of Windsor. 

His son Christopher, who is the subject of this article, 
was born at Knoyle Oct. 20, 1632 ; and, while very young, 
discovered a surprising turn for learning, especially for tbe 
mathematics. He was sent to Oxford, and admitted a gen- 
tleman-commoner at Wadham college, at about fourteen 
years of age : and the advancements he made there in 
mathematical knowledge, before he was sixteen, were, as 
we learn from Oughtred, very extraordinary, and even 
astonishing. His uncommon abilities excited the admira- 
tion of Dr. Wilkins, then warden of his college, and of 
Dr. Seth Ward, Savilian professor of astronomy, who then 
resided' in Wadham. By Dr. Wilkins he was introduced 
to Charles, elector palatine, to whom he presented several 
mechanical instruments of his own invention. In 1647 be 
became acquainted with sir Charles Scarborough, at whose 
request he undertook tbe translation of Oughtred's geome- 
trical dialling into Latin. He took a bachelor of arts de- 
gree in 1650; and in 1651 published a short algebraieal 
tract relating to the Julian period. In 1652 f be took his 
master's degree, having been chosen fellow of All Souls' 
college. Soon after, he became one of that ingenious and 
learned society, who then met at Oxford for tbe improve- 
ment of natural and experimental philosophy. 

Aug. 1657, he was chosen professor of astronomy in 
Gresham college; and his lectures, which were much fre- 
quented, tended greatly to the promotion of real know* 
ledge. In bis inaugural oration, among other things, be 
proposed several methods, by which to account for the' 
shadows returning backward ten degrees on the dial of king 
Abaz, by the laws of nature. One subject of his lectures 
was upon telescopes, to the improvement of which he had 
greatly contributed ; another was on certain properties of 
the air and the barometer. In 1658, he read a description 
of the body and different phases of the planet Saturn, which 
subject he proposed to pursue ; and the same year com- 
municated some demonstrations concerning cycloids to 
Dr. Wallis, which were afterwards published by the doctor 
at the end of his treatise upon that subject About that 
time also, he solved the problem proposed by Pascal, under 
the feigned name of John de Montfort, to all the English 
mathematicians ; and returned another to the mathemati- 

w ii £ w; 321 

ctftns irr -France, formerly proposed by Kepfer, and then 
solved likewise by himself, of which they never gave any 
solution. He did not continue long at Gresham college ; 
for, Feb. 5 i 1660*1, he was chosen Savilian professor of 
astronomy at Oxford, in the room of Dr. Seth Ward. He 
entered upon it in May ; and in September was created 
doctor of civil law. 

Among his other eminent accomplishments, he had 
gained so considerable a skill in architecture, that he was 
sent for the frame year from Oxford, by order of Charles II. 
to assist sir John Denham, surveyor-general of his majesty's 
works* In 1663, he was chosen fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety ; being one of those who were first appointed by the 
council after the grant of their charter. Not long after, it 
being expected that the king would make the society a 
visit, the lord Brounker, president, by a letter desired the 
advice of Dr. Wren, who was then at Oxford, concerning 
the experiments which might he most proper for his ma- 
jesty's entertainment : to whom the doctor recommended 
principally the Torricellian experiment, and the weather* 
needle, as being not bare amusements, but useful, and 
likewise neat in the operation, and attended with little in- 
cumbrance. Dr. Wren did great honour to this illustrious 
body, by many curious and useful discoveries in astronomy, 
natural philosophy, and other sciences, related in the 
" History of the Royal Society ;" where the author Sprat,* 
who was a member of it, has inserted them from the re- 
gisters and other books of the society to 1665. Among 
other of his productions there enumerated is a lunar globe, 
representing not only the spots and various degrees of 
whiteness upon the surface, but the hills, eminences, and 
cavities ; and not only so, but it is turned to the light, shew* 
ing ail the lunar phases, with the various appearances that 
happen from the shadows of the mountains and valleys. 
The lunar globe was formed, not merely at the request of 
the Royal Society, but likewise by the command of 
Charles II. whose pleasure, for the prosecuting and per- 
fecting of it -was signified by a letter under the joint hands 
of sir Robert Moray and sir Paul Neile, dated from White- 
hall, the 17th of May, 1661, and directed to Dr. Wren, 
Savilian professor at Oxford. His majesty received the 
globe with satisfaction, and ordered it to be placed among 
the* cariosities of his cabinet. Another of these productions 
is a tract on the doctrine of motion that arises from the 

You. XXXII. Y 


324 1VEE N. 

improved by him. We now return to bis progress as an 

In 1665, be went over to France, where be not only 
surveyed all the buildings of note in Paris, and made ex- 
cursions toother places, but took particular notice of, what 
was most remarkable in every branch of mechanics, and 
contracted acquaintance with all the considerable virtuosi*. 
Upon bis return borne, he was appointed architect and one 
of the commissioners for the reparation of St Paul's cathe- 
dral } as appears from Mr. Evelyn' s dedication to him of 
" The Account of Architects and Architecture," t 706, 
folio, where we have the following account. " I have 
named St. Paul's, and truly not without admiration, as oft 
as I recall to mind, as I frequently do, the sad and .de- 
plorable condition it was in ; when, After it had been made 
a stable of horses, and a den of thieves, you, with other 
gentlemen and myself, were by the late king Charles 
named to survey the dilapidations, and to make report to 
his majesty, in order to a speedy reparation. You will 
not, as I am sure, fotget the struggle we had with some 
who were for patching it up any how, so the steeple might 
stand, instead of new building ; when, to put an end to the 
contest, five days after, that dreadful conflagration hap- 
pened, out of whose ashes this phoenix is risen, and was by 
providence designed for you." Within a few days after 
the fire, which began Sept 2, 1666, he drew a plan for a 
new city, of which Oldenburg, the secretary of the Royal 
Society, gave an account to Mr. Boyle. " Dr. Wren, 9 ' 
says he, "has drawn a model for a new city, and presented 
it to the king, who produced it himself before his council, 
and manifested much approbation of it I was yesterday 
morning with the doctor, and saw the model, which me- 
thinks does so well provide for security, conveniency, and 
beauty, that J can see nothing wanting as to these three 
main articles : but whether it has consulted with the popu- 
lousness of a great city, and whether reasons of state would 
have that consulted with, is a quaere with me," &c. The 
execution of this noble design was unhappily prevented by 

* " The great number of drawings was sacrificed to the god of false taste, 

he made there from their buildings, Yet I have been assured by a detcend- 

had but too vitibU ioSueoce ©o some ant of sir Christopher, that he gave 

of his own, but it was so far lucky for another design for Hampton court in a 

sir Christopher, that Loais XIV. had better taste, which queen Mary wished 

erected palaces only, no churches, to bare executed, but was overruled/ 1 

St. Paul's ercaped, but Hampton court WalpoJe. 

WREN. 325 


the disputes which arose about private property, and the 
haste atid hurry of rebuilding ; though it is said that the 
practicability of Wren's whole plan, without infringement 
of any property, was at that time demonstrated, and all 
material objections fully weighed and answered. 

Upon the decease of sir John Denham, in March 1&88, 
he succeeded him in the office of survey or- general of his 
majesty's works. The theatre at Oxford will be a lasting 
monument of his great abilities as an architect; which cu- 
rious work was finished by him in (669. As in this struc- 
ture the admirable contrivance of the flat roof, being eighty 
feet over one way, and seventy the other, without any 
arched work or pillars to support it, is particularly remark- 
able, it has been both largely described, and likewise de- 
lineated, by the ingenious Dr. Plott, in his " Natural His- 
tory of Oxfordshire." But the conflagration of the city of 
London gave bin"? many opportunities afterwards of em- 
ploying his genius in tn2t way ; when, besides the works 
of the crown, which continued defter his care, the cathe- 
dral of St Paul, the parochial churches, *ud other public 
structures, which had been destroyed by that aYc^ful ca * 
lamity, were rebuilt from his designs, and under his uT" 
recti on ; in the management of which affair he was assisted 
in the measurements and laying out of private property by 
the ingenious Mr. Robert Hooke. The variety of business 
in which he was by this means engaged requiring his con- 
stant attendance and concern, he resigned his Savilian pro- 
fessorship at Oxford in 1673; and the year following he 
received from the king the honour of knigbthdod. He was 
one of the commissioners who, at the motion of sir Jonas 
Moore, surveyor-general of the ordnance, had been ap- 
pointed by his majesty to find a proper place for erecting 
a royal observatory ; and he proposed Greenwich, which 
was approved of. On Aug. 10, 1675, the foundation of 
the building was- laid; which, when finished under the di- 
rection of sir Jonas, with the advice and assistance of sir 
Christopher, was furnished with the best instruments for 
making astronomical observations; and Mr. Fiamsted was 
constituted his majesty's first professor there. 

About this time he married the daughter of sir Thomas 

Coghill, of Belchington, in Oxfordshire, by whom he had 

one son of his own name; and, she dying soon after, he 

'married a daughter of William lord Fitzwilliam, baron of 

LifTord in Ireland, by whom he had a son and a daughter. 



In 1 6 80, he was choten president of the Royal Society ; 
afterwards appointed architect and commissioner of Chel- 
sea-college ; and, in 1684, principal officer or comptroller 
of the works in the castle of Windsor. He sat /twice in 
parliament, as a representative for two different boroughs; 
first, for Plympton in Devonshire in 1685, and again in 
1700 for Melcomb-Regis in Dorsetshire. He was employed 
in erecting a great variety of churches and public edifices, 
when the country met with an indelible disgrace in a court 
intrigue, in consequence of which, in April 1718, his patent 
for royal works was superseded, when this venerable and 
illustrious man had reached his eighty-sixth year, after 
half a century spent in a continued, active, and laborious 
service to the crown and the public. Walpole has well 
said that " the length of his life enriched the reigns of 
several princes, and disgraced the last of them." Until this 
time he lived in a bouse in Scotland-yard, adjoining to 
Whitehall ; but, after his removal from that place in 1718, 
he dwelt occasionally is Ht. JamesVstreet, Westminster. 
He died Feb. 25, i723, aged ninety-one, and was interred 
with grsat solemnity in St Paul's cathedral, in the vault 
under the south wing of the choir, near the east end. 
Upon a Bat stone, covering the single vault, which contains 
his body, is a plain English inscription ; and another in* 
scription upon the side of a pillar, in these terms : 

4€ Subtus conditur, 
Hujus Ecclesiae et Urbis conditoi 4 , 

Qui vixit annos ultra nonaginta, 

Non sibi, sed bono publico, 

Lector, si monumentum requiris, 


Obiit 25 Feb. ann. MDCCXXIII. ©tat. XCi:' 

As to bis person, he was of low stature, and thin ; but, 
by temperance aud skilful management, for he was not 
unacquainted with anatomy and physic, he enjoyed a 
good state of health to a very unusual length of life. He 
was modest, devout, strictly virtuous, and very communi- 
cative of what he knew. Besides bis peculiar eminence as 
an architect, his learning and knowledge were very exten- 
sive in all the arts and sciences, and especially in the ma- 
thematics. Mr. Hooke, who was intimately acquainted with 
him, and very able to make a just estimate of bis abilities, 
has comprised his character in these few but comprehen- 

WREN. 327 

eive words: u l must affirm,'' says be, "that since the time 
of Archimedes* there scarcely ever has, met in one man, in 
so great a perfection, such a mechanical hand, and so phi- 
losophical a mind." And a greater than Hooke, even the 
illustrious and immortal Newton, whose signet stamps an 
indelible character, speaks thus of him^ with other eminent 
men : " D. Christophorus Wren n us, Eques Auratus, Jo- 
hannes Wallisius, 8. T. D. et D. Christian us Hugenius, hu- 
jus astatis Geometrarum facile principes." Mr. Evelyn, in 
the dedication referred to above, tells him, that " he in- 
scribed his book with his name, partly through an ambition of 
publickly declaring the great esteem I have ever had," says 
he, "of your virtues and accomplishments, not only in the art 
of building, but through all the learned cycle of the most 
useful knowledge and abstruser sciences, as well as of the 
most polite and shining ; all which is so justly to be allowed 
you, that you need no panegyf ie, or other history, to eter- 
nize them, than the greatest city of the universe, which 
you have rebuilt and beautified, and are still improving: 
witness the churches, the royal courts, stately halls, maga-, 
zines, palaces, and other public structures^ besides that 
you have built of great and magnificent in both the uni- 
versities, At Chelsea, and in the country ; and are now ad- 
vancing of the royal Marine-hospital at Greenwich : all of 
them so many trophies of you* skill and industry, and con- 
ducted with that success, that, if the whole art of building 
were lost, it might be recovered and found again in St. 
Paul's, the historical pillar, and those other monuments of 
your happy talent and extraordinary genius." 

The note below * contains a catalogue of the churches 

* St. Paul's Cathedral. St. Diopis, Baek-o^urch. 

Allhallows the Great. St. Edmund the King. 

AUhftUows, Bread-street. • St. George, Botolph-lane. 

Allhallows, Lombard -street. St. James, Garlic-hilt. 

St. Alban, Wood-street. St. James, Westminster. 

St. Anne and Agnes. St. Lawrence Jewry. 

St. Andrew, Wardrobe. St. Michael* Basing. ha!!. . 

St. Andrew, Hoi born. St. Michael Royal. 

St. Antholio. St. Michael, Queenhithe. 

St. Austin* St. Michael, Wood-street. 

St Bene't, Grasschurcb. St. Michael, Crooked-lane. 

St. Bene't, Paul's Wharf.* St. Martin, Ludgate. 

St. Bene't, Fink. St. Matthew, Friday -street. 

St. Bride. St. Michael, Cornhill. 

St. Bartholomew. St. Margaret, Lothburjr. 

Christ- Cbureb. St. Margaret Pattens. 

St. Clement, East-cheap. St. Mary A b church. 

St Clement Danes. St. Mary AWermanbury. 

32* WEE N. 

of the city of Londoo, royal pa beet, hospitals; and public 
edi6ces 9 built by sir Christopher Wren, surveyor-general 
of the royal works during fifty years, via. from 1668 to 

Among the many public buildings erected by him in the 
city of London, the church of St. Stephen in Walbroke* 
that of St. Mary-le-Bow, the Monument, and the cathedra! 
of St. Paul, have more especially drawn the attention of 
foreign connoisseurs. "The church of Walbroke," says 
the author of the ' Critical Review of the public buildings, 
Ac. of London/ " so little known among us, is famous all 
over Europe, and k justly reputed the master-piece of the 
celebrated sir Christopher Wren. Perhaps Italy itself can 
produce no modern building that can vie with this in taste 
pr proportion. There is not a beauty which the plan would 
admit of, that is not to be found here in its greatest per- 
fection ; and foreigners very justly call our judgment in 
question, for understanding its graces no better, and allow- 
ing it no higher -a degree of fame." The steeple of St. 
Mary-le-Bow, which is particularly grand and beautiful, 
stands upon an old Roman causey, that lies eighteen feel 
below the level of the present street ; and the body of the 
church on the walls of a Roman temple. The Monument 
is a pillar of the Doric order, the pedestal of which is forty 
feet high and twenty-one square, the diameter of the co- 
lumn fifteen feet, and the altitude of the whole 202 ; which 
is a fourth part higher than that of the emperor Trajan at 
Rome. It was begun in 167 1, and finished in 1677. But 
St. Paul's will probably be considered as the greatest mo- 
nument of sir Christopher's genius. He died, says WaU 
pole, at the age of ninety-one, having lived to see the 
completion of St Paul's ; a fabric and an event, which one 


SL Mary -le- Bow. St. Christopher. 

St Mary Magdalen. St. Dunstan in the East. 

St. Mary Somerset. St. Mary Aldermary. 

St. Mary at Hill. St. Sepulchre's. . 

St Nicholas Cole Abbey. The Monument. 

St. Olave Jewry. Custom- House, London. 

St Peter, Cornhill. Winchester- Castle. 

St. Swithin, Cannon-street. Hampton- Court. 

St. Stephen, Walbrooke. Chelsea- Hospital. 

St. Stephen, Dolman -street, Greenwich -Hospital. 

fct Mildred, Bread-street. Theatre at Oxford. 

St. Magnus, London-bridge. Trinity-college Library., Cambridge. 

St Foster's Church. Emanoel-college Chapel, Cambridge, 

St. Mildred, Poultry. &c. &c. 

Westminster Abbey, repaired. 

WREN. S29 

cannot wonder left such an impression of content oh the 
mind of the good old man, that, being carried to see it once 
a year, it seemed to recall a memory that was almost dead- 
ened to every other use." The same writer observes, that - 
" so many great architects as were employed on St. Peter's 
(at Rome) have not left it, upon the whole, a more perfect 
edifice than this work of a single mind." 

Sir Christopher Wren never printed any thing himself ; 
but several of his works have been published by others : 
some in the " Philosophical Transactions," and some by 
Dr. Wallis and other friends ; while some are still remain- 
ing in manuscript, and several volumes of his designs are 
in the library of All Souls college. The title of one of 
them is, " Delineationes novae fabrics templi Paulini juxta 
tertiam propositionem et ex sententia regis Caroli II. sub 
privato sigillo expressse 14 Maii, ann. 1678.'' By this it 
appears Ahat he floated very much in his designs for St. 
Paul's. One of them is very much like that of San Gallo 
for St. Peter's at Rome. In another, the dome is crowned 
with a pine-apple, and it is curious to observe how every 
design for the present beautiful dome excels the other. 
The favourite design, however, of the great architect him- 
self was got taken, 

Sir Christopher was succeeded in his estate by his son 
and only surviving child, Christopher Wren, esq. This 
gentleman was born Feb. 16, 1675 (the year St. Paul's was 
founded), and was educated at Eton school and Pembroke 
hall, Cambridge. In 1694, sir Christopher procured him 
the office of deputy-clerk engrosser ; but this preferment 
did not prevent him from making a tour through Holland, 
France, and Italy. On his return from the continent he 
was elected member of parliament for Windsor in 17) 3 
and 1714. He died Aug. 24, 1747, aged seventy-two, and 
was buried in the ehurch of Wroxhall, adjoining to his seat 
at Wroxhall in Warwickshire. He was a man very much 
esteemed, and was equally pious, learned, and amiable. 
He bad made antiquity his particular study, well understood 
it, and was extremely communicative. He wrote and pub* 
lished in 1708, in 4to, a work entitled " Numismatum an- 
tiquorum sylloge, populis Greecis, municipiis et coloniis 
Romanis casorum, ex chimeliarcbo editoris." This, which 
he dedicated to the Royal Society, contains representa- 
tions of many curious Greek medallions in four plates, and 
two others of ancient inscriptions ; these are followed by 

330 W R E N. 

the legends of imperial coins in tbe large and middle size, 
from Julius Caesar to Aurelian, with their interpretations: 
and subjoined is an appendix of Syrian and Egyptian 
kings, and coins of cities, all collected by himself. He 
also collected with so much care and attention, as to leave 
scarcely any, curiosity ungratified, memoirs of tbe life of 
bishop Wren, Dr. Christopher Wren, dean of Windsor, 
and his illustrious father ; with collections of records and 
original papers. These were published in fol. under the 
title of " Parentalia," by his son Stephen, a physician, 
assisted by Mr. Ames, in 1750, and are illustrated by por- 
traits and plates. Mr. Wren married twice ; in May 1706 
to Mary, daughter of Mr. Musard, jeweller to queen Anne, 
who died in 1712; he afterwards married in 1715 dame 
Constance, widow of sir Rogdr Burgoyne, bart. and daugh- 
ter of sir Thomas Middleton, of Stansted Montfitchet, 
Essex, who died in 1734. By each marriage he had oqe 
son, Christopher, and Stephen. Christopher, the eldest, 
an eccentric humourist, was the poetical friend of lady 
Luxborough and Shenstone. Displeasing his father, all 
the unentailed estates were given from him to sir Roger 
Burgoyne, bart. son of sir Roger. Wroxall is still in the fa- 
mily, and owned by Christopher Wren, esq. now (1806) 
in the East Indies, who is tbe sixth Christopher Wren in 
succession from the father of sir Christopher. 1 

WRIGHT (Abraham), a learned and loyal divine of the 
seventeenth century, was the son of Richard Wright, citi- 
zen and silk-dyer of London, who was the son of Jeffrey 
Wright, of Loughborough, in Leicestershire. He was born 
in Black- Swan alley, Thames-street, in the parish of St. 
James's, Garlick Hythe, London, Dec. 25, 1611, and edu- 
cated partly at Mercers'- chapel school, but principally at 
Merchant Taylors, whence he was elected scholar of St. 
JohnVcollege, Oxford, in 1629, by the interest of Dr. 
Juxon, then president, who became his patron. He was 
much admired at this time for* natural eloquence, and a 
love of polite literature. In 1632 he wad elected fellow, 
and while bachelor of arts, made a collection of modern 
Latin poetry, which he published afterwards under tbe 
t,itie of " Delitiae delitiarum, sive epigramtnatum ex optimis 
quibusque hujus novissimi seculi Poetis in amplissima ilia 

1 Parentalia.— Biog. Brit. — Wa I pole's Anecdote*.— Reward's Anecdotes.— 
Noble's Continuation of Granger. — Ward's G res ham Professors* — Hutton's 



WRIGHT. 331 

BibL Bod^eiana, et pene omftino alibi exta.ntibus antholagia 
in unura corolla m connexa," Ox. 1637, 1 2 mo. In 1636, 
when archbishop Laud entertained the royal family at St. 
John's-college, Mr. Wright was selected to make an En- 
glish address, and afterwards distinguished himself as a » 
performer in a comedy called " Love's Hospital/' which 
was acted before their majesties in the hall, by a company 
of St. John's men. 

In Sept. 1637, and 1639, betook deacon's and priest's 
orders, and was so much admired as an eloquent preacher 
as to be frequently called upon to preach at St. Mary's, St. 
Paul's, London, &c. In 1645 he became vicar of Okeham 
in Rutlandshire, by the interest of his patron Juxon, now 
bishop of London, ' and received institution, but refused 
induction, because in that case he must have taken the 
covenant, which was altogether repugnant to his principles, 
and therefore a nonconformist was placed in his living, one 
Benjamin King. Mr. Wright then went to London, and 
lived retired till after the death of the king, when be was 
hospitably received into the family of sir George Grime or 
Graham at Peckham, and while here he instructed sir 
George^ sons in ,Latin and Greek, and read the Common- 
prayer on all Suudays and holidays, and preached and ad- 
ministered the sacrament About 1655 be returned to 
London, on being chosen by the parishioners of St. Olave, 
Silver-street, to be their minister. In this office he re- 
mained for four years, and was in fact rector, but would 
notftake possession on account of the republican oaths and 
obligations necessary. He performed all his duties, how- 
ever, according to the forms of the Church of England, 
although at some risk. Op the restoration Benjamin King, 
who had been put into his living at Okeham, resigned, by 
his hand and seal, all title to it, and Mr. Wright took pos- 
session and retained it to bis dying day, refusing some 
other preferments. He lived here to a very advanced age, 
and died May 9, 16P0, and was buried in Okeham church. 
Besides the "Delitiee poetarum" already mentioned, he 
published 1. " Five Sermons in five several stiles or ways 
of preaching," Lond. 1656, 8vo. The object of this curi- 
ous collection is to exhibit the advantages of education in 
fitting for' the ministry, as well as the different styles of 
some eminent men of that period, viz. bishop Andrews, 
bishop Hall, Dr. Mayne, and Mr. Cartwright . Dr, Birch 
As mistaken in calling this an imitation of different styles; 


it is a selection from the works of the respective authors. 
2. " A practical commentary, or exposition on the book of 
Psalms/' Lond. 1661, fol. 3. " Practical Commentary on 
the Pentateuch," ibiJ. fol. 4. " Parnassus biceps, or se- 
veral choice pieces of poetry, composed by the best wits 
that wert* in both the universities before their dissolution,** 
ibid. 1656, 8vo. He wrote some other works which have 
not been printed. 

He left a son, JAMBS Wright, known to dramatic anti- 
quaries, as one of the earliest historians of the stage, and 
perhaps one of the first collectors of old plays after Cart- 
wright, whose collection was at Dulwich-college. His 
work on this subject, which is extremely scarce, is entitled 
" Historic Histrionica; an historical account of the English 
stage, shewing the ancient use, improvement, and perfec- 
tion, . of dramatic representations in this nation. In a dia- 
logue of plays and players," Lond. 1699, 8vo. It was first 
brought forward by Oldys, who quoted it in his life of 
Alleyn the player in the Biographia Britannica. By War- 
burton's recommendation it was prefixed to Dodsley's 
" Old Plays, 9 ' but the preface has been omitted which 
Warton says is a sensible one, and certainly points out the 
only use of most old plays, as exhibiting the manners of 
the times. Wright wrote likewise u Country conversations, 
being an account of some discourses that happened on a 
visit to the country last summer, on divers subjects ; chiefly, 
of the modern comedies, of drinking, of translated verse, 
of painting and painters, of poets and poetry," Lond. 1&94, 
12mo. He appears also to have been a skilful antiquary, 
and had formed a^very curious collection, which was unfor- 
tunately consumed in a fire in the Middle Temple in 1698. - 
Among his MSS. was an excellent transcript of Leland's 
" Itinerary," of the age of queen Elizabeth, and conse- 
quently made before the present mutilations and corrup- 
tions. On this he had much correspondence with Hearne. 
His other works were, I. "A poem, being an Essay on 
the present ruins of St. Paul's cathedral," Lond. 1668, 4to. 
2. " History and Antiquities of the county of Rutland," 
ibid. 1634, fol. soon followed by "Additions" in 1687, and 
•' Farther Additions," 1714. This is a work of much la- 
bour and research, although not perfect. 3. "A new de- 
scription of the city of Paris, in two parts, out of the 
French," ibid. 1687, 8vo. 4. "Verses anniversary to the 
venerable memory of his ever honoured father, &c." 1690, 


Svo. 5. " Monasticon Anglicanum, &c." an accurate epi- 
tome in English of Dugdale's " Monasticon," ibid. 1693, 
fol. 6. " Three poems of St. Paul's cathedral, viz. The 
Ruins (mentioned above), The re-building, The Choir," 
1697, fol. 7. " Phoenix Paulina, a poem on St. Paul's 
cathedral," 1709, 4to. 8. " Burley on the hill, a poem," 
4to, no date, but reprinted in his last additions to his Rut* 
landsbire. .Hearne, who knew and respected Wright, in- 
forms us, that he wrote strictures on Wood's " A thence," 
but that they remained in manuscript. Wright, a few years 
before his death, gave Hearne a complete catalogue of his 
work*, which on application be had refused to Wood, " as 
an injudicious biographer." 

Wright, who was born about 1644, was probably edu- 
cated at Merchant Taylors' school, but was not of either 
university. In 1666 be became a student of New Inn. and 
in three years removed to the Middle Temple, and was at 
length called to the bar. He died about 17 15. l 

WRIGHT (Edward), a noted English mathematician, 
who flourished in the latter part of the sixteenth century 
afld beginning of the seventeenth, is thus characterised in 
a Latin paper in the library of Gonvile and Caius college, 
Cambridge : " This year (1615) died at London, Edward 
Wright, of Garveston, in Norfolk, formerly a fellow of 
this college ; a man respected by all for the. integrity and 
simplicity of his manners, and also famous for his skill in 
the mathematical sciences ; so that he was not undeservedly 
styled a most excellent mathematician by Richard Hack- 
luyt, the author of an original treatise of our English na- 
vigations. What knowledge he had acquired in the science 
of mechanics, and bow usefully he employed that know- 
ledge to the public as well as to private advantage, abun- 
dantly appear both from the writings he published, and 
from the many mechanical operations still extant, which 
are standing monuments of his great industry and ingenuity. 
He was the first undertaker of that difficult but useful work, 
by which a little river is brought from the town of Ware 
in a new canal, to supply the city of London with water ; 
but by the tricks of others he was hindered from com- 
pleting the work be had begun. He was excellent both in 
contrivance and execution, nor was he inferior to the most 

l Ath. Ox. vol. 11 —Birch's Life of Tillotson.— Warton's edition of MUton'i 
Poems. — Wilion'f H»u of Merchant Taylors' achooU 

334 W R I G H T. 

ingenious mechanic in the making 6f instruments, eitheY 
of brass or any. other matter. To his invention is owing 
whatever advantage Hondius's geographical charts have 
above others ; for it was Wright who taught Jodocus Hon-* 
dius the method of constructing them, which was till then 
unknown; but the ungrateful Hondius concealed the name 
of the true author, and arrogated the glory of the invention 
to himself. Of this fraudulent practice the good man could 
not help complaining, and justly enough, in the {taeface 
to his treatise of the "Correction of Errors in the art of 
Navigation;" which he composed with excellent judgment 
and after long experience, to the great advancement of 
naval affairs. For the. improvement of this art he was ap- 
pointed mathematical lecturer by the East India company, 
and read lectures in the house of that worthy knight sir 
Thomas Smith, for which he had a yearly takry of fifty* 
pounds. This, office he discharged with great reputation, 
and much to the satisfaction of bis hearers. He published 
in English a book on the doctrine of the sphere, and another 
concerning the construction of sun-dials. He also pre- 
fixed an ingenious preface to the learned Gilbert's book 
ojn the loadstone. By these and other his writings, be has 
transmitted his fame to latest posterity. While he was yet 
a fellow of this college, he could not be concealed in his 
private study, but was called forth to the public business 
of the nation by the queen, about 1593. He was ordered 
to attend the earl of Cumberland in some maritime expe- 
ditions. One of these he has given a faithful account of, 
in the manner of a journal or ephemeris, to which be has 
prefixed an elegant hydrographical chart of his own con-> 
trivance., A little before his death he employed himself 
about an. English translation of the book of logarithms, then 
lately discovered by lord Napier, a Scotchman, who had a 
great affection for him. This posthumous work of his was 
published soon after by his only son Samuel Wright, who 
was also a scholar of this college. He had formed marty 
other useful designs, but was hindered by death from bring- 
ing them to perfection. Of him it may truly be said, that 
he studied more to serve the public than himself; and 
though he* was rich in fame, and in the promises of the 
great, yet he died poor, to the scandal of an ungrateful, 
age." So far the memoir; other particulars conoerning 
him are as follow : 

Mr. Wright first dicovered the true way of dividing the 

WRIGHT. 335 

meridian line* according to which the Mercator's charts 
are constructed, and upon which Mercator's sailing is 
founded. An account of this he sent from Caius college, 
Cambridge, where he was then a fellow, to his friend Mr. 
Blondeville, containing a short table for that purpose, with 
a specimen of a chart so divided, together with the man- 
ner of dividing it. All which Blondeville published in 
1594, among his " Exercises." And, in 1597, the rev. 
Mr. William Barlowe, in his " Navigator's Supply," gave 
*a demonstration of this division as communicated by a 

At length, in 1599, Mr. Wright himself printed his ce- 
lebrated treatise entitled " The Correction of certain Errors 
in Navigation, 9 ' which had been written many years before; 
where he shews the reason of this division of the meridian, 
the manner of constructing his table, and its used in navi- 
gation", with other improvements. In 1610 a second edi- 
tion of Mr. Wright's book was published, and dedicated to 
his royal pupil, printe Henry ; in which the author in- 
serted farther improvements ; particularly he proposed an 
excellent way of determining the magnitude of the earth ; 
at the same timerecommending, very judiciously, the mak- 
ing our common measures in some certain proportion to 
that of a degree on its surface, that they might not depend 
on the uncertain length of a barley corn. Some of his 
other improvements were — the table, of latitudes for di- 
viding the meridian, computed as far as to minutes: an 
instrument, he calls the sea-rings, by which the variation 
of the compass, the altitude of the sun, and the time of the 
day, may be readily determined at once in any place, pro- 
vided the latitude be known ; the correcting of the errors 
arising from the eccentricity of the eye in observing by the 
cross-staff; a total amendment in the tables of the decli- 
nations and places of the sun and stars, from his own ob- 
servations, made with a six-foot quadrant, in 1594, 95, 96, 
97 ; a sea-quadrant, to take altitudes by a forward or back- 
ward observation ; having also a contrivance for the ready 
finding the latitude by the height of the polar-star, when 
not upon the meridian. And that this book might be the 
better understood by beginners, to this edition is subjoined 
a trauslation of Zamorano's Compendium ; and added a 
large table of the variation of the compass as observed iu 
very different parts of the world, to shew it is not occa- 
sioned by any magnetical pole. The work has gone 

336 weight; 

through several other editions since. Atod, beside the 
hooks above mentioned, he wrote another on navigation, 
entitled "The Haven-finding Art." Some account* of 
him say also, that it was in 1589 that he first began to at- 
tend the earl of Cumberland in his voyages* It is also said 
that he made for' bis pupil, prince Henry, a large sphere 
with curious movements, which, by the help of spring* 
work, not only represented the motions of the whole celes- 
tial sphere, but shewed likewise the particular systems of 
the sun and moon, and their circular motions, together 
with their places apd possibilities of eclipsing each other :' 
there is in it a work for a motion of 17,100 years, if it 
should not be stopped, or the materials fail. This sphere, 
though thus made at a great expence of money and inge- 
nious industry, was afterwards in the time of the civil-wars 
cast aside, among dust and rubbish, where it was found in 
1646, by sir Jonas Moore, who at his own expence restored 
it to its first state of perfection, and deposited it at his own 
house in the Tower, among his other mathematical instru- 
ments and curiosities. * 

WRIGHT (Joseph), commonly called Wright of Derby, 
a very distinguished painter, was born at Derby, Septem- 
ber 3, 1734. His father was an attorney there. In early 
life, he gave indications of a taste for mechanics, and those 
habits of attentive observation, which generally lead to 
perfection in the fine arts. In 1751, be came to London, 
and was placed with Hudson, the most eminent portrait- 
painter of the day, and who, lord Orford tells us, pleased 
the country gentlemen with " his honest similitudes, fair 
tied wigs, blue velvet coats, and white sattin waistcoats, 
which he bestowed liberally oil his customers. 91 Wright 
used to lament that be could not receive much instruction 
from this master, but it is certain he at this time painted 
both portraits and historical pieces in a very capital style, 
of which his " Blacksmith's forge," "Air-pump, &c." are 
proofs. In 1773, after marrying, be visited Italy, and 
made great advances in his profession. In 1775, he re* 
turned to England, and settled for two years at Bath, after 
which his residence was entirely at Derby. 

His attention was directed for some years to portrait 
painting; and from the specimens he has left, there can 
be no doubt that he would have stood in the first rank in 

V Hutten's Diet. — Martin'* Biog. Philosophies. 


WRI& H t. 337 

ibis branch of the art, bad he chosen to pursue it ; but his 
genius was not to- be circumscribed within such narrow 
linVus, and therefore, at a mature age, be visited Italy, to 
study the precious remains of art which that country pos- 
sessed. His fine drawings, after Michael Angelo (which 
have scarcely been seen except by his particular friends), 
and the enthusiasm with which he always spoke of the sub^ 
lime original, evinced the estimation in which he held 
them; and from their extreme accuracy, they may be con- 
sidered as faithful delineations of the treasures of the Ca- 
pelia Sestina. In 1782 he was elected an associate of the 
Royal Academy ; but offended at Mr. Garvey's being 
chosen royal academician before himself, he resigned hi* 
associate's diploma in disgust, yet continued to exhibit at 
intervals with that society. In 1785 he made an exhibition 
Of his own pictures at the auction room, now Robins'*, in 
the Great Viazza, Covent Garden. The collection con- 
sisted of twenty four pictures. 

During his abode in Italy he had an opportunity of see- 
ing a very memorable eruption of Vesuvius, which re- 
kindled bis inclination for painting extraordinary effects 
of light; and his different pictures of this sublime event 
stood decidedly chtf <F <tuvre$ in that line of painting; for 
who but Wright ever succeeded in fire or moonlights? His 
later pictures were chiefly landscapes, in which we are at 
a loss, whether most to admire the elegance of his outline, 
his judidious management of light and shade, or the truth 
and delicacy of his colouring ; but of those, the greatest 
part have never been exhibited, as they were always pur- 
chased from the easel by amateurs who knew how to ap- 
preciate their value : a large landscape (his last work) now 
at Derbjr, being a view of the head of Ullswater, may be 
considered amongst the finest of his works, and deservedly 
ranks with the most valued productions of Wilson* or even 
Claude himself. 

In the historical line, the Dead Soldier, which is now 
known by Heath's admirable print, would alone establish 
bis fame, if his Edwin (in the possession of J. Milnes, esq. 
of Wakefield; who has also bis Destruction of the Floating' 
Batteries off Gibraltar, and some of his best landscapes), 
the two pictures of Hero and Leander, Lady in Comus, 
Indian Widow, and other historical subjects, had not al- 
ready ascertained his excellence. His attachment to bis 
native town, added to his natural modesty, and his severe 

Vol. XXXJI. Z 

338 WHIG H T\ 

application both to the theory and practice of painting, 
prevented his mixing with promiscuous society, or esta- 
blishing his reputation by arts which he would never de- 
scend to practise. His friends long urged him to reside in 
London ; but his family attachments, and love of retire- 
ment apd study were invincible, and be fell a victim to his 
unwearied attention to his profession. He died of a de- 
cline, Aug; 29, 1797. 

His pictures have been so much in request, that there is 
scarcely an instance of their ever having come into the 
hands of dealers ; neither have his best works ever been 
seen in London ; a strong proof of their intrinsic 'worth, and 
that no artifices were necessary to ensure their sale. It is 
with pleasure therefore that we record, that his pecuniary 
circumstances were always affluent, and shew that the world 
has not been unmindful of his extraordinary talents/ and 
also that, as a man, he enjoyed the friendship *nd esteem 
of all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance. l 

WRIGHT (Nathan), of Bar well, Leicestershire, bar- 
rister at law, was elected recorder of Leicester in 1630 ; 
called by writ, April 11, 1692, to take the degree of Ser- 
jeant at law; knighted Dec. 30, 1696, and made king's 
serjeant. On the refusal of the lords chief justices Holt 
and Treby, and Trevor the attorney-general, to accept 
the great seal, which was taken from lord Somers, it was 
delivered to sir Nathan, with the title of lord -keeper, May 
21,. 1700. As he was raised to this situation by the tories, 
so he seems to have acted in conformity to the views of 
that party. Burnet $ays, that many gentlemen e,f good 
estates and ancient families were put out of the commis- 
sion of the peace by him, for no other visible reason but 
because they bad gone in heartily to ibe revolution, and 
had continued zealous for king William ; and, at the same 
time, men of no worth nor estate, and known to be ill-af- 
fected to queen Anne's title, and to the protestant succes- 
sion,, were put in. He adds, that the lord-keeper was a 
"zealot to the party, and was become very exceptionable 
in all respects. Money, as was said, did every thing with 
him ; only in his court, I never heard him charged for any 
thing but great slowness, by which the chancery was be- 
come one of the heaviest grievances of the nation." The 
same author likewise says, that the lord-keeper " was sor- 

1 Edwards's Auecdotes.— Gtut. Ma;, for 1797. 

WRIGHT. 339 

didly covetous, and did not at all lite suitable to that high 
post : he became extremely rich, yet I never heard hi«t 
charged with bribery in his court." One of the most re- 
markable events that happened while he was in office, was 
his sentence for dissolving the Savoy, July 13, 1702; and 
in the same year, Nov. 30, he reversed a decree of his 
great predecessor, lord Sowers. Sir Nathan's rertioval, 
however, which happened in May 1705, is said to have "been 
a great loss to the church. 9 ' He passed the remainder 
of bis days in retirement, beloved and respected, at Chal- 
decot-HaJl, in Warwickshire, where he died Aug. 4, 1721. l 
WRIGHT (Sam&El), an eminent dissenting clergyman, 
was born Jan. 30, 1682-3, being eldest son of Mr. James 
Wright, a ftonconformist minister at Retford, in the county 
of Nottingham, by Mrs. Eleanor Cotton, daughter of Mr 
Cotton, a gentleman of Yorkshire, and sister to the rev. 
Mr. Thomas Cotton of Westminster, whose funeral -sermon 
his nephew pVeaohed and published. At eleven years old 
be lost his father, being then at school at Attercliffe, in 
Yorkshire, whence he removed to Darton, in the same 
county, under the care of his grandmother, and his. uncle 
Cotton. At sixteen he studied under the care of the rev. 
Mr. JoUie, at Attercliffe, whom about the age of twenty- 
one he quitted, and went to his uncle's house at the Haigh, 
where he officiated as bis chaplain ; and after his death he 
came to London, having preached only three or four ser- 
moos in the country. He lived a little while in his uncle's 
family at St. Giles's* and thence went to be chaplain to 
lady Susannah Lort, at Turnham-green, and was chosen 
to preach the Sunday evening-lecture at Mr. Cotton's, at 
St. Giles's, Being soon after invited to assist Dr. Gros- 
venor at Crosby -square meeting, he quitted lady Lort and 
St. Giles's, and was soon after chosen to carry on the 
evening-lecture in Southwark, in conjunction with the rev. 
Mr. Haman Hood, who soon quitting it, it devolved on 
Mr. Wright, then only twenty-three. On the death of 
Mr. Matthew Sylvester, 1708, he was chosen pastor of the 
congregation at Blackfriars, which increased considerably 
under his care, and where he continued many years, till 
he removed to Carter-lane, which meeting-house was built 
for him, and opened by him Dec. 5, 1734, with a sermon 
on 2 Chron. vi. 40. His sermons, printed singly, amount 

1 Nichols's Hist, of Leicestershire, art. Hinckley. 

Z 2 

340 WRIGHT. 

to near forty. But his most considerable wotk was bfo 
" Treatise on the New Birth, or, the being born again, 
without which it is impossible to enter into the kingdom of 
God/' which had gone through fifteen editions before his 
death. Dr. Wright is traditionally understood to have been 
the author of the song* "Happy Hours, all Hours excell- 
ing." He was remarkable for the melody of his voice and 
the beauty of his elocution. Archbishop Herring, when a 
young man, frequently attended bim as a model of delivery, 
not openly in the meeting house, but in a large porch be- 
longing to the old place in Blackfriars. He married, in 
1710, the widow of his predecessor; Mr. Sylvester, daugh- 
ter of the rev. Mr. OUadiah Hdglies, minister of thet dissent- 
ing congregation at Enfield, aunt to the late Dr. Obadiah 
Hughes, by whom he had one son, since dead, a trades- 
man in the city, and one daughter, married to a citizen in 
Newgate-streeit, a most accomplished woman, but who be- 
came the victim of her own imprudence. He died April 
3, 1*746, at Newington-green, which was his residence. 
His funeral-sermon was preached at Carter-lane meeting 
by Dr. Milner; and another at the same place, by Dn 
Obadiah Hughes, who wrote His epitaph. ' 

WYATT (James), an eminent modern architect, was bfrirn 
at Burton, in the county of Stafford, about 1743, of a re* 
spectable family, which is now become perfectly patriar- 
chal in its numerous and extensive branches; His educa- 
tion, till the age of fourteen, wad such as a country town 
afforded, but having at that period, exhibited a fondness 
for architectural design, though in humble and rude at- 
tempts, his friends had the happiness to succeed in intro- 
ducing him into the suite of lord Bagot, then about to de- 
part for Rorne as the ambassador of Great Britain at the 
Ecclesiastical States. That genius which first budded spon- 
taneously in its own obscure, native territory, could hardly 
fail to shoot forth in strength and beauty when transplanted 
to the classic and congenial soil of Italy.- Amid vhe archi- 
tectural glories of the West* the fallen temples of the 
World's fallen mistress, our young student stored up that 
transcendant knowledge of the rules of his profession, and 
that exquisite taste for the developement' of those rules, 
which, in after-years, placed him without a professional 
rival in his own country. Brilliant, quick, and intuitive, a* 

J Wilson'* Hist, of Dissenting Churches.— Nienoh's Bowyer. 

W Y A T T. 341 


was bis genius, be was never remiss in investigating and 
making himself master of the details and practical causes 
by which the great effective results of architecture are pro- 
duced. He hVs been beard frequently to state that he 
measured with his own hand every part of the dome of St. 
Peter's, and this too at the imminent danger of his life, 
being under the necessity of lying on his back on a ladder 
slung horizontally, without cradle or side-rail, over a fright* 
-fql void of $00 feet. From Rome he departed for Venice, 
whpre he remained above two years a pupil of the cele- 
brated yiffcemini, an architect and painter. Under this 
master he acquired a very unusual perfection in architec- 
tural painting; and he has executed a few, and but a few, 
paintings in that line, which equal any by Ranini. At the 
unripe age of twenty, when few young men have even com- 
menced their pupilage to a profession of so much science 
and taste, Mr. Wyatt arrived in London with a taste formed 
by the finest models of ancient Rome, and the instruction of 
the best living masters in Italy. To him then nothing was 
wanting but an opportunity to call forth his powers into 
action, nor was th$t long withheld. He was employed to 
build the Pantheon in Oxford-street, a specimen of archi- 
tecture Which attracted the attention and commanded the 
admiration of all persons of taste in Europe, by its gran- 
deur of symmetry, and its lavish but tasteful richness of 
decoration. Never, perhaps, was so hi<*h a reputation in 
the arts obtained by a first effort. Applications now poured 
in upon Mr. Wyatt, not only from all parts of England, 
Ireland, and Scotland, but also from the Continent. The 
empress of Russia, that investigator and patron of talent in 
all departments, desirous to possess the architect of the 
Pantheon, and to exercise his genius in a projected palace, 
offered him {through her ambassador at London) a carte 
bl#ncAe 9 as to remuneration,, if he would settle at St. Pe- 
tersburg; but he was recommended by his friends to de- 
cline the offer of the munificent Catherine. From this pe- 
riod it may well be supposed that he ranked foremost in 
his profession, and executed most of the important and 
costly works of architecture which were undertaken. On 
the death of sir William Chambers he received the most 
flattering and substantial proof of the king's great, estima- 
tion, by being appointed surveyor-general to the Board of 
Works, which was followed by appointments to almost all 
the important offices connected with his profession in the 

342 WYAT T. 

government departments; and/ a dispute having arisen in 
the Royal Academy, which induced Mr. West to relinquish 
the- president's chair, Mr. Wyatt was elected, and rehict- 
antty obeyed his majesty's command to accept the vacant 
office, which he restored to Mr. West the ensuing year. 
From the building of the Pantheon to- the period of his 
death, this classical architect erected or embellished some 
of the most considerable mansions, palaces, and other build- 
ings, in the United Kingdom ; among which are, the pa- 
lace at Kew, Fonthill- abbey, -Hanworth church, House of 
Lords, Henry the Seventh's chapel, Windsor castle, Bul- 
strode, Doddington hall, Cashiobury, Ash ridge hall, &c. 
&c. The writer of his life says, that although Mr. Wyatt 
was educated a Roman architect, and made his grand and 
successful debut in England in* that character, yet his genius 
was not to be bounded in a single sphere, and it afterwards 
revived in this country the long-forgotten beauties of Go- 
thic architecture. It is, however, a more general opinion 
that Mr. Wyatt was far from successful either in his origi- 
nal attempts, or in his restorations of the pure Gothic*. 

A man who walked foremost in the ranks of a lucrative 
profession (in a country filled with a rich and liberal aris- 
tocracy) for near 48 years, a considerable portion of which 
he was honoured with the royal favour, might naturally be 
supposed: to have amassed a fortune almost princely; but, 
$tfr. Wyatt bequeathed to his, family little more than a 
name universally beloved and regretted, and a reputation 
which will live as long as the liberal arts continue to em- 
bellish and ennoble human life. To account for this, says 
hiss biographer, it is only necessary to observe, that, if to 
superior and all-powerful genius were added conduct and 
prudence equivalent, every individual so gifted would be- 
come a Napoleon or a Wellington — the destroyer or the 
saviour of nations : but infinite wisdom having ordained 
that such instances should be most rare, and that the mass 
of mankind should live in a great degree equalized in 
power, we commonly find that genius and great parts are 
paralyzed by an inattention to the minor considerations and 
details of calculating prudence, while a slow and dulL in- 
tellect is often compensated by industry and worldly cau- 
tion. Mr. Wyatt's genius achieved for him greatness at an 
early age, without the humbler aids last alluded to, and 

* See on this mtyect Gent. Mag. volt, LXVll and LXVIIh 

WYATT. 343 

those discreet handmaids to wealth ami permanent prospe- 
rity were never afterwards found in his train. He died 
Sept, 5, 1&I3, aged about seventy, He_>was proceeding 
to Loodon with. Mr. Codrington, in that gentleman's car- 
riage, when it was overturned near Marlborough. The 
suddenness and violence- of this accident was fatal to Mr. 
Wyatt : it is supposed to have produced a concussion of. 
the brain. His death was instantaneous. The suavity of 
manners, the kind and obliging disposition, and the iufceU 
Hgent mind of Mr. Wyatt, attracted and retained the no* 
ttce and friendship of some of the most illustrious persons 
in this kingdom ; among whom are to be ranked the sove- 
reign, and almost every branch of the royal family. No 
one, indeed, ever obtained more friends, or created fewer 
enemies: Mr. Wyatt left a widow and four sons, the eldest 
of whom,- Mr. Benjamin Dean Wyatt, already has attained 
great fa we in the profession of architecture. 1 

WYAT (Sir Thomas), a statesman and poet, the only 
son and heir of sir Henry Wyat of Allington»castle, in 
Kent, was born in 1503. His mother was the daughter of 
John Skinner, of the county of Surrey. His father wa4 
imprisoned in the Tower in the reign of Richard III. when 
he is said to have been preserved by a cat which fed him 
while in that plaee, for which reason he was always pic- 
tured with s cat in his arms, or beside him. On the acces- 
sion of Henry VII. be had great marks of favour shewn him, 
among which was the honour of knighthood, and a seat in 
the privy-council. One of the last services in which he was 
employed by that king, was conducting to the Tower the 
unfortunate earl of Suffolk, who was afterwards beheaded 
by Henry VIII. He was also a member of Henry VIII.'s 
privy-council, master of the jewel-office, and of the van- 
guard of the army, commanded by the king in person, 
which fought the memorable battle of the Spurs. He died 
in 1533. 

The honours of educating sir Thomas has been claimed 
for both universities ; by Carter for St. John's-college* 
Cambridge, and by Anthony Wood for Oxford, because 
be resided for some time on the establishment of cardinal 
Welsey*s new college, now Christ-church. He then set 
out on his travels according to the custom of that age, an# 
returned after some years, a gentleman of bigb accomplish^* 

i Gent. Mag* vol. LXXXI1I. 

34* W Y A T. 

merits and elegant manners, and of such conversation tat 
ients both as to sense and wit as to have attracted the ad* 
miration of all ranks, and particularly of his sovereign, who 
bestowed on him the order of knighthood, and employed 
him in various embassies. Mr. Warton appears offended 
with Wood for saying that ft the king was in a high man** 
ner delighted with his witty jests," while he allows that 
Henry was probably as much pleased with his repartees as 
his politics. Lloyd, whom Mr. Gray and lord Otford have 
adopted as an authority, reports enough of his wit, to con- 
vince us that he might delight a monarch of Henry's fickle-* 
ness and passionate temper. Persons of this character are 
often more easily directed or diverted by a striking ex-t 
pression, than by a train of argument. 

According to Lloyd, he was frequently honoured with 
the king's familiar conversation, which never put Wyat so 
much off his guard as to betray him into any fooleries in- 
consistent with his character. When urged by the king to 
dance at one of the courwballs, he replied that, " He who 
thought himself a wise man in the day-time, would not be 
a foql at night." . His general deportment is said to have 
been neither too severe for Henry VIII.' s time, nor top 
loose for Henry VII.'s, with whose court, however, he could 
have little acquaintance. In him also was said to have 
been combined the wit of sir Thomas More, and the wis- 
dom of sir Thomas Cromwell. It is no small confirmation 
of this character that bis friend Surrey describes him as of 
" a visage stern and mild,?' a contrariety which seems to 
be very happily preserved in Holbein's incomparable draw- 
ing lately published by Mr. Chamberlain. 

But his wit was not evanescent. We are told that he 
brought about the reformation by a bon. mot x and precipi- 
tated the fall of Wolsey by a seasonable story. When th$ 
king was perplexed respecting his divorce from queen Ca- 
therine, which he affected to feel as a matter of conscience, 
sit Thomas exclaimed, " Lord ! that a man canrtot repent 
him of his sin without the pope's leave I" A truth thus 
wittily hinted was afterwards confirmed by. the opinion of 
Cranmer and of the universities, and became a maxim of 
church and state. The story by which be promoted the 
fall of Wolsey has not descended to our times. Lloyd, 
merely says that when the king happened to be displeased, 
with Wolsey, "sir Thomas tips with the story of the curs 
baiting the butcher's dog, which contained the whole 

W Y A T. 345 

j&ethod of that great man's ruin," alluding to the com- 
paoa report of Wolsey's beiog tbe son of a butcber at 
Ipswich. . 

In tbe early state of tbe reformation, the. clergy were 
discontented, because afraid of losing tbeir valuable lands. 
?' Butter the rooks nests/' said sir Thomas, " and they will 
never trouble you." The meaning, not very obvious, was 
that the king should give the church lands to tbe great fa- 
milies, whose interest it would then be to prevent the re- 
establishment of popery. The wit, however, of this advice 
js more remarkable than the wisdom, for notwithstanding 
tbe robbery of the church, which has hept her poor ever 
?ince, popery was effectually re-established in queen Mary's 
feign. The liberality of the only other bon mot recorded 
of sir Thomas may be questioned. One day he told the 
king that he had found out a living of 100/. a year more 
than enough, and prayed him to bestow it on him, and 
when, the king answered that there was no such in Eugland, 
pir Thomas mentioned " tbe provost-ship of Eaton, where 
a man hath his diet, his lodging, his horsemeat, his servant's 
wage?, his riding charge, and an huudred pounds per an- 
yum besides." 

Sir Thooras was a man whose acquaintance was much 
courted, for bis splendid entertainments, his knowledge of 
tbe political relations of the kingdom, his discernment in 
discovering men of parts, and his readiness to encourage 
them; and for the interest he was known to possess at 
court. It became a proverb, when any person received 
preferment, that " he had been in sir Thomas Wyat's clo- 
get," To this may be added, that his conversation bad that 
happy mixture of the grave and gay which excludes dulU 
ness as well as levity, and bis manners were so highly po- 
lished that he differed in opinion with the utmost civility, 
and expressed his doubts as if he needed the information 
which he was able to impart. 

Amidst rtiis prosperous career, he had the misfortune, 
like most of the eminent characters of tbis reign, to fall 
under the severe displeasure of the king, and was twice 
imprisoned, but for what offences his biographers are not 
agreed. Fuller says he had heard that he fell into dis- 
favour about the business of queen Anne Bullen. Lloyd 
insinuates tbe same, and some have gone so far as to ac- 
cuse him of a criminal connection with her, but all this is 
in part erroneous. From the oration which be delivered 

346 . WYAT. 

on bis second trial, and which lord Orford has printed id 
his " Miscellaneous Antiquities/' he expressly imputes his 
first imprisonment to Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. 
" His first misfortune flowed from a court-cabal ; the se- 
cond from the villainy, jealousy, and false aeeusatiott of 
that wretch Bonner, bishop of London, whose clownish 
manners, lewd behaviour, want of religion, and malicious 
perversion of truth, sir Thomas paints with equal humour 
and asperity.'* Bonner accused him of a treasonable cor* 
respondence with cardinal Pole, and this, with some trea- 
sonable expresssions concerning the king, formed the prin- 
cipal charges against him, which he repelled with great 
spirit, ease, and candour. The words which he was accused 
of having uttered were, " that the king should be cast out 

of a cart's a e ; and that by God's blood, if he were 

so, he was well served, and he would he were so.*' Sfr 
Thomas acknowledged the possibility of his having uttered 
the first part of this sentence, and explained his meaning*, 
viz. that between the emperor and the king of France, bis 
master Henry would probably be left in the lurch. 

He was tried for this by a jury before a committee of the 
council, and probably acquitted, as we find that he regained 
the confidence of the king, and was afterwards sent ambas- 
sador to the emperor. His eagerness to execute this com- 
mission, whatever it was, proved fatal, for riding post in the 
heat of summer, he was attacked by a malignant fever, of 
which he died at Shirebourne in Dorsetshire, 1541, in the 
thirty-eighth year of his age, and was buried in the great 
conventual church there *. 

Lord Orford informs us that in Vertue's manuscript col- 
lections he found that Vertue was acquainted with a Mr. 
Wyat, who lived in Charterhouse-yard, and was the repre- 
sentative descendant of that respectable family. In 1721, 
and at other times, Vertue says, at that gentleman's house, 
he saw portraits of his ancestor for seven descents, and 
other pictures and ancient curiosities f. Sir Thomas has 
usually been termed sir Thomas Wyat the elder, to distin- 
guish him from sir Thomas Wyat, his son, who suffered 

* Lord Orford contradicts Anthtmy f " Drayton, ro bis verses to mas- 
Wood's account of sir Thomas's death, ter George Sandys, treasurer for the 
by playing in his usual way upon English colony iu Virginia, mentions 
words, but unfortunately upon words the uame of a Wyat, who probably 
which are not to be found in the Athe- might, be a descendant of one poet's, 
nae. See Misc. Antiquities, p. 18, note, Sandys was related to the Wyat fa- 
and compare with Wood, vol. I. col. 57. urily." Headley'a Beauties, I. Ixvi. 

W Y A T. 


death for high treason in the reign of queen Mary. His 
lady, according to Wood, was Elisabeth, daughter of Tho- 
mas Brooke, lord CobhaiB *. His son left issue, by Jane 
his wife, daughter and co-heir of William Hawte of Bourne, 
knight, a son named George Wyat of Boxley in Kent, re- 
stored IS Elizabeth. 

Sir Thomas's biographers are in general silent on the 
subject of his connection with lord Surrey. It is known, 
however, that they were closely allied by friendship, and 
similarity of taste and studies. Surrey's character of Wyat 
is a ifoble tribute to his memory. The year following his 
death, Letand published a volume of elegiac verses, some 
of which are very elegant, and all highly encomiastic, en- 
titled "Naenise in mortem Thomce Viati, Equitis incompa- 
rabilis, Joanne Lelando Antiquario, Auctore,'" 4to. This 
scarce pamphlet has a wood cut of Wyat, supposed to be 
by Holbein, but represents him as a much older man than 
he was, and with a huge bushy beard hiding more than haff 
his features. The copy in the British Museum is dated 

His poems were first published by Tottel, along with 
Surrey's and the collection by uncertain authors. The au- 
thenticity of Surrey's and Wyat's poems seems to be con- 
firmed by this care of Tottel to distinguish what he knew 
from what he did not know, and what, from the ignorance 
of an editor of so much taste, we apprehend were not ge- 
nerally known. Mr. Warton has favoured us with a very 
elaborate and elegant criticism on Wyat, but has found it 
impossible to revive his poetical fame. He contributed 
but little to the refinement of English poetry, and his ver- 
sification and language are deficient in harmony and per- 
spicuity. From a close study of the Italian poets, his ima- 
gination dwells too often on puerile conceits and contra- 
rieties, which, however, to some are so pleasing. that they 
are not to this day totally excluded from our poetry. As 
a lover, his addresses are statety, and pedantic, with very 
little mixture of feeling or passion, and although detached 
beauties may be pointed out in a few of his sonnets, his 
genius was ity adapted to that species of poetry. In all re- 
spects he is inferior to bis friend Surrey, and claims a place 
in the English series chiefly as being the first moral satirist, 

* She »fterward§ married sir Edward Warner, bart. Haated's Kent; toL 
II. p. 183. 

348 W Y AT. 

and as having represented the vices and follies of his time 
in the true spirit of the didactic muse. 

Lord Surrey, we /have seen, praises his version of Da* 
vid's Psalms, a work about the existence of which biblio- 
graphers are not agreed. No copy is known to be extant, 
nor is it noticed in any history of the English press, nor in 
apy library printed or manuscript. In 1549, were pub- 
lished " Certayne Psalms," a transcript of which appeared 
in the last edition of the " English poets," without* perhaps, 
adding much to the author's reputation. Mr. Warton ob- 
serves that the pious Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins 
are the only immortal translators of David's Psalms. But 
indifferent as they are now thought, there is PQthing to be 
found of a superior kind before their time. In the library 
of Bene't College, Cambridge, is a manuscript translation 
of the Psalms into Scotch metre of the fourteenth century. 1 

WYCHERLEY (William), an English comic poet, 
eldest son of Daniel Wycherley, of Cleve, in Shropshire, 
esq. was born about 1640. At fifteen years of age he was 
sent to France, in the western parts of which be resided, 
upotf the banks of the Charante, where he was often ad- 
mitted to the conversation of one of the most accomplished 
ladies of the court of France, madame de Montausier, ce- 
lebrated by Voiture in his " Letters." A little before the 
restoration of Charles II. he became a gentleman-commo- 
ner of Queen's- college in Oxford, where he lived in the 
provost's lodge, and was entered in the public library, 
under the title of " philosophise Studiosus," in July 1660. 
He left the university without being matriculated, or any 
degree conferred on him ; having, according to Wood, been 
by Dr. Barlow, reconciled to the Protestant Religion, which 
he bad a littte before deserted in his travels. He afterwards 
entered himself of the Middle Temple ; but, making his 
first appearance in town in a reign when wit and gaiety were 
the favourite distinctions, he soon quitted the dry study of 
the law, and pursued things more agreeable' to his own 
genius, as well as to the taste of the age,. As nothing was 
likely to succeed better than dramatic performances, es- 
pecially comedies, be applied himself to the writing of 

1 A Life of Sir Thomas Wyat appeared in the Second Number of Lord (hfortPs 
Miscellaneous Antiquities, from materials collected, in the British Museum, by 
1iis friend Gray, the poet, and augmented by his lordship from other writers, 
particularly Anthony Wood and Lloyd, but not wilbout some inaccuracy. A 
few notices are now added of more recent authority.— See also a life pf Wyat hi 
the Bibliographer, vol. I. 

WYCHERLEtf. 34* 

these *, and in about the space of ten years published four : 
••« Love in a Wood, or St. James's Park/ 1 in 1672; "The 
Gentleman-Dancing-Master," 1673; "Plain Dealer," in 
1678; and " Country -Wife," in 1683. These were coU 
lected and printed together io 1712, 8vo. 

Upon the publication of his first play, he became ac- 
quainted with several of the wits, both of the court and 
town ; and likewise with . the duchess of Cleveland, by 
whom, according to Mr. Dennis, and the secret history 
of those times, he was admitted to the last degree 
of intimacy. Villiers duke of Buckingham had also the 
highest esteem for him ; and, as master of the horse to the 
king, made him one of bis equerries ; and, as colonel of a 
regiment, captain- lieutenant of his own Company, resign- 
ing to him, at the same time his own pay as captain, with 
many other advantages. King Charles likewise shewed him 
signal marks of favour ; and once gave him a proof of esteem 
which perhaps never any sovereign prince before had given 
to an author who was only a private gentleman. Wycherley 
happened to fall sick of a fever at his lodgings in Bow- 
street, Covent-Garden, when the king did him the honour 
to visit him ; and, finding his body extremely weakened, 
and his spirits miserably shattered, and his memory almost 
totally gone, he commanded him, as soon as be should be 
able to take a journey, to go to the south of France, be- 
lieving that the air of Montpelier would contribute to re- 
store him as much as any thing; and assured him, at the 
same time, that he would order him 500/. to defray the 
charges of the journey. Wycherley accordingly went into 
France, and, having spent the winter there, returned to 
England in the spring, entirely restored to his former vi- 
gour both of body and mind. The king, it is said, shortly 
after his arrival told him, that " he had a son, who he had 
resolved should be educated like the son of a king; and 
that he could not chuse a more proper man for his gover- 
nor than Mr. Wycherley ;" for which service 1500/. per 
annum should be settled upon him. But there seems no solid 
foundation for this report. 

Wycherley, liowever, soon lost the favour of the king 
and of the courtiers. Dennis relates, that, immediately 
after he had received the preceding offer from the king, he 
went down to Tunbridge, to take either the benefit of the 
waters, or the diversions of the place; when, walking one 
day upon the Wells-walk with his friend Mr. Fairbeurd, of 


Gray's-Inn, just aa be came up to the' bookseller's shop, 
the countess of Drogheda, a young widow, rich, noble, 
and beautiful, can>e to the bookseller, and inquired for 
" The Plain Dealer.'* " Madam," says Mr. Fairbeard, 
" since you aVe for < The Plain Dealer,' there he is for 
you," pushing Wycherley towards her. "Yes,", says Wy- 
cherley, "this lady can bear plain dealing; for she appears 
to be so accomplished, that what would be compliment 
said to others, spoken to her would be plain dealing." 
"No truly, sir," said the countess, " I am not without my 
faults, any more than the rest of my sex ; and yet I love 
plain dealing, and am never more fond of it than when it 
tells me of them." " Then, madam," says Mr. Fairbeard, 
" you and the Plain Dealer st*ein designed by heaven 
for each other." In short, Wycherley walked with the 
countess upon the walks, waited upon, her home, visited 
her daily at her lodgings while she was at Tun bridge, and at 
ner lodgings in HaUon- garden, after she went to London ; 
where, in a little time, he got her consent to marry her, 
which he did without acquainting the king. 

But this match, so promising in appearance both to his 
fortunes and to his happiness, was the actual ruin of both. 
As soon as the n<*ws or' it came to court, it was looked upon 
as an affront to the king, and a contempt of his majesty's 
orders ; and Wycherley's conduct after marriage occasioned 
this to be resented more heinously ; for be seldom or never 
went near the court, which mode him be thought ungrate- 
ful. But the true cause of his absence was not known : in 
short, the lady was jealous of him to distraction ; jealous 
to that degree, that she could not endure him to be one 
moment out of her sight. Their lodgings were in Bow- 
street, Covent-garden, over against a tavern, whither if 
he at any time went with friends, he was obliged to leave 
the windows open, that his lady might see there was no 
woman in company ; or she would immediately put on the 
airs of a frantic woman. At last she died, and settled ber 
fortune on him ; but his title being disputed after her death, 
the ex pence of the law and other incumbrances so far re- 
duced him, that, not being able to satisfy the importunity 
of his creditors, he was thrown into prison. 

In this confinement he languished seven years; nor was 
he released till James II. going to see his " Plain Dealer," 
was so • charmed with the entertainment, that he gav^ im- 
mediate orders for the payment of his debts; adding a 


pension of 200/. per annum while he continued in England, 
But the bountiful intentions of that prince bad not the de- 
signed effect, purely through his modesty; he being 
ashamed to give the earl of Mulgrave, whom the king had 
sent to demand it, a full account of his debts. He laboured 
under the weight of these difficulties till his father died; 
and then, too, the estate that descended to him was left 
' under very uneasy limitations, since, being only a tenant 
'for life, he could not raise any money for the payment of 
his dehis. However, he took a method of doing it that 
was in his power, though few suspected it to be his choice, 
and this was, making a jointure. He had often declared, 
as major Pack says, that " be was resolved to die married, 
though he could not bear the thoughts of living married 
again ;" and accordingly, just at the eve of his death, mar- 
ried a young gentlewoman of 1500/. fortune, part of which 
he applied to the uses he wanted it for. Eleven days after 
the celebration of these nuptials, Jan. 1, 1715, he died, and 
was interred in the vault of Covent-garden church. He is 
said to have requested very gravely of his wife upon his 
death-bed, that she " would not take an old man for her 
second husband." 

Besides the plays abovementioned, he published a volume 
of poems in 1704, folio, of very inferior merit; and in 
1728, his " Posthumous Works in prose and verse" were 
published by Theobald, in octavo. His curious corre- 
spondence with Pope may be seen in that poet's works, with 
many anecdotes of Wycherley, who appears to have been 
a libertine through the whole course of his life ; nor are 
his works free from the licentiousness, so much encou- 
raged when he was the favourite of Charles and James II. ! 

thony, earl Rivers), a very accomplished nobleman of 
the fifteenth century, was the son of sir Richard Wydeville, 
by Jaqueline of Luxembourg, duchess dowager of Bed- 
ford. He was born about 1442, and In his seventeenth 
year accompanied his father, who was now created lord 
Rivers, to Sandwich, where he had been sent to equip a 
strong squadron, in order to deprive Richard Nevil earl of 
Warwick, ,of his government of Calais ; but that noble- 

* Bk)g. Brit. — Bowles's -edition of Pope's 'Works. — Major Pack's Works, p. 
179. — Spence's Anecdotes, MS. — M alone** Dry den, vol. I. p. 190. vol. III. p; 
37. and IV. p. 16$. 335.— House and feintly, Genk Mag* vol. IXXXt. and 


352 W ¥ D E V I L L E. 

man contrived to surprize lord Rivers in port* and took bitti 
' and all his ships, together with his son Anthony, to Calais, 
where they were for some time detained as prisoners. Front 
this it appears that both father and son were engaged in 
the interest of the house of Lancaster, and in opposition to 
that of York. But king Edward IV. being raised to the 
throne, and afterwards espousing lady Elizabeth Gray, 
daughter to lord Rivera, and sister to Anthtfny Wydeville, 
the former attachment of the Wydeville's to the Lancas- 
trian interest was forgotten, and they began almost solely 
to engross the favour of king Edward. 

•Anthony Wydeville distinguished himself both as a war* 
rior and statesman in king Edward's service. The* Lan- 
castrians making an insurrection in Northumberland, he 
attended the king into that country, and was a chief com- 
mander at the siege of Alnwick castle ; soon after which h€ 
was elected into the order of the garter. In the teuth of 
the same reign, he defeated the dukes of Clarence and 
Warwick in a skirmish near Southampton, and prevented 
their seizing a great ship called the Trinity, belonging to ^ 
the latter. He attended the king into Holland on the 
change of the scene, returned with him, and had a great 
ahare in his victories, and was constituted governor of Ca- 
lais, and captain-general of all the king's forces by sea and 
land. He had before been sent ambassador to negociate a 
marriage between the king's sister and the duke of Bur- 
gundy ; and in the same character concluded a treaty be- 
tween king Edward and die duke of Bretagne. On prince? 
Edward being created prince of Wales, he was appointed 
his governor, and had a grant of the office of chief butler 
of England ; and was even on the point of attaining the' 
high honour of espousing the Scottish princess, sister" to 
king James III. ; the bishop of Rochester, lord privy-seal,* 
and sir Edward Wydeville, being dispatched into Scotland 
to perfect that marriage. 

> * A remarkable event of this earl's life was a personal vic- 
tory he gained in a tournament, over Anthony count de la 
Roche, called the bastard of Burgundy, natural son of 
duke Philip the Good. This illustrious encounter was per- 
formed in u. solemn and most magnificent tilt held for that 
purpose in Smithfield. Our earl was the challenger ; and 
from the date of the year, and the affinity of the person- 
challenged, thi9 ceremony was probably in honour of the 
afore-mentioned marriage of the lady Margaret, the king's 


sister, with Charles the Hardy, last duke of Burgundy i 
Nothing, lord Orford observes (whose narrative we follow)^ 
could be better adapted to the humour of the age, and to 
the union of that hero and virago, than a single combat 
between two of their near relations. A long account of 
this aflair is given in a note in the Biog. Brit. art. Caxtori^ 
vol. III. new edit. It may be sufficient for our purpose \d 
say tb^t Wydeville was victorious. 

On the death of king Edward, the queen sent a messen- 
ger to her brother earl Rivers, desiring him to assemble a 
body of troops in Wales, and with them to bring the young 
king immediately to London to be crowned ; but this de- 
sign was defeated by the intrigues of Richard duke of 
Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. who by treachery got 
possession of the earl's person, as well as that of the; young 
king, and next day earl Rivers, with lord Richard Gray, 
and sir Thomas Vaughan, was conveyed as a prisoner td 
the castle of Pontefract They were all soon after beheaded 
by order of the usurper, and without any form of trial, on 
the very same day that lord Hastings was by the same. order 
beheaded in the Tower of London. 

Earl Rivers was at this time (1433) in the forty-first year 
of his age. He was twithdut dispute one of the* most ac- 
complished noblemen of his time. Sir Thomas More as- 
serts that " Vir haud facile discernas, manuve out .tonsilid 
promptior" equally able to advise, and to execute in affairs' 
of state. Lord Orford observes^* that " the credit of hter 
sister (the queen), the Countenance and example of his* 
prince, the boisterousness of the times, nothing softened, 
nothing roughened the mind of this amiable lord; who was 
' as gallant as his luxurious brother-in-law, without his weak- 
nesses ; as brave as the heroes of either Rose, without their 
savageness ; studious in the intervals of business, And de- 
vout after themanner of those whimsical times, when men 
challenged others whom they never saw, and went bare- 
foot to visit shrines* in countries df which they scarce had 
a map." 

The works of this gallant and learned nobleman were 
(with the exception of a ballad in Percy's collection) trans- 
lations; published in the infancy of English printing by 
Caxton : 1. " The Dictes and Sayinges of the Philosophers, 
translated out of Latyn into Frenshe by a worshipful man 
called Messire Jehan de Teonville, sometyme provost of 
Parys," and thence tendered into English by lord Rrvers. 

Vol. XXXII. A a 


W Y D E V I L L E; 

It U supposed to have been the second book ever printed ifi 
England by Caxton. The date is Nov. 18,147 7. 2. " The 
morale Proverbes of Christyne of Pyse " 3, u The boke 
named Cordyale or Memorare novisqima," a third transla- 
tion from the French, the original author not named, dated 
1480. Caxton says that lord Rivers " made divers baladea 
ayenst the seven dedely synnes." All these curiosities wilt 
be found amply described in Mr. Dibriin's " Typographical 
Antiquities." Hume says that earl Rivers " first introduced 
the noble art of printing into England," but this is evidently 
a mistake. He did indeed countenance and employ Cax- 
ton, and appears to have introduced him to Edward IV. ; 
and both be and Tiptoft, earl of Worcester (See Tiptoft), 
contributed very much, by their example, and patronage, to 
the restoration of learning in this kingdom. From various 
causes, however,, England was long behind other nations on 
the continent in real learning, or a wish for it ; and we. 
have no great pleasure or pride in contemplating the pro- 
ductions of our first printers. 1 

WYKEHAM (William, or William of), the illus- 
trious founder of New college, Oxford, was born at Wyke- 
ham in Hampshire, in 1324. Whether Wykebam was his 
family name, seems doubtful. He mentions bis father and 
mother only by their Christian names, John and Sybil!, or 
Sybilhi. Sortie of his biographers are inclined to think 
that his father's name was Long, and others J J crroi 9 but. 
there is no direct evtdenee for either, and we know by 
many other instances that nothing was more uncertain at 
the period of his birth than the state of family names. 

His parents were of good reputation and character, but 
in mean circumstances when he was born ; yet from the 
number of his Contemporary relations, whose names and 
situations are upon record, it is probable that the family 
was not of mean extraction. Of their poverty there is less 
reason to doubt the report, as they could not afford to give 
their son a liberal education. He soon, however, found a 
patron, supposed to be Nicholas Uvedale, lord of the manor 
of Wykebam, and governor of Winchester castle, who must 
have discovered some talents worth improving, since be 
maintained him at Winchester school, where he.wss in* 
structed in grammatical learning, and where he gave early 

1 Biog. Brit to I. III. art Caxton.— Park's edition of the Royal and NoMt 
Authors.— Dibdia'i Antiquities, rol. I. 

W Y K E H A M. 


prbofs of piety and diligence, employing his leisure hours in 
acquiring a knowledge of arithmetic, mathematics, logic, 
divinity, and the canon and civil law. He was afterwards 
employed by his patron, in quality of secretary, and either 
by him, or by Edyngdon, bishop of Winchester, or by both, 
was recommended to the notice of Edward III. 

This circumstance, however honourable to his talents, 
appears to have limited the progress of what was them 
deemed education, and disposed him to a life of business 
rather than of study, but can never be advanced to justify 
the opinion that he was deficient in useful • learning; He 
certainly did not study at Oxford, and escaped the contests 
prevailing between the disciples of Occham and of Dun* 
Scotus^ which seem to have formed the only learning then 
in vogue ; but that one who dignified every office civil and 
ecclesiastical with the wisdom, talents, and popularity of 
Wykeham, should have been illiterate, is an absurdity too 
gross to require refutation, and would have passed unno- 
ticed, had it not been, as far as his architectural abilities 
are concerned, in some measure countenanced by the 

He was about twenty-two, or twenty-three years of age 
vVbeo 6rst introduced at court, but in what employment 
has not been ascertained, although it was probably of the 
same nature with those which he afterwards so ably filled* 
There is every reason to think that his skill in drawing re* 
commended him to a soverei^rriMto'iwas bent on adding to 
bis country the ornament and utility of magnificent and 
durable structures. The first office be held, or the first of 
which we read, had evidently a reference to this object. 
In May 1356, he was appointed clerk of all the king's 
works at . the castle, aud in the park of Windsor. It was 
by his advice that the king was induced to pull down great 
part of this castle, and by his skill that it was rebuilt nearly 
in the manner in which we find it. His other great work 
was Queenborough castle ; and although in these military 
structures he bad little scope for the genius displayed after* 
wards at Oxford and Winchester, they would have been 
sufficient to prove that he had already reached that degree 
of architectural skill which modern art can but poorly imi- 

With a sovereign of Edward IIl.'s magnificent. taste, it 
was but natural that Wykeham should now become a fa- 
vourite, and accordingly we find that his majesty wished to 


356 WYKEH A M. 

distinguish him by many marks of royal favour. In order 
to facilitate this, it was necessary he should take orders, 
as ecclesiastical promotion was more particularly within his 
majesty's power, where the pope did not think proper to 
interfere ; but this part of Wykeham's history is . not so 
clcfarly detailed as could be wished. There is, on the con-* 
trary, some reason to think that he was in the church be- 
fore be had given proof of his talents at Windsor and 
Queenborough. In all the patents for the offices he held, 
be is styled Clericus, but, as his biographer supposes, he 
had as yet only the clerical tonsure, or some of the lower 
orders, while the historian of Winchester thinks he was 
ordained priest . by bishop Edyngdon. The first prefer- 
ment bestowed on him was the rectory of Pulham in Nor- 
folk, in i 357, and as the court of Rome threw some ob-* 
staclea in the way which kept him for a time out of that 
living, the king, iu 1$59, granted him two .hundred pounds 
a year over and above all his former appointments, until he 
should get quiet possession of Pulham, or some other bene- 
fice, to the value of one hundred marks. But the dispro- 
portion between the worth of the living, and the compen- 
sation for delay, is so very striking as to incline us to think, 
either that Dr. Lowth has by mistake inserted '200/. for 20/. 
or i that the king took this opportunity to shew a special 
mark of his favour, for which the loss of the living should 
be the ostensible motive. In the mean time he was pre- 
sented to the prebend of Flixton in the church of Lich- 
field, which he afterwards exchanged for some other bene- 
fice* and in 1359 he was constituted chief warden and sur- 
veyor of the king's castles of Windsor, Leedes, Dover, and 
Hadlam ; and of the manors of old and new Windsor, Wi- 
ehemer, and several other castles, manors, and houses, 
and of. the parks belonging to them. In 136C, the king 
granted him the deanery of the royal free, chapel, or colle- 
giate church of St Martin le Grand, London, which be 
held about three years; during which he rebuilt, at his 
own expense, the cloister of the Chapter-house, and the 
"body of the church. This is the first instance on record 
in which he is noticed as a public benefactor. In 1361 he 
was quietly settled in the rectory of Pulham, and in less 
than two years received many other ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments, specified by Dr.. Lowth. The annual value of his 
livings, for some years before he became bishop of Win- 
chester, amounted to 842/. but "he only received the 

W Y K E H A M. 357 

revenues of the church with one hand, to expend then* in 
her service with the other." 

His civil promotions were not less rapid and honourable. 
He was made keeper of the privy seal in 1364, and soon 
after secretary to the king, and chief of the privy council, 
and governor of the great council, These last terms his 
biographer supposes were not titles of office, but were used 
to express the influence he now possessed in the manage- 
ment of affairs of state, and which was so great, that, ac- 
cording to Froissart, " every thing was done by htm, and, 
nothing was done without him." 

On the death of his old friend and patron William de 
Edyngdon, bishop of Winchester, in 1366, Wykeham was, 
immediately and unanimously elected by the prior and con- 
vent to succeed him. Some delay having taken place be- 
fore he could be admitted into possession, it has been sup- 
posed that he was objected to by the king on account df 
his want of learning. But this is utterly destitute of foun- 
dation, as it was by the king's Express desire that he was 
chosen, and what is yet more in point, the pope's bull, 
contrary to the official language used at that time, and in 
which there was frequently no, mention of learning, declares 
that Wykeham was recommended to his holiness, " by the 
testimony of many persons worthy of credit, for his know- 
ledge of letters, his probity of life and manners, and his 
-prudence and circumspection in affairs 'both spiritual and 
temporal." The real cause of the delay is stated at great 
length by Dr. Lowth, and depended on -circumstances be- 
longing to the history of that age, .connected with the ge- 
neral state of ecclesiastical patronage. 

His advancement to the bishopric was followed by bis 
being, appointed chancellor of England. In his speeches to 
parliament, it has been observed' that he innovated on the* 
practice of his clerical predecessors whose oratory savoured 
more of the pulpit than the bench, by introducing a style 
and manner wholly political. In 1371, when the parlia- 
ment, -become jealousof churchmen, requested that secular 
men only should be appointed to offices of state, Wyke- 
ham resigned the seal, but without any loss of favour on 
the part of the king, the commons, or the public at large. 
The king was obliged to comply with the request to dismiss- 
churchmen from the high offices of state, but soon found 
it necessary to have recourse to the only persons of that 
age whose education and talents seemed to fit them for 
such preferments. 

358 W Y K E H A M. 

Soon after bis being settled in the bishopric of v Win- 
chester, he began to employ his architectural skiltin the 
repairs of the cathedral, the whole expense of which was 
defrayed by himself, but, his more enlarged designs for this 
edifice were delayed to a more distant period. The care 
he bestowed on other parts of his episcopal duty, in re- 
forming abuses, and establishing discipline, was not less 
exemplary, and in the case of his visitation of the Hospital 
of St Cross, involved him in a long and troublesome dis- 
pute* which ended greatly to the benefit of that institution, 
and clearly to the honour of his firmness, judgment, and 
integrity. His mind appears now to have been deeply im- 
pressed by sentiments of enlarged liberality, and wholly 
influenced by those motives which determined him to be- 
come a benefactor to his country upon a most munificent 

- The foundation -of a college, or of some institution for 
the education of youth, had probably been revolved for a 
considerable time. About two years after he entered on 
the bishopric of Winchester, he began to make purchases 
in the city of Oxford with that view, and he connected 
with it the plan of a college at Winchester, which should 
be a nursery for that of Oxford. As early as 1373 he esta- 
blished a school at Winchester, in which he placed certain 
poor scholars who were to be instructed in grammatical 
learning, by one Richard de Herton, with an assistant. 
But the progress of this generous plan was for some time 
impeded by the intrigues of a party, headed by the duke 
of Lancaster, in the last year of the reign of Wykehamfo 
friend and master Edward III. An accusation, branching 
into eight articles, was brought against him, but upon a 
fair trial, seven were found destitute of proof, and the 
eighth only was laid hold of, as a pretext for seizing into 
die king's hands the temporalities of the bishopric of Win- 
chester, excluding the bishop from parliament, and re- 
moving him from court. A measure so violent, and justi- 
fied upon such slight grounds, was not to be overlooked 
even in those days of popular acquiescence. At the en- 
suing convocation, the bishop of London, William Court- 
ney, bad the spirit to oppose any subsidy to the king until 
satisfaction should be made for the injury done to the whole 
body of the clergy, in the person of the bishop of Win- 
chester; and he was so firmly supported by the convoca-j 
tion, that the archbishop of Canterbury) though a warm 


partisan of the duke of Lancaster, was obliged to admit 
Wykeham into (heir assembly, where he was received by 
every member with all possible marks of respect. Nor* was 
he less a favourite with the people, who, when they rose 
in the affair of Wickliffe, demanded that the duke of Lan- 
caster should allow the bishop to be brought to a fair trial. 
Wykeham was soon after restored to his temporalities, but 
with the ungracious condition, that he should fit out three 
ships of war for a certain time, or if they were not wanted, % 
pay the amount of the probable expense to the king— that 
king who had formerly heaped so many marks of favour on 
him, but who, although in some measure reconciled to 
him, was now too much enslaved by a party to act with his 
wonted liberality. 

Edward III. died June 21, 1377 ; and on the accession 
of Richard II. Wykeham was released from all his difficul- 
ties, and by a solemn declaration of the privy council, most 
honourably acquitted of the accusations formerly preferred 
against him by the Lancaster party. This new reign, how- 
ever, was a period of turbulence, faction, and bloodshed, 
and it required all the wisdom and circumspection of his 
steady mind to preserve the favour of the king, and tfie 
confidence of the people. Yet in both he was in a con- 
siderable degree successful. It was not long before the 
parliament appointed him one of the commissioners to in- 
quire into the abuses of the former reign, and in their other 
proceedings they appear to have looked up to him as a 
statesman of inflexible integrity ; nor was be less consulted 
in all matters of difficulty by the king and council. But 
notwithstanding such encouragement, the part he had to 
act was extremely arduous : the new reign was distracted 
by contending factions, and in the conflict of factions men 
of independent minds can seldom be safe ; but what ren- 
dered the danger greater was, that the king, as be grew up, 
listened more to flatterers and favourites, than to the le- 
gitimate advisers of the crown. 

When Richard assumed the reins of government, oh 
coming of age, one of his first measures was to appoint 
Wykeham lord chancellor, and to dismiss the administra- 
tion which bad the care of public affairs during his mino- 
rity. The new ministers, however, unwilling to be sus- 
pected of owing their appointments to a fit of caprice, after 
a short time, professed to resign, that their conduct might 
be investigated in parliament ; and what they wished, aC-» 


tuaUy happened. The commons declared in fayour of their 
conduct, and they were all restored. In conjunction with 
tbeiq, Wykeham had the satisfaction of being very instru- 
mental in promoting public tranquillity, until bis resigna- 
tion of the great seal in 1391. After this he seems to have 
kept at a distance from the management of public affaire, 
and thus avoided the risk of countenancing those ruinous 
proceedings which led to the deposition of the king; and 
p!uring the succeeding reign his age and infirmities afforded 
an excuse for his no longer attending as a peer of parlia- 

If we consider the importance of the undertaking begun 
at Oxford, and connected with a similar plan at Winches-? 
ter, k will not appear surprising that he should, during the 
greater part of the reign of Richard II. have been disposed 
to bestow his whole attention on objects so dear to his heart. 
What he projected was certainly sufficient for the atten- 
tion of any one man, and enough to immortalize the great- 
est, The design, bishop Lowth has eloquently expressed, 
was noble, uniform, and complete. " It was no less thau 
to provide for the perpetual maintenance and instruction 
of two hundred scholars, to afford them a liberal support, 
and to lead them through a, perfect course of education, 
from the first elements of letters, through the whole circle, 
of the sciences ; from the lowest class of grammatical' 
learning to the highest degrees in the several faculties." 
A design so enlarged, so comprehensive, so munificent, 
bad not yet been conceived by the most illustrious of our 
English founders. In bringing it to perfection, we have 
riot only to admire the generosity which supplied the means 
(for opulence may sometimes be liberal at a small expense), 
but that grasp of mind which at once planned and executed 
all that can be conceived most difficult in such a vast un- 
dertaking, and which enabled him to shine with equal lustre 
as beuefactor, legislator, and architect, and give a lesson 
and example which could never be exceeded by the 
of his posterity. 

It has already been mentioned, that in, 1373, he bad be- 
gun his preparatory school at Winchester, and about the 
same time, having purchased tenements for the purpose, 
he established a similar institution at Oxford, appointing. a 
governor, and acting in other respects towards his infant 
society in such a manner, that its constitution might be ma* 
lured by the te&t of experience, and "that the life and soul, 

W Y K E H A M. 


jm it were, might be ready to inform and animate the body 
of bis college, as soon as it could be finished." 

Within less than three years from this commencement of 
his plan, the society consisted of a warden and seventy fel- 
lows, who were called Pauperes Scholares Venerabilis Domini 
Domini Wilhelmide Wykeham Wynton. Episcopi. The war- 
den had a salary of 20/. a year, and the fellows were lodged 
in the places hired for them, and then known by the names 
of Blake-hall, Hert-hall, Shule-hall, Mayden-ball, and 
Hamer-hall. The annual expense of their lodging amounted 
to 10/. 13s. 4d. ; and each was allowed is. and 6d. a week 
for commons. 

In 1379, having completed the several purchases of land 
necessary for the scite of the college, he obtained the king's 
patent or licence to found, dated June 30, of that year ;' 
and likewise the pope's bull to the same effect. In his 
charter of foundation which he published on November 26 
following, his college is entitled Seinte Marie College of 
Wynchestrc in Oxenford. But it is rather remarkable that 
the name of New college, which was then given in com- 
mon speech without much impropriety, should be by some 
means continued until the present day, when it is in reality 
the oldest as to its principal buildings, and the seventh in 
the order of foundation. The foundation-stone was laid 
March 5, 1380, and the whole completed in six years; 
and on April 14, 1386, the society took possession by a 
public entrance accompanied with much solemnity. 

According to the statutes, the society consisted of a war- 
den and seventy poor scholars *, clerks, students in theo- 
logy, canon and civil law, and philosophy ; twenty were 
apppinted to the study of laws, ten of them to that of the 
canon, and ten to that of the civil law ; the remaining fifty 
were to apply themselves to philosophy, or arts, and the- 
ology; two to the study of medicine, and two to astronomy \ 

* Among the seventy poor scholars 
the founder orders that his next of kin 
should have the preference, and that 
immediately on their, admission they 
should become fellows without under- 
going the two years of probation, as is 
the case with the others ; and even 
should there be no vacancies at New 
college, they are allowed to stay at 
the college at Winchester till they 
have* attained their thirtieth year, 
lor the chance of a vacancy, provided 

they have good characters, and have 
been proved by the electors to be suf- 
ficiently versed in grammar. By the 
injunctions of visitors the number of 
founders* kin as eligible for New col- 
lege is now confined to two, but in 
defect of such kinsmen only, the choice 
by the founder was extended to pthers, 
according to ttre counties directed in 
the statute, from which boys were to 
be admitted upon the foundation at 

I •■ 

.362 WYKEHA.M. 

all of whom were obliged to be in prrestfs orders within a 
certain time, except in case of lawful impediment. Besides 
these there were ten .priests, three clerks, and sixteen boys 
or choristers, to minister in the service of the chapel. The 
body of statutes, which w^s entirety of bis composition, 

| underwent many revisions and corrections, the result of ex- 

perience and profound thinking on a subject which appears 

I to. have engrossed his whole mind, and although some of 

the latter revisions left an opening for irregularities which 
1 the. society have not always been able to prevent, these sta- 
tutes upon the whole are considered as highly judicious and' 
' complete, and have been very closely copied by succeeding 
founders *.•; . 

i. During the progress of the building, he established in 
v form that society at Winchester which was to supply New 
college with its members. The charter of foundation is 
dated Oct. -20, 1382, and the college named Seinle Marie 
College of Wynchestre. . The year after New college was 
- finished he began this other upon the scite where stood the 
school at which be received his early education. This* 
likewise, was cpmpleted in six years, with a magnificence 
scarcely inferior, to that of New college, and was opened 
for the reception of its intended inhabitants, March 28, 
1393. The society resembles that of his other institution, 
consisting of a warden, seventy scholars, to be instructed 
in grammatical learning, ten secular priests, perpetual fel- 
lows, three priests, chaplains, three clerks, and six tern 
choristers : and for the instruction of the scholars, a school- 
master, and an underra aster or usher. The founder of 
Queen's college, by his twelve fellows, and seventy scho- 
lars, intended to allude to the apostles and disciples. The 
historian of Winchester informs us that the same design 
entered into the contemplation of Wykeham. The warden 
and ten priests represented the apostles, with the omission 
of Judas. The head master and second master, with the 
seventy scholars, denoted the seventy-two disciples, as in 
the vulgate, for the English bible, which is translated from 
the Greek, has only seventy ; the three chaplains, and three 

* Particularly HenryVI. who founded tweeo these two colleges and Wyke- 
the two colleges of Eton and K rag's ham's two. It was entitled " Concur- 
- .coll. Cambridge, entirely upon Wyke- dia amicabilis sive Compositio Cone- 
ham's plan, transcribing the statutes giorum Regaliam Cantabrigise et Rto- 
of the laUer without any material al- nse ef Wiecbamicorum Oxon. et prepe 
fetation. In 1464, a treaty of union Winlon." 
fir mutual defence was concluded be- 

W Y K E H AM. 3C3 

inferior clerks marked the six faithful deacons ; Nicholas, 
Me of the number, having apostatized, has therefore no 
representative ; and the sixteen choristers represented the 
four greater, and the twelve minor prophets. 

From this school the society at Oxford was to be supplied 
with proper subjects by election, and the college at Win- 
chester was to be always subordinate, both in government 
and discipline, use and design, to that at Oxford, and sub- 
ject to a yearly visitation from the warden and two fellows ^ > 
of the latter. This visitation, and the annual elections frapr), j 
Winchester to New-college, generally take place in the : f 
second week of July. The warden of Winchester is elected 
by the fellows of New-college, who for some years chose 
their own warden for that office ; but in Wykeham's time, 
and for many years after, the wardenship of New-college 
was far superior in value *. The first instance of a warden 
of New-college being preferred to Winchester is that of 
Dr. Nicholas in 1679, and the last, Dr. Coxed. 

Among the special privileges secured by the founder . 
to New college, one was, that the * fellows should be ad-' 
mitted to all degrees in the university without asking any 
grace of the congregation of masters, or undergoing any 
examination for them in the public schools, provided they 
were examined in their own college according to the form 
of the university, and had their graces given them in the 
same manner by the government of the house. In 160S 
this was disputed ; but archbishop Bancroft, then chancel- 
lor of the university, decided in favour of the college. 

Wykeham lived long enough xo witness the prosperity 
of both his institutions, and almost to see others emanating 
from them. He died in 1404, in his eightieth year, leav- 
ing in his will a continuation of those acts of munificence 
and pious charity which he had begun in his life. He was 
interred in the beautiful chantry which he had built for,bim- 
self in Winchester cathedral. In this cathedral we still see 
the triumphs of his skill in the main body of the edifice 
from the tower to the west end, but more particularly in 
his chantry, which, with his monument, is kept in repair 
at the joint expence of bis two colleges. ' . 

WYNDHAM (Sir William), an eminent statesman, 
chancellor of the exchequer in the reign of queen Anne, 


* This superiority is again restored, and the three last wardens of Winches- 
ter were not wardens of New college. 

* Life by Lowtk.— Milder's Hist, of Winchester.— Chalmers's Hist, of faford* 


was descended from a very ancient family, which derives 
its descent from Ailwardus, an eminent Saxon, m the 
county of Norfolk, soon after the Norman conquest, who 
being possessed of lands in Wymondham, or Wyndham, 
in that county, assumed bis surname thence. Sir John 
Wyndham, who was knighted at the coronation of king 
Edward VI. had the estate of Orchard, in the county of 
Somerset, in right of his wife, Elizabeth, daughter and 
co-heir of John Sydenham, of Orchard, esq. His great 
grandson John married Catharine, daughter of Robert 
Hopton, esq. sister and co-heir to Ralph lord Hopton, by 
whom he had issue sir William Wyndham, advanced to 
the dignity of a baronet by king Charles II. whose eldest 
son, Edward, married Catharine, daughter of sir William 
Levison Gower, bart. and by that lady had one daughter, 
Jane, wife of sir Richard Grosvenor, of Eton, in Cheshire, 
bart. and an only son, the subject of this article, who was 
born about 1687 ; and upon the decease of his father, while 
he was very young, succeeded to the title and estate. He 
was educated at first at Eton school, and thence removed 
to Christ Church, Oxford, where his excellent genius soon 
discovered itself, and afterwards received great advantage 
from his travels into foreign countries. Upon his return to 
England he was chosen knight of the shire for the county 
of Somerset, in whitjh station he served in the three last 
parliaments of queen Anne, and all the subsequent ones 
till his death. This public scene of action soon called forth 
his eminent abilities, and placed him in so conspicuous a 
point of light, that, after the change of the ministry under 
that queen in the latter end of 17 10, he was first appointed' 
master of her majesty's hart and buck hounds, then secre- 
tary at war, and at last, about August 1713, was advanced to 
the important post of chancellor of the exchequer. In this 
station he had an opportunity of appearing in his judicial 
capacity in a cause of Dr. Hooper, bishop of Bath and 
Wells, in which he gave sentence, and at the same time 
explained the grounds of it with a perspicuity, force of 
reasoning, and extent of knowledge worthy the most ex- 
perienced judge. In May the year following he brought 
into the House of Commons, and carried successfully 
through it, the " BUI to prevent the growth of schism, and 
for the future security of the Church of England," &c. 
and was appointed to carry it up to the House^of Lords,, 
where also it passed. Upon the breach between the earl 

W Y N D H A M. *€£ 

of Oxford, lord high treasurer, and lord Bolingbroke, se* 
cretary of state, in July 1714, sir William adhered to the 
interests of the latter. 

Upon the death of queen Anne, on the 1st of August 
1714, he signed with others the proclamation of his ma- 
jesty king George I. and on the 13th of that month se* 
conded a motion made in the House of Commons by Ho* 
ratio Waipole, esq* for the payment of the arrears due to 
the Hanoverian troops in the English service. However, 
in October following he was rem6ved from his post of chan- 
cellor of ctfte exchequer, which was conferred upon sir Ri- 
ehard Onslow. In the next parliament, which met on the 
l'7th of March 1714-15, he appeared very vigorous in op- 
position io the measures of the administration, and in de- 
fence of the peace of Utrecht; and on the 6th of April 
made a motion, that the House would appoint a day to take 
into consideration bis majesty's proclamation of the 15th 
of January, for calling a new parliament, which reflected 
on the conduct of the last' ministry of queen Anne, and 
which he represented as unprecedented and unwarrantable, 
and even of dangerous consequence to the very being of 
parliament; expressions which gfitve such offence to the 
majority of the house, that he was ordered to receive a 
reprimand from the speaker. He spake likewise in favour 
of the duke of Ormond and the earls of Oxford and Straf- 
ford, when they were impeached in that house. But, upon 
the breaking out of the rebellion in Scotland under the earl 
of Mar, in August 1715, sir William fell under suspicion £ 
on which account he was seized on the 21st of September 
at his house at Orchard Wyndham, in Somersetshire, by 
colonel Huske, and one of his majesty's messengers ; from, 
whom making an escape, a proclamation was issued out for 
bis apprehension. Soon after this he surrendered himself 
to the government; and, being examined by the privy 
council, was committed to the Tower, but was never 
brought to a trial. 

After he had regained his liberty he continued his op- 
position to the several administrations under which he lived, 
though he is believed to. have ajtered his opinion with re- 
spect t'o government itself, from the Jacobite notions which. 
he might formerly have espoused, to a more large and po- 
pular system ; and that . upon this ground he afterwards 
formed his whole political conduct. It was universally 
allowed mat he possessed all the qualifications requisite to 

366 W Y N D H A if. 

form an able senator; sagacity, to discern,' the strength or 
weakness of every question, and elbquence, to enforce 
the one and expose the other ; skill and address, to seize 
every "fed vantage in the course of a debate, without afford- 
ing any ; and a proper degree of warnjth and vivacity in 
speaking, necessary to secure the attention of the audience,' 
without such an excess of it as might embarrass himself, 
and expose him to the cooler observation of his antagonists. 
And if we descend to the consideration of him in the more 
familiar light of his private conversation, we shall find it 
equally distinguished by an unaffected civility and polite- 
ness, enlivened by an easy^ flow of elegant wit, and sup- 
ported by a various and extensive fund of useful knowledge. 
To so imperfect a character of him, it will be but justice to 
subjoin that which has been given by Pope, .with whom he 
lived in great intimacy. 

Wyndham, just to freedom and the throne, 

The master of our passions, and his own/ 

He died at Wells, in Somersetshire, after an illness of a 
few days, June 17, 1740. He was twice married ; first, 
July 21, 1708, to the lady Catharine Seymour, second 
daughter of Charles, duke of Somerset ; by whom he had 
issue two sons, Charles and Percy, and two daughters, 
Catharine, who died in April 1734, and Elizabeth. His 
second lady was Maria Catharina, relict of the marquis 
of Blandford, sister to the countess of Denbigh,' and 
daughter of M. De Jong, of the province of Uttfecht, inr 

-He was succeeded in dignity and estate by his eldest 
son, sir Charles Wyndham, who succeeded to the titles of 
earl of Egremont, and baron of Cockermouth, by the' 
death of his grace, Algernon, duke of Somerset, without 
heir male, who had been created earl of Egremont, and 
baron of Cockermouth, in the county of Cumberland, by 
George II. with limitation of these honours to sir Charles 
Wyndham. His lordship, whilst he was a commoner, was* 
elected to parliament as soon as he came of age, for the 
borough of Bridgewater in Somersetshire. He sat after- 
wards for Appleby^ in Westmoreland, Taunton, in So- 
mersetshire, and Cockermouth, in Cumberland. In 1751 
ha was appointed lord lieutenant and custos rotulorum of 
the county of Cumberland. In April 1761 he was no- 
minated the first of the three plenipotentiaries on, the part 
of Great Britain to the intended congress at Augsburg, for 

WYNDHAM. 367 ^ 

procuring a general pacification between the belligerent 
powers; anfl in .the same year was constituted one of the 
principal secretaries of state, in which it was his disadvan- 
tage to succeed Mr. Pitt (afterwards lord Chatham). In 
1762 he was made lord lieutenant and custos rotulorum of 
the county of Sussex. He died of an apoplectic fit in June 
1763. He was succeeded by his son, George, the second 
and present earl of Egremont. 1 

WYNNE (Edward), a learned barrister and law-writer, 
was bom iri 1734. He was the grandson of Owen Wynne, 
esq. LL. D. sometime under-secretary of state to Charles 
II. and James II.. and son of WiHiam Wynne, esq. by his 
wife, Grace, one of the daughters of William Brydges, esq. 
serjeant He followed his father's profession, and 
was called to the bar ; but, whatever his success, seems to 
have devoted a considerable portion of his time to study 
and to the composition of some works, which unite great 
elegance of style to great legal knowledge and acuteness. 
In his private character he was noted for many virtues, and 
extensive liberality and charity. He died at his house at 
Chelsea, of that dreadful disorder, a cancer in the mouth, 
Dec. 26, 1784, in the Bftieth year of his age. 

His first work was printed, but not generally published, 
under the title of " A miscellany containing several law 
tracts" 1765, 8vo. These were, I. " Observations on 
Fitzherbert* s nature brcvium, with an introduction concern-* 
ittg writs, and a dissertation on the writ De rum ponendis in 
ussisis tt Juratis, and on "the writ De leprose amovendo. 
2. An inquiry concerning the reason of the distinction the 
law has made in cases between things annexed to the free* 
hold, and things severed from it. 3.. Argument in behalf 
of unlimited extension of collateral consanguinity, with 
extracts from the statutes on which the question arose. 4. 
Account of tr*e trial of the Fix ; and observations on the 
nature and antiquity of the court of claims. 5, An answer * 
to two passages ia the ' Catalogue of Royal and Noble 
Authors. 9 6. Observations on the . antiquity and dignity 
of the degree of serjeant at law." These two last were writ- 
ten by his father, who in the former refuted an aspersion 
>cast on his character by Walpole (lord Orford) in his arti- 
cle of Philip duke of Whartou. After relating the stoqr 

1 Birflh'i Lives. — Cottins's Peerage, bv sir E: Brydges.— Swift'* and Pope's 
Wor|i. — Coxe'« Memoirs of fir Robert Walpolc— Gent, Mag, vol. LI V, 

3.6* .WYNNE* 

of Wharton's cheating the minister out of his argument* 
against bishop Atterbury, and replying to them, by antU 
cipation, in a speech for AtteTbury, Walpole added in a 
note that ." Serjeant Wynne served the bishop in much, 
the same manner ; being his counsel, he desired to see the 
bishop* s speech, and then spoke the substance of it him-* 
self." This calumny Mr. Wynne refuted with so much 
spirit, that Walpole thought proper to omit the note in. 
the subsequent editions of his "'Catalogue." 

In 1774 Mr. Wynne published (but like the former, 
without his name) "Etmomus, or Dialogues concerning the 
Law and Constitution of England. With an Essay on Qia-* 
logue," 4 vols. 8vo. This scientific work, says Mr. Bridg- 
man, would probably have been held in higher. estimation 
had it been better known ; but having been written before* 
and published after the commentaries of sir William Black- 
stone, its acknowledged merits have been obscured, though 
not totally eclipsed by the splendour of that great perform-* 
ance : it is, however, highly valued, as having very much 
illustrated the principles of our laws and constitution, and 
given an instructive and rational account of the several 
branches into which the practice of the law is divided, and 
as having recommended, with much learning, a liberal and 
enlarged method of study in that science, pointing out its 
necessary connexion with the other branches of literature. 
Mr, Hargrave has further observed, that (his work treats 1 
incidentally of the character and authority of the several 
law writers, and more professedly on the origin and pro- 
gress of the most important subjects and branches of thg 
law, and their connexion with the history and constitution 
of England. A second edition of this work appeared after 
the author's death, in 17S5, but without any alteration. 1 

WYNNE (John Huddlestone), a man of some original 
genius, but whose works will not entitle him to any very 
high rank in literature, was descended from a very respectable 
family in South Wales, where he was born in 1743. At 
what time he arrived in London, is not known, bat for 
sometime he gained his bread in the printing business, 
with which he became disgusted, and had interest enough 
to obtain an appoirrtment in a regiment about to go abroad^ 
Such was the perverseness N of his temper while on ship- 

3 Gent. Mag. 1785.— Atterbury'* Correspondence.^-Bridgmau'g Legal Bite 

W .Y N N E. 369 

l#>ard with his brother officers, that they refused to asso- 
ciate with him, and actually left him behind when the ship 
arrived at its first place of destination. From thence be 
contrived to return to England, where he married a young 
woman of some property. This was probably soon spent, 
as about this time he commenced author by profession, but 
either his works or his employers were of the lowest order, 
for it was with difficulty he could procure the necessaries 
of life by bis labours. In 1770, however, he began to 
aim at higher fame, and published " A General History of 
the British Empire in America: including all the countries 
in North America and the West-Indies ceded by the peace 
of Paris," 2 vols. 8vo. This as a compilation did him no 
discredit. In 177 1 he published the " Prostitute, a Poem/ 9 
4to; ill 1772 " Choice Emblems, natural, historical, fabu- 
lous, moral, and divine, for the improvement of youth ; 
in verse and prose," 12 mo. The same year appeared his 
principal work, " A general History of Ireland, from the 
earliest accounts to the present time, 1 ' 2 vols. 8vo. This 
was more popular, from the nature of the subject, than his 
History of America, but far enough removed from the merit 
that would enrol hkn among historians* Next year he 
published " Fables of Flowers for the Female Sex," " Eve- 
lina, a poem ;" and " The Four Seasons, a poem." In 
poetry he was ill -qualified to excel, although there are 
passages in some of his pieces that indicate superior ta- 
lents, had he cultivated them at leisure, and been possessed 
of a mind better regulated. In 1^78'} he published a novel 
called " The Child of Chance ;" and at different periods of 
bis life supplied the magazines and newspapers with essays, 
poems, &c. generally with his name. Ail these were writ* 
ten to supply immediate wants, which they did but imper- 
fectly. He died Dec. 2, 1788. It is mentioned to his 
honour that through a long life of poverty, he abhorred and 
avoided every mean and dishonest expedient to improve his 
finances, and was even so extravagant in his notions of in- 
dependence that to do him an act of kindness unsolicited, 
was to incur his bitterest reproaches. 

This unfortunate author had an uncle, the rev. Richard 
Wynne, M. A. rector of St. Alphage, London-wall, and 
Ayot St. Laurence, near Welwyn in Hertfordshire, where 
be died in 1799, in the eighty-first year of his age. He 
published in 1764, in 2 vols. 8vo, " The New Testament 
carefully collated with the Greek, and corrected, divided, 

Vol. XXXII. B b 

$70 W V N N E. 


and printed^ according to the various subjects treated of 
by the inspired writers, with the common division in the 
margin; and illustrated with notes critical and explana* 
tory," 1 

WYNTON, or WINTON (Andrew); an ancient Scot- 
tish chronicler* was most probably born during the reign of 
David II. king of Scotland, which commenced in 1309, 
and terminated in 1370. He was a canon regular of St. 
Andrew's, and <prior of the monastery of St. Serf, situated 
in the inch or island of Lochleven in the county of Kinross. 
In the chartulary of the priory of St. Andrew's,' there ace 
several public instruments of Andrew Wynton as prior of 
Lochleven, dated between the years 1395 and 1413. He 
was therefore contemporary with Barbour ; to whose tnerit 
he has on various occasidns paid a due tribute of applause. 
His "Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland** was undertaken 
at the request of sir John Wefnyss, the ancestor of the 
present noble family of that name, Wynton'sjife must 
have been prolonged at least till 1420, for he mentions 
the death of Robert, duke of Albany,, which happened in 
the course of that year. 

The Chronicle of Wynton was suffered to remain in MS. 
for the space of several centuries, until in 1795 a splendid 
edition of that part of it which relates more immediately to 
the affairs of Scotland, was published by the late Mr. Da- 
vid Macpherson, in 9 vols. 8vo. The editor has added a 
copious glossary, a series of learned ami valuable annota- 
tions, and other useful appendages. He says, with truth, 
that Wynton, not inferior to Fordun in historic merit, has 
also an equal claim to the title of an original historian of 
Scotland: for, though. he survived Fordun, it is certain 
that he never saw bis -work ; and his Chronicle has the ad- 
vantage, not only of being completed to the period which 
"he proposed, but even of being revised and gTeatly im* 
proved by himself in a second copy. It has also the fur- 
ther advantage, for such it surely ought to be esteemed, 
of being, written in the language of the country 

' Tyl ilke raannys wndyrstandyng ; 

whereas the information contained in all the other histories' 
of Scotland preceding the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, if we except the brief chronicle subjoined to som* 
manuscripts of Wyntown, and the translations of fiallenden 

i Barop. lf*K* far Sept. 1804.*— Nichoti'i'Bowyet.— Gtnt. its*. tol. UHX. 

W-Y N TON. 371 

ami Read, was effectually concealed from the unlearned 
pert of mankind under the veil of a dead or a foreign lan- 
guage. In Wyn town's Chronicle the historian may find 
what, for want of more ancient records, which have long 
ftgo perished, we must now consider as the original accounts 
of many transactions, and also many events related from his 
own knowledge or the reports of eye-witnesses. His faith- 
ful adherence to his authorities appears from comparing his 
accounts with unquestionable vouchers, suph as the Feedera 
Angliae, and the existing remains of the Register of the 
priory of St* Andrew's, that venerable monument of ancient 
Scottish history and antiquities, generally coaevat with the 
faett recorded in it, whence he has given large extracts, 
almost literally translated. All these we have hitherto beeft 
obliged to take at second or third hand in copies by Bowel 
and others, with such additions and embellishments as they 
were pleased to make to Wymown** simple and genuine 
narrative. An ecclesiastical historian of Scotland can no ' 
where find so good an account of the bishops of St. An-* 
drew's, with occasional notices concerning the other sees, as 
from Wyntown* who in describing the churches, their 
buildings and paraphernal ia* shews himself quite at boitie. 
The compiler of a Scottish peerage 4»ay obtain from Wyn~ 
town more true information concerning the ancient noble 
families of Scotland, than is to be found in any work ex- 
tant, except the accurate and elaborate research mfcd£ by 
the late lord Hailes in the celebrated Sutherland ease, 
wherein he has repeatedly bad recourse to our author for 
proofs of the laws and customs of succession. In this view 
the lawyer will also find the Chronicle of Wyntown an use- 
ful addition to his library, and may consult it with advantage, 
when caHed upon to adjust a disputed inheritance in an an- 
cient family. Mr. Ellis, who allows that Wynton is highly 
valuable as a historian, adds that his versification is easy, 
his language pure, and his style often animated. 1 

WYRLEY, or WIRLEY (William), Rouge-Croix pur- 
suivant, was son of Augustine of Wyrley, of Nether Seile, 
in the county of Leicester, by Mary his wife, daughter of 
William Charnells of Snares ton, in that county, esq. which 
Augustine was second son of William Wyrley, of Hands- 
worth, in Staffordshire, esq. of an ancient family in that 

l Macpherson's Edition.— Mackenzie's Scotch Writers.— Irvmt's Litis of tk* 
Scotch Posts.— Ellis's Specimens. 

B B 2 

372 WYRLEY. 

county, which of late years expired in an heiress married 
into the family of Bitch, of Birch, in Lancashire, who have 
since sold their ancient paternal estate in that county, and 
reside at the Wyrley seat in Staffordshire, having assumed 
the name and arms of that family. In early life be was no- 
ticed by the antiquary Sampson Erdeswick, of Sandon* 
who took him into his house ; and Wyrley having for many 
.years laboured in the study of heraldry, was, upon the 15th 
of May, 1 604, appointed Rouge-Croix pursuivant of arms* 
which office he held, without higher promotion, till the be- 
ginning of February 1617-18, when he died in the Heralds* 
college, and was buried in the burial-place belonging to 
that corporation in the church of St. Bene't, Paul's Wharf, 
London. In 1592, he published a book, intituled, "The 
true Use of Armory shewed by History, and plainly proved 
by example. London," 4to ; but the fame derivable from 
this work was somewhat injured by Erdeswick, in his dotage, 
laying claim to the authorship of it. Wyrley also made 
many collections for a history of his native county of Lei- 
cester, which Burton made use of. In 1569 he began 
to survey the churches there. His original MS. written by 
himself, containing also many churches in Warwickshire, is 
now in the library of the Heralds 9 college, bearing the mark 
V. 197. It appears also, that he afterwards accompanied 
Burton in his survey of the churches there, in the years 
1603, 1608, &c. In V. No. 127, in the same library, is a 
fair and beautiful copy of their labours in this way, with the 
arms, monuments, and antiquities, well drawn. At the end 
of his "True Use of Armory" are two dull creeping metri- 
cal narratives, one on the life and death of lord Chandos, 
the other on Sir John de Gralhy, Capitall de Buz ; but it 
seems doubtful whether these were the production of Er- 
deswick or of Wyrley. It is certain they are not worth 
contending for. 1 

1 Noble's College of Arms.— Phillips'! Tbeatrum Poetaram, by Sir £. 

( 373 ) 



CLAVIER (St. Francis), commonly called the Apostle of 
the Indies, was born April 7, 1506, in Navarre, at tbe 
castle of Xavier. His father, Don John de Jasso, was one 
of the chief counsellors of state to John HI. king of Navarre. 
Among their numerous family of children, of which Francis 
was tbe youngest, those that were elder bore tbe surname 
of Azpilcueta, the younger that of Xavier. Francis was 
sent to the university of Paris, in the eighteenth year of 
his age. He was afterwards admitted master of arts, and 
taught philosophy in the college of Beauvais, with an in- 
tention of entering the society of the Sorbonne ; but hav- 
ing formed a friendship with Ignatius Loyola, he re- 
nounced all establishments, and became one of his first dis- 
ciples. Xavier then went to Italy, where he attended the 
sick at the hospital of incurables at Venice, and was or- 
dained priest. Some time after, John III. king of Por- 
tugal, having applied to St. Ignatius for some missionaries 
to preach the gospel in the East Indies, Xavier was chosen 
for that purpose, who, embarking at Lisbon, April 7, 1541, 
arrived at Goa, May 6, 1 542. In a short time he spread the 
knowledge of the Christian religion, or, to speak more pro- 
perly, of the Romish system, over a great part of the conti- 
nent, and in several of the islands of that remote region. 
Thence in 1549 he passed into Japan, and laid there, with 
amazing rapidity, the foundation of the famous church which 
flourished during so many years /in that vast empire. His 
indefatigable zeal prompted him to attempt the conversion 
of the Chinese, and with this view be embarked for that 
extensive and powerful kingdom, but died on an island in 
sight of China, Dec. 2, 1552. The body of this missionary 
lies interred at Goa, where it is worshipped with the highest 
marks of devotion. ' There is also a magnificent church at 
Cotati dedicated to Xavier, to whom the inhabitants of the 
Portuguese settlements pay the most devout tribute of ve- 
neration and worship. In 1747, the late king of Portugal 
obtained for Xavier, or rather for his memory, the title of 
protector of the Indies, from Benedict XIV. 


374 XAVIER. 

There are two lives of this saint, the one by Tursellinus, 
and the other by Boubours, but the latter is little more than 
a translation from Latin into French of the former, dressed 
out in a more elegant manner. They both contain the 
miracles ascribed to this saint, which are among the most 
absurd and incredible in the annals of superstition. For 
this, however, Xavier, who appears to have been only a zea- 
Ws enthusiast, ought not* to be censured. He claims no 
miracles for himself, nor were any si^ch heard of for many 
years after his death ; on the contrary, in his correspon- 
dence with his friends, ddring bis mission, he not only makes 
no mention of miracles, but disclaims all supernatural as- 
sistance. For the miracles, therefore) bis biographers must 
be accountable, and we know of no evidence they have pro- 
duced in confirmation of them. The life of Xavier is not 
unknown in this country. No less a person than our cele- 
brated poet Dryden published a translation of Bouhours's 
Life of Xavier, in 1688, in consequence of the queen of 
James II. having, when she solicited a son, recommended 
herself to Xavier as her patron saint. Besides this, a Wes- 
leyan preacher published, in 1764, an abridgment of Bou-. 
hours, as if he had intended to assist bishop Lavington in 
proving the alliance between the enthusiasm of the me- 
thod ists and papists. Xavier's Letters were published at 
Paris, 162!, 8vo, with some lesser works ascribed to him. 1 

XE NO CRATES, one of the most celebrated philoso- 
phers of ancient Greece, was born at Chalcedon, B, C. 400, 
He at first attached himself to <£schines, but afterwards 
became the disciple of Plato, and always retained a high 
degree of respect and attachment for that great man, whom 
he accompanied in a voyage to Sicily. When Dionysius 
the tyrant threatened Plato one day, saying, " that some 
person should behead him ;" " Nobody shall do that," said 
Xenocrates, "till they have first beheaded me/' This phi- 
losopher studied under Plato at the same time with Aristo- 
tle, but did not possess, equal talents : for he had a slow 
genius and dull apprehension, while Aristotle's genius *a$ 
quick and penetrating, whence their master observed of them, 
" that one wanted a spur, and the other a bridle." But how- 
ever inferior Xenocrates might be to Aristotle in genius, he 
greatly excelled him in the practice of moral philosophy, 

1 Lives as above. — Butler's Jjves of the Saint*. — Douglas's Criterion.— 



Ha was grave, sober, austere, and of a disposition so serious, 
and ^o fw removed from the Athenian politeness, that Plata 
frequently exhorted him to "sacrifice to the graces." He, 
always bore bis master's reproofs with great patience, and. 
when persuaded to defend himself, replied* " He treats me 
thus only for my good.' 1 Xenocrates is particularly cele* 
braced for chastity, aod is said to have acquired so great a 
command over bis passions, tbatPbryne, the most beautiful 
courtesan of Greece, who had laid a wager that she would 
seduce him, could not effect her purpose. Being after* 
w^rds laughed at, and the wager demanded, s,he replied, " I 
have not lost it ; for I undertook to seduce a man, and not 
* statue." The conduct of Xenocrates exhibited an equal 
example of temperance in every other respect, He cared 
neither for pleasures, wealth, or fame ; *nd wa» 40 mode- 
rate in his diet, that be often found it necessary tp throw, 
away his provisions because they were grown stale and 
mouldy ; whence the proverb among the Grecians, of 
Xenocrates' s cJke<se, when they would describe any thing 
which lasted a long time. This philosopher succeeded 
Spevsippuft, who was Plato's immediate successor in the 
academy at Athens,, in 339 B. C.. He required his disciples 
to understand mathematics before they placed themselves 
Wider his care j and sent back a youth who was ignorant of 
that science, saying* " that h<? had out the key of philoso- 
phy." So great was bis reputation for sincerity and probity, 
tbat the magistrates accepted his testimony without au 
oath; a. favour granted to him alone. Polemo, a ricb> 
young man, but so debauched,, that his wife had begun a 
prosecution agaimt him for his infamous conduct, rambling 
through the streets, one day, with his dissolute compa- 
nions, after they had drank freely, entered oup philoso- 
pher's school, with 94) intention to ridicule and insult him. 
The audience were highly offended at this behaviour ; but 
Xenocrates continued perfectly calnv and immediately 
turning his discourse upon temperance, spoke of that virtue 
in terms so forcible,, lofty, -and elevated, that the young li-% 
bertine made a sudden resolution to renounce his licen- 
tiousness, and devote himself to wisdom. From that mo- 
ment, Polemo became the pupil of virtue, and a model of 
temperance, and at length succeeded Xenocrates in the 
philosophical chair. His conversion made much noise, and 
so increased the public veneration for Xenocrates, that 
when he appeared in the streets, no dissolute youths dared 


to remain there, but turned aside that they might avoid 
meeting him. The Athenians sent this philosopher on an 
embassy to Philip, king of Macedon, and , a considerable time 
after, to Antipater ; neither of whom could corrupt him by 
their presents, which circumstance made him doubly ho- 
noured. Alexander the Great so highly esteemed Xeno- 
crates, that he sent him fifty talents, a large sum then ; and 
when his messengers arrived at Athens, Xenocrates invited 
them to eat with him, but gave them only his common fare. 
Upon their inquiring, next morning, to whom they should 
pay the fifty talents, he replied, " Has not last night's, 
supper convinced you that I want no money ?" intimating 
that be was contented with a little, and that money was 
necessary to kings, not to philosophers. • But at the ear- 
nest entreaties of Alexander's messengers, he accepted a 
small part of the sum, lest he should appear deficient in 
respect to that great monarch. It is astonishing that the 
Athenians should suffer a philosopher of such exalted merit 
to be so ill treated by the collectors and receivers of their 
taxes ; for though they were once fined for attempting to 
imprison Xenocrates, because he had not paid a certain tax 
imposed on foreigners, yet it is certain that the same col- 
lectors and receivers sold him at another time, because he 
had not enough to pay them. But Demetrius- Phalereus, 
detesting so base an action, purchased Xenocrates, gave him 
his freedom immediately, and discharged his debt to the 
Athenians. This philosopher died about 314 B.C. aged 
eighty-two, in consequence of falling in the dark into a re- 
servoir of water. He wrote, at the request of Alexander, a, 
small tract on the Art of Reigning; six books on Nature; 
six books' on Philosophy ; one on Riches, &c. but none of 
these have come down to us. There is a tract on Death,' 
under his name, in the Jamblicus of Aldus, 1497, folio. 
Xenocrates used to say, " That we often repent of having 
spoken, but never of having kept silence ; that true philo- 
sophers are the only persons who, do willingly, and by their 
own choice, what others are constrained to do by fear of the 
laws ; that it is as great a crime to look into our neighbour's 
house as to